Ko ɗo ngon-ɗaaNguurndam e maayde ɗemɗe (1) / Ngonka ɗemɗe nder leydi Mali

Ngonka ɗemɗe nder leydi Mali


By adminYollaa ko19 settammbar 2012

Kartal Mali
Kartal Mali

Mali woni ko e Afrik hirnaange. Heedi ndi rewo ko Alaseri, bannge fuɗnaange ko Niiseer e Burkinaa, bannge worgo ko Koddiwaar e Gine, bannge hirnaange ko Senegaal e Muritani. Mali ko leydi njaajndi sibu wertallo mayri ko 1,2 miliyoŋ km2 (Almaañ e Farayse e Angalteer e Belsik e Pays-Bas so ndenndinaama). Yolnde hakkunde rewo oo e worgo ngoo ko 1 600 km. Ndi waɗi ko diiwanuuji 8, ɗiin ngoni : Tummbuktu, Gaawo, Mopti, Kaay, Kulikoro, Sikaaso, Segu, yanti e laamorgo hee, hono Bamako. Ndi jeyaa ko leyɗe burɗe waasde e winndere ndee. Fotde 13,5 miliyoŋ aadee ina nguuri e mayri, tawi heen 9/10 (cappaɓe jeenay) ko e worgo mayri. Fotde 90% e maɓɓe ko juulɓe.

E hitaande 2005, won wiyɓe ko nii leƴƴi mayri peccitorinoo : 40% manndeŋ en (ko ɓuri heewde heen ko bambara en), 13,9% fulɓe, 9% senufoo en, 8,8% soninkooɓe, 8% dogoo en, 7,2% sonngaay en, 6,6% Julaa en, 2,4% Bwaba en, 1,7% tuwaareg en, 1,2% safalɓe. Fulɓe ɓee ɓuri hoɗde ko e diiwaan Maasina oo (Kayes).

Kartal MaliMali ina waɗi ko ina tonoo e capanɗe tati (30) ɗemngal, tawi ko fotde 10 heen tan njogii ko ɓuri 100 000 kaaloowo. Ɗum noon, ɗemɗe keddiiɗe ɗee kala, e tuugnaade e binndanɗe men ɓennuɗe ɗee, ko ɗemɗe parwuɗe. Fotde 17% e malinaaɓe ina kaala Pulaar/Fulfulde, tawi ko ɓuri heewde e maɓɓe nguuri ko e diiwanuuji Kayes, Mopti e Segu.

Ko nii doosɗe leydi ndii tonngiri politik laamu Mali paatuɗo e ɗemɗe, e nder kuulal mum 25 :

- Ko Farayse woni ɗemngal haala laawɗinangal

- Sariya maa dottu laabi ƴellitirɗi e laawɗinirɗi ɗemɗe ngenndiije.

Eɗen paama ɗoo tan, Farayse ko ɗemngal laamu, haa arti noon to bannge diskuraaji ekn … Ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee ko potɗe ƴelliteede, laawɗinee. Nii woni, so en ƴettii yeru e ñaawoore, ñaawooɓe ɓee ina kaalda e yimɓe ɓee e ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee kala, hay so tawii binndi ɗii kala ko e Farayse… E nder njuɓɓudi laamu ndii, ina waɗi nii e nokkuuji ɗo ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee kuutortee e binndol.

Caggal jarribo juutngo, tuugnorgal jaŋde kesal lelnaama e hitaande 1993, tee yamiroore sariya (dekere) ƴettanooma ngam naatnude ɗemɗe ngenndiije 6 e nder tippudi nehdi e jaŋde leydi ndii e hitaande 1994-1995, ɗeen ngoni : bammbara, tamashek, sonngaay, sooninke, fulfulde e dogon. Caggal ɗuum, e hitaande 1996, yamiroore woɗnde ƴettaama ngam ƴellitde ɗemɗe 13 (ina heen xaasongaxanŋo, maninkakan e safatoore).

Yamiroore 26 desammbar 1999, hollitii wonde jaŋde ndee waɗetee ko ɗemngal laawɗingal ngal kam e ɗemɗe ngenndiije. E hitaande 2002, fotde 2050 janngirde ina ngoodnoo e nder 11 ɗemngal ngenndiwal (Bamanankan, Fulfulde, Songhay, tamasheq, Soninké, Dogon, Bomu, Syenara, Mamara, Bozo e khassonké), ɗo janngatnoo fotde 300 000 almuudo. E hitaande 2009 ndee, ɗemɗe ngenndiije 10 ina njanngetenoo e 2 466 ekkol (bammbara 2002 ekkol, sonngaay 157 ekkol, Fulfulde 72 ekkol…). E sahaa hannde oo ɗeen janngirɗe tolniima e 2550.

