Guurɗiwal : miijanteeri ƴellito

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Guurɗiwal e miijanteeri ƴellito
Guurɗiwal e miijanteeri ƴellito

Eɗen nguddita ɗoo doggol binndanɗe toɗɗiiɗe lowre fattamlamre nder guurɗiwal (hono ganndal nguurndam), wiyateende “miijanteeri ƴellito”, walla, e raɓɓiɗinaade, “ƴellitoyankaagal”. Doge binndanɗe ɗee njubbata ko gila e miijanteeri huuɓnundi daɗɗiindi hannde kala ko ina gollee e guurɗiwal, haa e fiyakuuji keeriiɗi ko wayi no lappi ƴellito dewindiiɗi peeñgol neɗɗo, e maho mum gila e sehiwal (morphologie) mum haa e fiɗtiwal (psychologie) mum. Ko feewti e toɓɓere sakkitiinde ndee, hono fiɗtiwal, eɗen mbaawi siftorde doggol binndanɗe ngol mbaɗ-ɗen heen e lebbi cakkitiiɗi ɗii, les tiitoonde “Hakkille njeerteejo”.

Eɗen nguddita ɗoo doggol binndanɗe toɗɗiiɗe lowre fattamlamre nder guurɗiwal (hono ganndal nguurndam), wiyateende “miijanteeri ƴellito”, walla, e raɓɓiɗinaade, “ƴellitoyankaagal”. Doge binndanɗe ɗee njubbata ko gila e miijanteeri huuɓnundi daɗɗiindi hannde kala ko ina gollee e guurɗiwal, haa e fiyakuuji keeriiɗi ko wayi no lappi ƴellito dewindiiɗi peeñgol neɗɗo, e maho mum gila e sehiwal (morphologie) mum haa e fiɗtiwal (psychologie) mum. Ko feewti e toɓɓere sakkitiinde ndee, hono fiɗtiwal, eɗen mbaawi siftorde doggol binndanɗe ngol mbaɗ-ɗen heen e lebbi cakkitiiɗi ɗii, les tiitoonde “Hakkille njeerteejo”. Ɗoo, ma en keɓ, wonaa tan humpito yaajngo firoowo yoga e fiyakuuji nguurndam, kono kadi lewñere laɓɓitinoore jikkuuji fiɗtiwi ɗi keɓ-ɗen yiyde e binndi men fiɗtiwiyankeeji.

Ko adii fof, yimɓe ɓooyii teskaade heewandere (variété) mawnde leƴƴi kulle, gila e ɗe ɓe njogii e nehanteeri maɓɓe, haa e ɗe ɓe ndaddata maa ndogata, e wirtaade ɗe ɓe kiwata maa ndiiwtata e sato gese maɓɓe. Kono ɗum ko seeɗa e leƴƴi kulle dow leydi, so en teskiima kay wonde diiwaan kala, e fawaade e noknatiwal (géographie) e weeyo mum, ina waɗi kulle ɓurɗe waawde wuurde ɗoon. Ndeen noon, ma en njaaw faamde wonde keeweendi diiwaanuuji ɗi noknatiwe ceertuɗi, ɗi beeye lutndondire, ina rokka ndee heewandere teskaande e nokku gooto sowtaade hoore mum laabi limtinɗi. Hay ɗum fof, ko joñde cente cente leƴƴi kulle ɗe ngoƴaani en sabu pamaram mumen maa waasde ɗumen jotondirde e muuyaaji men. Haa jooni dey ko en faalkisiiɓe tawo kala ko woni puɗol ! Ɗiin kadi ɓuri heewde fannuuji e leƴƴi. Ko limtaa ɗoo koo tan hollii ngalu nguurdameewu laaɓtungu satiingu yimɓe, ngu yimɓe njotondirta e yoga e mbaadiiji.

Laaɓndal duusngal puɗfuɗi ganndal guurɗiwal toɗɗii ko faamde hol sabaabu ndee heewandere leƴƴi ɗee guuranteeje (êtres vivants). Ɗoo ko laaɓndal pattamlamal caabingal dukooli ɓurɗi saasde dewɗi e daaɗe miijanteeje ceertuɗe, gila e Ñiiɓiyankaagal (fixisme), haa Mahtankaagal (transformisme), haa arti e Ƴellitiyankaagal (évolutionnisme). Ñiiɓiyankaagal dartorinoo ko leƴƴi ɗii ko ñiiɓɗi, ko ɗi tagiraaɗi noon, etee ko noon ɗi keddortoo haa bada; ñiiɓiyankaagal ɓarfinii wadde ko e dow Tagiyankaagal (créationnisme). Ko doosɗe diineeje defte mbaaynunoo ngoon miijo e hakkillaaji ɓeen dartorinooɓe ndeen yiyannde. Hannde ngoon miijo wonde leƴƴi ko ñiiɓɗi mbaylotaako weddaama, caggal wiɗtooji limtinɗi lutndiiɗi ɗum. Ma en ngartu e ɗiin wiɗtooji. Mahtankaagal ko miijanteeri dartorinoondi wonde leƴƴi kulle ina mbayloo,  kono ndi jooɗtorinoo ko kuutorogol terɗe (maa jikkuuji) addanta ɗeen ƴellitaade:  yeru ɓurngu lollude ko wiyde wonde juutni daande njamala ko ɓooyde ɗum ballaade ñamri ceŋiindi e leɗɗe toowɗe. Lamarkayaagal (ngal ganndo faraysenaajo Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck sañnoo) ko les-fannu ndii miijanteeri. Maa en njiy wonde ndii miijanteeri ina jogii caɗeele mawɗe kaɗooje ɗum laataade ganndal jiylateengal ngal, hono baawowal faccirde asli heewandere leƴƴi kullon e dewrewol mumen. Jogori addude miijo daɗɗoytoongo ganndal coklangal ngal ko ganndo aangalteernaajo biyatenooɗo Charles Darwin. Ko Darwin, caggal ƴeewnde keewɗe e jarribooje limtinɗe, faamata regrego (mécanisme) jibinoowo mbaylaandi nder leƴƴi kulle. Ngoo regrego inniraa ko SUƁTO SEWLIWO (selection naturelle), ngoo woni daɗɗotoongo miijanteeri Ƴellitoyankaagal. Eɗen mbaawi ɗoo teskinde wonde, hay so ƴellitoyankaagal e Mahtankaagal ina nanondiri wonde leƴƴi kulle ñiiɓaani ɗo gootel, eɗe ceerti kam no feewi to baɗte jooɗtorɗe majje.

