Cellingol ɗemngal fulɓe kaɗooje e kuccam

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Kartal pulfule fulɓe
Kartal pulfule fulɓe

Naatirdi : Eɗen innira ɗoo « gootiɗingol », ɗiin laabi deweteeɗi ngam suɓaade e lelnude dabi winndude he mbaydi ndenndaandi kala ɗemngal keewngal calti, ɗi mbinnadaaka tawo, maa tawa ko seeɗa winndaa heen. Njaafo-ɗee kam mi jangtanoo on ko kawrunoo-mi : he hitaande 1995, gooto he janngintunooɓe min, tawi min ngonnoo ko he ko yowotii he gootiɗingol ɗemɗe afirikeeje ; ko yowitii he ɗemngal Pulaar o wiyi : « nde Pullo Fuuta Jaloŋ nanondirta e Pullo Aadamaawa heboraani wonde. Wiyde ina wootiɗina ɗemngal bayngal nii saraade alaa nafoore ».              

Naatirdi

Eɗen innira ɗoo « gootiɗingol », ɗiin laabi deweteeɗi ngam suɓaade e lelnude dabi binndugol he mbaydi ndenndaandi kala ɗemngal keewngal calti ɗi mbinnadaaka tawo, maa tawa ko seeɗa winndaa heen.

Njaafo-ɗee kam mi jangtanoo on ko kawrunoo-mi : he hitaande 1995, gooto he janngintunooɓe min, tawi amin ngoni he ko yowotii he gootiɗingol ɗemɗe afirikeeje, ko yowitii he ɗemngal pulaar o wiyi : « nde Pullo Fuuta Jaloŋ nanondirta e Pullo Aadamaawa heboraani wonde. Wiyde ina wootiɗina ɗemngal baangal nii saraade, alaa nafoore ».

So en njuurniima wertaango calti (pulfule) fulfulde, maa en taw aɗi kolla en ayaawo ɗemngal caringal, kaaleteengal nder duuɗe ceertuɗe, lommbiiɗe nder leƴƴi kaalooji ɗemɗe goɗɗe, pulfule ɗe njokkondiraani hakkunde mum en. Kono ɗoon tan he duuɓi 20, ƴellitaare karallaagal waylii ngonka kaa. So karalle kese kabrol e kumpital (NTIC) ngonnoo ko he fuɗɗoode he kitaale 1995, hannde ɗe kuuriima he doŋre Afiriki ndee fof, aɗe njaaɓani girñitere mawnde. Winndere ndee fof maa wontu, walla nii wontii wuro wooto, ɗum tan goongɗinii ko ɗoon mooɓere Fulɓe ne fayi.

Hannde, he rewrude he Internet e laylayti renndo, Fulɓe ina kaalda, ina kawra e mbaadiiji e calti ɗemngal mum en. Hannde oo, geece internet keewɗe ina mbayyina kabri he ɗemngal Fulɓe, kabri ɗi yimɓe mbaawata huɓindaade nder jookli e pulfule cariiɗe. Geɗe ɗiɗi goɗɗe teeŋtuɗe njolii gila he hitaande 1995 : cosgol he 2002 yuɓɓo Fulɓe winndereewo, Tabital Pulaaku e cate mum ; ngala geɗal ko cosgol ACALAN he 2006, Yuɓɓo Dental Afirik toppitiingal ɓamtaare ɗemɗe Doŋre ndee. ACALAN ne sosi he nder mum juɓɓule e goomuuji tammbotooɗi ɗemɗe « tacci-keeriije », ko heen fulfulde jeyaa. Goomu Fulfulde wiyetee ko FULCOM. Ko ɗoo haalooɓe fulfulde puɗɗii dañde yuɓɓo diiwaniiwo darantooɓe laawɗinde ɗemngal mum en.

Ko wiyde tan hannde oo, wootiɗinde fulfulde nattii wonde ɓiɓɓe-naange. Tesko-ɗen noon, yiylaade wooɗitinde ɗemngal ngal e tafde « Fulfulde Standard International » (e tonngol FSI)  wonaa lomtaade pulfule keddiiɗe ɗee, ko timmitinde ɗe.

FSI maa waawu huutoreede kala ɗo Fulɓe ummooriiɓe leyɗe ceertuɗe ndenndi. Gaa-gaa ɗuum, he teskaade eɓɓaande Pulaaku TV, kam e huutoraade Fulfulde e ɗemɗe goɗɗe nder golle Dental Afirik (UA), kollitii waɗɗaare “ Fulfulde Hakkunde-leyɗeele ” wootere, ngati wallifaade binndanɗe gollorteeɗe tawa ko he pulfule keewɗe weeɓaani. To bannge faggudu, ngartam alaa ɗo defte janngirɗe mballifetee he ɗemngal, tawa ko he calti mum fof. Ɗum addanta en naatande toɓɓere men aroore ndee, pulfule Fulfulde.

