Yerɓannde leydi to Hayiti

0
667

Yerɓannde leydi doolnunde waɗnde to Hayiti ñalnde talaata 12 saawiyee 2010, boomi laamorgo mum hono Port-au-Prince, ellee ari ko jokkitde ndii leydi ndi seeraani e musibbaaji weeyo e renndo e politik gila heɓi jeytaare mum e hitaande 1804.

 

Yerɓannde nde tolniima e toɓɓe 7,3 e nder daawrugal Richter.

Nde bonnii ko ɓuri heewde e laamorgo leydi ndi. Alaa huɓeere waɗnde taakaw darii. Hay ardorde leydi ndi (persidaas), burñitiima. Heewɓe e terɗe Guwarnama leydi ndi maayii heen. Ko noon ne wonande jooɗaninooɓe toon Fedde Ngenndiije Dentuɗe : joɗnde mum wonti ko karawal : fotde 150 kaske bulo (casques bleus) maayii heen, ina heen gardiiɗo misiyoŋ o, hono Hedi Annabi.

Won wiyooɓe ko yani e Hayiti ko, ko kuɗdi, kono, ɗuum ma a taw  ko yawaade kuɗdi tan ! Sibu, idii fof lorlude ndii leydi ko njiimaandi koloñaal e dumunna juutɗo, caggal ɗum ko laamuuji caɗtari. E ooɗoo sahaa ina jeyaa e caɗeele mayri bonnugol dunli ɓurtungol kam e uujo feewde e teeru ngo yuɓɓaani, ɗum jiidaa e jikkuuji ñeenaari e nguyka e bonannde jawdi cabbinɗi toon.

Farweende ɓurtunde ndiiɗoo leydi ummorii ko e baasal ɓurtungal, ko e waasde jogaade njuɓɓudi, ko wonde e sato ngo senaaki, ko ardoreede no feewaani gila ko ɓooyi, yanti e batte njiimaandi kolonyaal.

Fiddeende politik

Hayiti heɓi hoore mum (jeytii/rimɗi) ko e hitaande 1804, woni jooni duuɓi 207. E nder duuɓi noogaas cakkitiiɗi ɗi, Hayiti wuuri tan ko e iiñcuru politik. E hitaande 1990, biyeteeɗo Jean Bertrand Aristide toɗɗaa toon hooreejo leydi e rewrude e woote. Hitaande fawtii heen, o waɗaa kuudetaa. Nii woni o yalti leydi ndi. O arti e laamu e hitaande 2001, kono Amerik e Farayse e Kanadaa, yantude e murto jogitiingo, mbaawni mo woppude laamu, o dogi, o yalti leydi ndi kadi.  Gila ndeen, ko soldateeɓe Fedde Ngenndiije (casques bleus) ngoni toon ngam reende kisal leydi ndi.

Baasal ɓurtungal

Toɗɗegol Réné Préval hooreejo leydi ndi e hitaande 2006, addanaani baasal ustaade ; ngal ɓeydii nii ko waawnude. Hannde e ooɗoo nyalawma, ndi hiisetee ko kayri woni leydi ɓurndi waasde e nder duuɗe Amerik.

Musibaaji weeyo, keneeli mobbooji e guubiliiji e ile.

E hitaande 1998, mobbooru wiyeteendu «George» warii toon ko ina wona 200 neɗɗo. E 2004, mobbooru wiyeteendu «Jeanne », ardundu e ile e ɓakke,  moobii ko ina wona feccere e leydi ndi, wari ko ina ɓura 3000 neɗɗo, bonnani ko ina wona 300 000 neɗɗo. E hitaande 2007, ko noon : toɓooli ɓurtuɗi e ile mboomi worgo leydi ndi.  E hitaande 2008 ndee tan, mobbooji e guubiliiji 4 (Fay, Gusaw, Hanna e Like) mermbiliima leydi ndi, mbari hedde 800 neɗɗo e fotde miliyoŋ neɗɗo lorii heen. Fotde 100 000 hoɗorde mboni.

Yanti e ɗum, peƴƴugol leɗɗe ngol alaa haddu, ina addana leydi ndi farwude, sibu keneeli e ile fof alaa haŋkadi ɗo kaggata.

Yerɓo leydi : haa e ooɗoo sahaa, Hayiti ina daɗnoo e jerɓanɗe leydi doolnuɗe, gila 7 mee 1842 (fotde 168 hitaande). Ndeen yerɓannde tolninooma e 8.1 e daawrugal Richter, nde mumti wuro Kap (Cap). Caggal ɗum leydi yerɓii toon laabi ɗiɗi, e hitaande 1954 e hitaande 1994. Ko ɓooyaani koo kadi, yerɓannde tolniinde e 4,3 bonnii ɓoggi kuuraa wuro laamorgo leydi ndi.  E hitaande 2008, leydi yerɓii toon laabi tati (tolno 4,3) e nder balɗe 13 fat. Duuɓi keewɗi jooni ko annduɓe Hayitinaaɓe e Ameriknaaɓe njeertinta laamu ngu wonde yerɓannde leydi doolnunde ina waawi waɗde. Kono alaa fof kuugal ngu ƴetti ngam heblanaade ɗum, yo won to bannge kumpital yimɓe ɓe, walla mahateeri ndi. Finnde mum ko e lewru noowammbar 2008, ekkol rimtiima toon e elewaaji, wari heen 103, gaañi heen 150, e saraaji Port-au-Prince.   L