Jaŋde ɗemɗe ɗee yettiima hitaande adannde jaŋde hakkundeere (Kolees). Gila 1998 ɗe naatnaama e duɗe jaaɓi-haaɗtirde. Hannde, kañje 11 ɗee kala eɗe njannginee e hitaande adannde FLASH (Faculté des Langues, Art et Sciences Humaines) no fannu baɗɗiiɗo nii, kiiseteeɗo e kawgel ɓennugol. Ko noon kadi sanɗaaji ɗii mbagginiraa waɗde ciftorɗe (mémoires d’études) mum en e wiɗtooji doktoraaji mum en, e nder ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee to Duɗal Toowngal Keblorgal Jannginooɓe (ENS)…

Faayndaare laamu nguu wonnoo ko huutoraade ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee e jaŋde leslesre ndee mbele sukaaɓe ɓee ina njaawa marde ɗemngal Farayse ngal…

Ko jiidaa e ɗuum laamu nguu waɗii golle maantinɗe e jaŋde mawɓe e nder ɗemɗe ngenndiije. E desaambar 2010 aɓe njahratnoo hedde 8 000 nokku jaŋde mawɓe e nder 6 132 wuro ; fotde 1,2 miliyoŋ neɗɗo njanngii heen… Tee defte keewɗe kadi mballifaama heen.

To bannge jaayɗe, rajooji e ɗemɗe ngenndiije ina ngoodi (fotde 17 rajo dowri), kono rajo e tele dowla oo ɓuri waawde huutoraade ko Farayse. Jaayɗe binndaaɗe ɗee fof kadi ko e Farayse hay so teskaama jaayɗe puɗɗinooma feeñde e ɗemɗe ngenndiije (Jaaynde wiyeteende « Kabaaru » e Fulfule, Xibare e sooninke, e jaayɗe biyeteeɗe Jekabaara e Kote e Ñete wonande Bammbara). Ɗe mballitii no feewi e jaŋde mawɓe.

Kono tan ko Farayse ɓuri dowlude e leydi hee. Kono kadi ellee alaa mo ɗum metti toon. Ina gasa tawa waɗi noon ko leƴƴi leydi ndii ina njillondiri no feewi, gila ko ɓooyi, to bannge ƴiiƴam. Yanti e ɗuum, kañji kala poti e Farayse, alaa leñol ɓurngol heen goɗɗi ɗii. Yanti heen, ɗemngal bammbara ina yaaji e leydi hee, kono dowla oo welsindaaki ɗemɗe tati ɓurɗe waawde huutoreede e Afrik ɗee, hono Farayse, Engele e Arab.

Ina laaɓi tan, dowla Mali ina waɗti hakkille no feewi e ƴellitgol ɗemɗe ngenndiije, tee nafoore mayre to bannge karallaagal jaŋde e kisnugol pinal leydi ndii ko huunde faamaande no feewi. Fulfule ina jeyaa e ɗeen ɗemɗe ɗe laamu Mali waɗti hakkille. E nder ndiiɗoo leydi ɗum noon, eɗen mbaawi wiyde « dowla oo ina dadi ɗemngal ngal ». Ɗum ina seerti e Gine ɗo nganndu-ɗaa alaa politik ɗemɗe woodaa (gaa gaaa jarribooji laamu Seeku Tuure goppaaɗi ko ɓooyi), hay so tawii noon ko toon fulɓe ɓuri doolnude.

Bookara Aamadu Bah

Share this
Étiquettes

Options d'affichage des commentaires

Sélectionnez la méthode d'affichage des commentaires que vous préférez, puis cliquez sur "Sauvegarder les paramètres" pour activer vos changements.

Min calminiima aan Bookara Aamadu Bah  hayso kaa baabahone won e mon ne desi tummude min njettimaa et min njurimaama  ha min mbassiyo yon njokku golle mon taw noon ngollantodon ko lenol ngol

mussiddomaa kan haamiidu bayla to muritani

A jaaraama denɗi (mi rewataa e yettoode hee). Sibu anndude won yillotooɓe lowre ndee, ina ɓeyda en softeende jokkude. 

A jaaraama Bookar e ndee winndannde ɓeyditoore ganndal men e baŋŋe ren-ɗemɗiyankaagal leyɗe men Afirik Hiirnaange. Miɗo waawi ɓeyditude hen piiji ɗiɗi: e reesiyon Kaay takkiiɗo Senegal, ko fuuta-toorankoore haaletee, e reesiyon Mopti ko fulfulde maasinankoore. Huunde ɗimmere ndee, ko ko teskii-mi nde ndaaru-mi telewisiyon Mali e galleeji musiɓɓe amen Wiyeen ɗoo jogiiɓe satelit: ko ɓuri heewde e emisiyonji ɗin ko e bammbarankoore, fulfulde e ɗemɗe luttuɗe ɗen heewaaka huutoreede.

On njaaraama.

Wassalaamu.

 

Teskuya ma

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.
Type the characters you see in this picture. (verify using audio)
Type the characters you see in the picture above; if you can't read them, submit the form and a new image will be generated. Not case sensitive.

Tonngooɗe Fooyre cakkitiiɗe

Peewnanee koye mon tappirɗe

Oɗon mbaawi etaade feewnande koye mom tappirde, tawa oɗon kuutoroo Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator (MSKLC). Njahee ɗoo, ina faamninaa no waɗirtee

Feewnude tappirde ina newiiOɗon mbaawi awtaade tappirde pulaar min peewnani on.

Horsinɓe Fedde Ɓamtaare

KIRIKU waɗtii haalde Pulaar

Mballee Fedde men hisnude golle mum

Dannga waandu : "neɗɗo e sahaa e weeyo"

Eɓɓaaɗe firooji

Random image