Pulfule Fulfulde

Fulfulde ko ɗemngal keewngal pulfule (calti). Pulfulal fof waɗi ko kam ɓuri sellude. Ko wertaango jappondirngo gila Senegaal e Muritani to Hirnaange haa Sudaan to Fuɗnaange. Pulfule ɓurɗe teeŋtude ɗee ko :

₋ Pulaar mo Fuuta-Tooro (rewo Senegaal e worgo Muritani e hirnaange Mali),
₋ Pulaar Fuladu maa Firdu maa kadi Fulakunnde (worgo Senegaal, Gambiya, Gine-Bisaaw),
₋ Pular Fuuta Jaloŋ (Gine, e dente hoɗɓe Sarliyon e Gine-Bisaaw, e nder diiwaan Keedugu fuɗnaange-worgo Senegaal wondude e Fulɓe Ginenaaɓe jooɗiiɓe toon),
₋ Fulfulde Maasina (nehaande Mali),
₋ Fulfulde Burkina-Faso e hirnaange Nijeer,
₋ Fulfulde Fuɗnaange-Nijeer (fuɗnaange Niijeer haa nehaande Nijeriya),
₋ Fulfulde Aadamawa (Rewo Kamaruun, rewo Niijeriya, Caad, Suudaan).

Eɗen mbaawi kadi suɓtaade pulfule dennduɗe jelooɗe keeriiɗe hono yumere pula(a)r, e yumere Fulfulde maa yumere pulfule Hirnaange ceerɗe e pulfule Fuɗnaange. Keerol hakkunde Hirnaange e Fuɗnaange fecciti ko Ndenndaandi Nijeer, ndeke yeru ko pulfule gila Senegaal e Muritani haa Hirnaange-Nijeer ngoni yumere Hirnaange, ko heddii koo fof woni yumere Fuɗnaange.

Ko adii nde gootiɗingol ummantee, maa ceerundal pulfule ɗee anndee tawo. Ma mi eto yaltinde ceerundal majje nder taƴere aroore ndee, kono mi yaajnotaako heen no feewi ngati, no mo-woni kala nih, ko ndokka-ɗen e haala heewaani.

Ceeruɗe hakkunde pulfule

Ceerule hakkunde pulfule ɗee ina ngoodi he tolnooji majje kala. Maa en eto yaltinde ɗe ɗoo.

Baymaanaagal (« Phonologie »)

Eɗen mbaawi teskaade ɗoo goodaangal nder diiwe Fuɗnaange, yaama ko he raaɓere ɗemɗe nokkuuje toon, ko wayi no wowlugol « sh », e « v », e « z ». Yeru : sheede he lomto ceede, o vi’i he lomto o wi’i, zamaanu he lomto jamaanu. Ko hono noon ngam yiɗde hoybinde haala “s” ina lomtoo “y”, “f” lomtoo “w” nder kelme hono lesdi/leydi, nofru/nowru; deftere/dewtere; alkulal “h” kadi ina lomtoo ”y” hono yimɓe/himɓe, yiite/hiite.

Yeru goɗɗo potɗo teskeede, teeŋti noon e Pulaar Fuuta Tooro, mumtude alkulal koƴoɓal «» (pesal) so ngal lommbiima hakkunde alkule ɗiɗi laaɓɗe hono wa’i/wayi, wi’i/wiyi, be’i/beyi, ko’e/koye. Fuuta Jaloŋ noon ina teskoree waɗtude alkulal «m» ñonndal so ngal ɓiliima nder helmere maa ngal seɓɓitiima, yeru : ndiyam/ndiyaŋ, lamɗam/lãɗaŋ; hono ɗuum ina tawee kadi nder Seeno, ɗo pulfule leslese Maasina e Burkina Faso kaalatee.

Mahdi e baymaanaagal (Morpho-phonologie)

Ɗoo, eɗen teskoo ceerule keewɗe hakkunde pulfule ɗee, haa arti noon he baylogol e lomlomtindiral alkule. Eɗen mbiya tan ko mbaadi helmere e wowlugol mum, wonande pulfule jaltinooje ɗuum, heewi arde ko he innde, e ciŋkal, e gollal (baɗal), e firlito ɓennungo. Yeru mum ko Pulaar mo Fuuta-Tooro e mo Fuladu; e fulfulde nehaande Maasina (diiwe Bannjagara, Mooɓti, Haayre, ekn. maa e kuuɓal pulfulal ngal Aamadu Hampaate Bah huutorii nder binndanɗe mum); pulfulal Liɓtaako-Jelgooji Rewo Burkina, pulfule Niijeer e pulfulal deeƴtungal Aadamawa.