Huunde e Daartol Hayiti

Hayiti darjirnoo ko « Saint-Domingue » nde woni e kalifaandi Farayse nde, hay so tawii noon, duunde nde ina wiyetenoo Hispaniola. Nde renndini hannde ko leyɗe ɗiɗi : Hayiti (hirnaange) e Ndenndaandi Saint-Domingue (fuɗnaange). Ndi waɗti wiyeede Hayiti tan, ko nde ndi heɓi hoore mayri e hitaande 1804, caggal wolde ndimaagu hakkunde maccuɓe murtunooɓe duunde nde, e konu Napoléon Bonaparte (laamɗo Farayse). Ardinoo ɓeen jiyaaɓe, dahanooɓe Afrik ngaddaa toon ngam remde gawƴe suukara, ko biyeteeɗo Toussaint Louverture.

Tuggi 1720, Saint-Domingue ɓurnoo duuɗe gonnooɗe e njiimaandi Engele en fof so ndenndii, heewde ko soñata e gawƴe suukara. E nder ndeen teeminannde, yoga e Afriknaaɓe dahetenooɓe ko toon payretenoo, e rewrude ko anndiraa « commerce triangulaire ». Hade rewolisiyoŋ jolde Farayse, Saint-Domingue yenytintunoo tataɓal njeeyguuji Farayse fayde caggal leydi.

Rewolisiyoŋ Farayse jibini jiiɓru mawndu e nder koloniiji mum, haa arti noon e duuɗe Antiiy, yeru to Saint-Domingue. Murto jiyaaɓe ɓurngo heen maantinde yuumti ko e kaɗtugol njiyaagu (abolition de l’esclavage).

Toussaint Louverture toɗɗaa yo wonan toon Farayse Guwerneer, caggal nde artiri deeƴre, riiwi Españool en e Engele en. O artiri toon jam, haa duunde nde weli wuurde. O yahi ha bayyini toon doosɗe leydi bellitooje duunde nde e njiimaandi Farayse. Ko ɗum addani Napoléon Bonaparte neldude toon konu ngu 30 000 soldaat, e gardagol keynum, hono seneraal Leklerke (Leclerc). Ɓe njaggi Toussaint Louverture ɓe ngoɗɗini ɗum ; kono ɗum haaɗaani biyeteeɗo Jean-Jacques Dessaline fiyde ɓe e wolde lollirnde bataille de Vertières. Nii woni, caggal nde jiyaaɓe ɓe pooli kalifaandi e rewrude kareeli ndimaagu e jeytaare, leydi ndi heɓi jeytaare mum ñalnde 1 saawiyee 1804, ndi innitiraa Hayiti. Hayiti woni leydi ngadanndi e winndere nde, ummiindi e mumtugol njiyaagu.

Dessalines waɗi hoore mum guwerneer kaaɗdi nguurndam. O yamiri yo tuubakooɓe raneeɓe heddinooɓe e duunde he, yo kirse. O laamii laamu Manna. O jamfaa, o waraa ñalnde 17 oktoobar 1806. Leydi ndi feccii : laamaandi rewo woni Hayiti e Ndenndaandi (République) to bannge worgo.

Ñalnde 11 sulyee 1825, laamɗo Farayse, hono Charles X, yaltini kuulal keptinoowal ndimaagu leydi ndi.

Kono, hankadi, kuudetaaji njokkondiri : konu ngu e yontaaɓe jilluɓe ɓe e ɓaleeɓe ɓe, julankooɓe (heewɓe e maɓɓe ko tumarankooɓe : Almaaji, Amerikeeji, Farysenaaɓe e Engele en), ngoni e fooɗondirde ngardiigu. Baasal woni e naatde, sibu deeƴre alaa, tee ardotooɓe ɓe paalaaka ƴellitde ndi. Leydi ndi hoɗi e jiiɓru. Dental Amerik heɓti ndi, woni e mayri tuggi 1915 haa 1934.  Caggal ɗum Duvalier (Diwaliyee) en laamii, laamu caɗtaru, tuggi 1957 haa 1986, alaa fof bonannde mbaɗaani. Ko kamɓe ndarnunoo goomuuji taƴooɓe, yahooɓe ina mbariiyaha yimɓe, anndiraaɓe « tonton Macoute » en. Ɗum addani Hayitinaaɓe heewɓe uujde, payi Amerik e Kanadaa.

Diiniyanke biyeteeɗo Jean-Bertrand Aristide fooli e woote e lewru desammbar 1990. Manndaa makko fuɗɗii ñalnde 7 feebariyee 1991, kono Raoul Cédras waɗi mo kuudetaa e ballal konu e nder lewru settammbar.

Hayiti jeyaa ko e leyɗe ɗiɗi kaalooje Farayse gonɗe Amerik hirnaange.