Maa en njiy wonde suɓto sewliwo ngo Darwin ina woɗɗondiri haa ɗoon waawi haaɗde e Lamarkayaagal jooɗtoringal “dontingol sifaaji pawingol e kuuratoragol mumen”. Suɓto sewliwo tiigii ko e ɗii fiyakuuji tati diiñorɗi : ɓesnal (réproduction), seerandere (variation) e suɓto (sélection). Woni ɓesnal ko baawgol goodateewon (individus) leñol ƴettangol ngol ngol jibinde. Nder ngal-ɗoon ɓesnal, yontannde ɓesnoore ndee maa rontinan ɓesnateende mahtiwal mum e jikkuuji mum maa nii fiɗtiwal mum. Kono, ma en njiyoy wonde ndii ndonateeri loowotoo ko e ngeɗon kemitiwon mbiyateekon arti (artol = gene) ɗatondirkon nder mollere (molécule) anndiraande “ADN” (haa yimɓe ɓura faamde), ndeen loowotoo ko nder gaalude ɓinɗe (ɓinnde = cellule). Wadde ko kon ngeɗon kemitiwon pamaron haa fakiti loowi ndonateeri njiyateendi ndii; yeru: so neɗɗo nanndii e jinnaaɗo mum jikkuuji maa ŋari, nguun ndonu rewata ko e kon ngeɗon kon njoofi-ɗen. Heddii noon ko won degregol mawngol yirwotoo saanga maho ngoo, ko e ngol degregol mbaylaandi keewndi jibintee. Kon ngeɗon kemitiwon (arti) ina ɗimmitee ɗo potaani, ina njaawondiree, ina njejjitee kadi, ekn… Etee kala heen juumre maa saaboyo won mbaylaandi nder sifaaji donaaɗi ɗii (to bannge sehiwal maa to bannge jikkuuji, walla fiɗtiwal) ko ndi famɗi fof. Ko ɗum woni ko wiyatee Seerandere. Jooni noon ngaren e firde ko woni Suɓto; teskoɗen wonde kulle koɗi ko e taariindi mumen; ko heen ɗe ñaamata, njarata, ko heen ɗe ndaddata, kono kadi ko heen ɗe ndaddatee. Etee, ko ɓuri himmude koo, ko heen ɗe ɓesnata ! Etee ɗee geɗe fof, hono no njogor-ɗen yiyroyde e facciro mumen nder binndanɗe garooje, pawii ko e ñeeñɗugol majje terɗe e jikkuuji. Wadde e nder ndee heewandere fakitnde “calti” nder leñol toɗɗongal, maa heen terɗe e jikkuuji ɓur ñeeñɗannde taariindi hoɗaandi ndii; goodateewon njogikon ɗeen terɗe e jikkuuji ɓurata hisde e tanaaje, ɓura seeɓande jiytugol ñamri maa nii keɓgol genndikon ɓesnidkon. Ko ɗoo kon ɓurata yeñde so tuma juutii, e ndiin taariindi. Yeru: so e nder leñol baɓɓatti, seerandere artiwere jolii tawa nde saabotoo ko baasal gallagel gootel. Ndeen seerandere maa addan goodateewon njogikon ɗum kon “moneede” to baɗte  dirtal, nde tawnoo ngallakon kon ina njeyaa e ko ɗowata baɓɓatti so ina ndirta. Ɗiin jogiiɗi seerandere ndee ɓurata lohde wonande yiytude ñamri, daɗde e ndaddooji, maa nii heɓde ngenndikon. Yeñre majji so yerondiraama e nde keddiiɗi ɗii maa tawe ina ɗoomtiri seeɗa seeɗa so tuma juutii. Jooni noon so en paamii ɗum, eɗen mbaawi faamorde kadi seerandere artiwere ina waawnoo saabaade ɓurorde (avantage) wonande goodateewon njogikon ɗum kon. Wadde en potii ɗoo heɓindaade hay so ko seeɗa e darnde mawnde seerandere jogotoo e nder jibinannde nder leñol (so ngol wonii ngol kulle maa ngol puɗi), e hol no suɓto ngoo gollirta dow seerandere ndee. E binndanɗe garooje, maa en ɓur yaajnaade e geɗe keewɗe kaalaaɗe ɗoo, kadi ɓuren naatde e ganndal ƴellito, naatiren heen yeruuji goodɗi, kollen dalillaaji daɗɗiiɗi miijanteeri ndii, ko adii nde eɗen ndokka “lekki ƴellito” e ko eɗen ciimta catal cinndungal yimɓe ngal.

Muhammadu Faalil Sih

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