He ko luulndii ɗum ko pular mo Fuuta-Jaloŋ, fulfulde diiwal Seeno to Mali, ngal Baraani worgo Burkina e pulfulal jokkondiral to Aadamawa ; ɗee pulfule fof mbaylataa alkule lomtondirooje to innde e to ciŋkal. Yeruuji :

– Fuuta-Toro
o winndii, ɓe mbinndii, mbinndu-ɗaa, binnduɗo, binndoowo.

– nanndo mum to Fuuta-Jaloŋ
o winndii, ɓe winndii, winndu-ɗaa, winnduɗo, winndoowo.

Gaa gaa ɗuum, hay nih he nder pulfule baylondirooje alkule, ina heen ceertuɗe. Ko ɗuum tagi fulfulde Maasina ina huutoroo keewal hay e firlito gollal. Kala ko waɗɗii he gollal waɗɗoo he firlito mum :
– ɗo Fuuta-Tooro wiyata : eɓe keewi, yimɓe heewɓe;
– Maasina wiya : eɓe keewi, yimɓe keewɓe.

Ceeruɗe goɗɗe ina ngoodi :

Luutondiral hakkunde koƴoɓal [ɂ] e pecciingal tako-ɗemɗiwal [w] to fuɗɗorde won he golle.

Goole keewɗe ina ngoodi tawa ko puɗɗoriiɗe koƴoɓal tonngiraangal he IPA (Alphabet Phonétique International) [ɂ] maanindiraangal «‘» (kono ngol binndol heewaani yaltude he fuuɗɗorde helmere), hono (’)ara, (’)adda,(’)ama, (’)asa, (’)aña, nder dental pulfule ngal mbaaw-ɗen wiyde « pula(a)r », ngal nanndo mum e dental goɗngal ngal innirten « fulfulde » puɗɗortoo ko feccere laaɓngal “w”; yeru oo wonta : wara, wadda, wama, wasa, waña. Ɗii mbaydiiji ceertuɗi ina kawrita to keewal. Wontata nder pulfule ɗee fof ko ɓe ngari, ɓe ngaddi, ɓe ngami, ɓe ngasi, ɓe ngañi/mbañi.

Ñonnditingol

Ko ñonnditinde (ittude ñonndiɗingol) fuɗɗoode helmere, wonande won he pulfule hono Nommaare to Burkina, Rewo Togo e Bene kam e Fuladu.

– Yeru to Nommaare (ndutto-ɗee he Gottschligg 2009 :321) : ɓe binndii.

– Yeru to Fulaadu : ɓe demii, leɗɗe joorii.

He ko ɓuri huɓtodinde, to Fuuta-Tooro e Maasina e Liɓtaako, ekn., ina teskaa tolno alkulal ñonndal ngal so tawii ko he keewal : ɓe mbinndii, ɓe ndemii, leɗɗe njoorii.

Toniɗingol (Labialisation)

Baylagol pecciingal tako-ɗemɗiwal « w » ina wayloo so tawii reggondirii e « o » maa « u », ngal wonta « g » to Fuuta-Tooro e ko ɓuri heewde to Aadamawa ; ngal wonta « b » to Fuladu e to pulfule Burkina.

Yeruuji :             

– Fuuta-Tooro e Aadamaawa : o wujjii/ɓe ngujjii, gujjo gujjuɗo

– Fuladu e pulfule Burkina : o wujjii/ɓe mbujjii /gujjo (m)bujjuɗo

– Fuuta-Tooro e Aadamaawa : o (w)añi/ɓe ngañi.

– Fuladu e pulfule Burkina : o (w)añi/ɓe mbañi.

Mahdi helmere (Morphologie)

Ceerundal e bannge mahdi ina teskee he lomtooji innde, kam e won puɗɗorɗe golle. Ɗe keewaani yiyeede to toɗɗorɗe e jooporɗe, so wonaa ko wayi no ɗo Fuuta-Jaloŋ huwtortoo « ngii » e nanndo mum « nga/mba/ba ». En njuutnotaako he ndee toɓɓere.

Yuɓɓo lomtooji innde (Système pronominal)

Ɗum toɗɗii tigi-rigi ko lomtooji innde gollooji jokkondirɗi e golle timmal duumaare (« duratif-statif ») kollooji kadi ceerundal ngal compaten he yuɓɓooji ɗiɗi mawɗi : yuɓɓo newiingo heɓortoongo lomtooji gorwori denndinteeɗi he maande « ɗon » ; e yuɓɓo saɗtungo renndinngo lomtooji gorwori keewɗi njokkee maaɗe hono « hi -, e -, i -, – ɗ », cikkaaɗe ngadinoo wonde ko maaɗe keeriiɗe to bannge daartol ɗemngal ngal. Kuutoragol yuɓɓooji ɗiɗi ɗii ina jeyaa he ko fecci pulfule ɗee nder Dental Hirnaange e Dental Fuɗnaange, ɗo keerol hakkunde ɗee dente ɗiɗi fecci leydi Niijeer he hakkunde.

Yuɓɓo newiingo :  miɗon, aɗon, oɗon, enɗon, minɗon, onɗon, ɓeɗon ;

Yuɓɓo saɗtungo : miɗo, aɗo/aɗa, omo, eɗen, miɗen, oɗon, eɓe.

Soklaani ko eɗen mbiya yuɓɓooji goɗɗi cariiɗi ina ngoodi hakkunde ɗii ɗiɗi jangtaaɗi. Ina jeyaa kadi he ko anndinta dente ɗiɗi pulfule ɗee, mbaydi jeyal he tolno tataɓo. Yeru wonande fedde « o » : « makko » (ciddal alkulal « k » ngal) to bannge Hirnaange, e « maako » (pooɗgol alkulal « a » ngal) to bannge Fuɗnaange.

Mahdi gollal/baɗal (Morphologie verbale)

Timmoode gollal pirlitaangal he daande hakkundere.

To ɓeydi golle (baɗe) pirlitaaɗe he daande hakkundere, eɗen nana mbaydiiji –ike (Fuuta Jaloŋ, Nehaande Maasina), -oke, -eke, -ake (Haayre, Burkina), -iima (Fuuta Tooro, Fuladu), yeru : mi lootike/lootake/lootiima.

Timmoode gollal luulndingal pirlitaangal

Ɓeydol –aay (Burkina, Niger, Adamawa), ɓeydol -aayi (Niseriya), ɓeydol -aani (Fuuta Tooro, Fulaadu), ɓeydol –aali (Fuuta Jalon, Maasina). Yeru : yahaay/yahaali/yahaani.

Timmoode gollal muumal – ko fayi arde

Ɗoo, eɗen njogii ɓeydol –ay (Fuuta Jalon, Niseriya), ɓeydol -at (Fuuta Tooro), ɓeydol -an (e ko nanndi heen). Yeru: yahay/yahat/yahan.

Lelngo : Waasde rewde gorol G-G-J (Golloowo, Gollal, Timmoode)

He ko ɓuri heewde, eɗen kawri Fulfulde ko ɗemngal taforiingal G-G-T (Golloowo – Gollal – Timmoode), gaagaa baylogol alkule to fuɗɗoode gollal he daande adannde e daande ɗiɗmere. Ko luutondiri he nder pulfule ɗee heewaani. Kono noon, wonii he pulfule hono Fuladu e Jeeri (Nehaande Senegaal) ina njaɓɓa ngal kuulal lelngo pulaar-fulfulde.

Yeruuji : - « Muttaar oon kay, miɗo mbo anndi (wonaa … miɗo anndi mbo/mo) » ;- « miɗo ɓe yiya (miɗo yiya ɓe) ».

He ɗii yeruuji ɗiɗi, timmoode ngol woni ko hade gollal, wonaa wattan, ɗuum ko yaɓɓuɗe doosɗe celluka ɗemngal ngal.

Baylagol toɗɗorɗe e jooporɗe

Pulfule Hirnaange (Fuuta Jaloŋ, Fuuta Tooro, Maasina) ina ngoodi annde jooporɗe ummiinde he lomtooji cifotooɗi. Yeruuji : gorko « (mo anndaaka) », gorko oo « (gorko ganndaaɗo) ». Lomto « oo » so arii ko adii innde, ko jooporgal : oo gorko. So arii caggal innde, wontata ko toɗɗorgal : gorko oo. To pulfulal Aadamawa (goomu Fuɗnaange) ina woodi gane ɗe mbaylotaako (ɗe njahdaani e pelle inɗe, ɗum ko kesum) ; hono « go » maa « man », jogiiɗe darnde toɗɗorɗe : « gorko » (mo anndaaka), « gorko go », « gorko man » (ganndaaɗo).

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Winndaannde Umar Bah

Fulo : Aamadu Malal Gey

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