… Mahtaade Muritani e dow nuunɗal

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Ngardinndi

Winndi ooɗoo dokimaa ko hoohooɓe e jagge sooninkooɓe, tawi faltaaki jeyaaɓe e pelle politik gonduɗe e laamu walla e luulndo, jiiduɓe miijooji ko faati e ɗawre leñol mum en ɗawaa ndee.

Kala neɗɗo goɗɗo, yo o won sooninke walla alaa, jaɓɗo loowdi ooɗoo dokimaa ina waawi yantude e fuɗɗuɓe ɓee,

ngam jokkidde golle e luggiɗinaade e peeje. Faandaare rowrowre ndee ko daranaade jojjanɗe aadee e wallitde tabitingol nuunɗal nder renndo kam e ñiɓagol demokaraasi e nder Muritani juumtuɗo, dentuɗo.

Naatirka | Diiso Hoohooɓe Soninkooɓe Muritani (DHSM) yiɗi wonde ko njuɓɓudi ndenndinoori, njooɗaniindi dental sooninkooɓe, leñol jeyangol e timmal mum e ɓesngu Muritani leƴƴi-leƴƴinngu. Saabii ɗum ko teskuya laaɓtuɗo baasgol woodde ɓiyleydaagu, kam e baasgol dowla oo wonde jaambuur e nder mahngo leydi ndii, yantude e tasgol Dowla-Ngenndi. Ɗee geɗe gaddanɗe yimɓe teskoreede leñol mum en walla tirbii mum en. Diiso Hoohooɓe Soninkooɓe Muritani (DHSM), kam fof e woɗɗitaade kala miijo leñamleñaagu, e heddaade e yiɗde hisnude tigi rigi darnde mum ɓooynde jaamburaagal e waasde naatde e geɗe Dowla oo, fellitii huccitde e laamu kalfinaangu yuɓɓinde janngo men denndaaɗo oo, kam e gollooɓe politik e leƴƴi goɗɗi jeyaaɗi e Muritani ɗii e ɓiɗɓe leydi ndii kala.

Caggal Bayyinaango Sappo e Njeenayo (Manifeste des Dix-neuf) ngo 1966 e Bayyinaango Baleejo Muritaninaajo Kiiɗaaɗo (Manifeste du Négro-Mauritanien opprimé) ngo 1986 e Bayyinaango ngam Hakkeeji Politik e Faggudu e Renndo Hardaneeɓe (Manifeste pour les droits politiques, économiques et sociaux des Hratine) ngo abriil 2013, e Teskorde (Aide-mémoire) yowitiinde e jiytagol Jolfuɓe Muritani e laamu hee, e lewru abriil 2014, DHSM kam ne ina yiɗi addude ballal mum e mahngo Ngenndi Muritani, fawaade e nuunɗal e potal. Faandaare ngalɗoo ballal, wonaa ñiŋde won ɓeen walla woyande woɗɓe. Faandaare ooɗoo dokimaa ko fooɗtude hakkillaaji yimɓe fof, rewrude, ko idii fof, e cifagol ngonka daartol njuumtuka e sosngo Mauritani kaa (I). Feccere ɗiɗmere ndee yowittoo ko e cifagol batte gallugol tijjanoongol koɗdigal hakkunde leƴƴi, hono no tabitiniranoo nii. Faandaare ndee ko rokkude wasiyaaji e sakkitde peeje ngam ummital ngenndiwal ngam tabitingol nuunɗal e beldital e deeƴre nder renndo, geɗe gonooje ngooroondi ƴellitaare faggudu renndo fotndoowo yimɓe fof. Ko ɗee geɗe tan kadi mbaawi gaddaade kisal leydi ndii, haa ndi wona Ngenndi kesiri, mbellitiindi, potndundi yimɓe fof, ngenndi jaggondiral (III).

I. Iwdi caɗeele Muritani nde keɓi hoore mum ndee

Ngenndi Muritani fuɗɗii maheede ko e ngonka ka moƴƴaani hay batte saka waɗa e deeƴre, leydi ndii daroo haa tiiɗa. Saabii ɗum ko geɗe keeriiɗe nokkuyeeje njiimaandi koloñaal kam e ceertugol leƴƴi baawnaaɗi koɗdigal les laamu ngootu, yantude e dokkugol jeytaare ngol heblanaaka, paranaaka, kam e ngonka winndere ndee e oon sahaa to bannge jogaraafi daartol (géopolitique) e politik winndere ndee e diiwaan oo e Afrik e Arab.

Jiimgol leydi Muritani rewi ko e daawe ɗiɗi :

Ngol idorii ko e nokku ɓaleeɓe oo. Ngal inniraako « Seppo feewde fuɗnaange» (Marche vers l’Est), takko Maayo Mawngo, ummoraade tufnde Ndar wonnde e yuppirde geec Atlantik. Ngal naatti ko e njiimaandi Afrik hirnaange. Refti heen ko yaaɓande jiimgol leydi safalɓe, capanɗe joy hitaande caggal njiimaandi nokku ɓaleeɓe oo. Ko daawal daɓɓal, kuyfiɗngal. Ngal inniraa ko « seppo feewde rewo » (Marche vers le Nord). Ngal nawdaa ko e jiimgol espaañ dow Rio-de-Oro to bannge rewo, ƴaañoraade e koloni Senegaal to bannge worgo. Faandaare maggal wonnoo ko sukkude yolnde wonnoonde hakkunde koloniiji Afrik hirnaange farayseejo e ndeenaandi (protectorat) Maruk e teelɗugol njiimaandi Alaseri, njiimaandi koɗki, mbaɗtundi Alaseri departemaa Farayse.

Juɓɓitingol ko jogori wontoyde Muritani koo, ɓurnoo tuugaade ko e ngoƴaaji koloñaal en e luure nderndere hakkunde mum en, goɗɗuɗe no feewi ngonka Muritani. Ɗum noon, mahngo Muritani fawaaki e ngonka mum nderndera e mahondiral nafooje nokkuyeeje tawi fof tuugii ko teskagol nafooje ɓesnguuji ɗii e hoohooɓe mum en.

Wonande Muritani, miijo koloñaal goonga e goonga ngoo wonnoo ko sosande safalɓe Dowla. Ɓe kiisii leƴƴi ɓaleeji daande maayo ɗii njeyaa ko e Senegaal, gonɗo e njiimaandi. Ko ɗum ɗoon wonoyta hujja « seppo feewde rewo » e cuɓagol koloñaal innde « Muritani » ndee e hitaande 1899, e tafde ko jogori wontoyde leydi men koo. Daawal gadanal sosngo Muritani e keeri mum hannde ɗii, ko baɗtugol daande maayo rewo ngoo e « ndeenaandi leyɗeele safalɓe daande maayo Senegaal » (« protectorat des pays maures du bas-Sénégal ») ñalnde 10 abriil 1904. Teeŋtini ɗum ko naattingol e nder koloni Muritani, diiwanuuji ɗiɗi Hod ɗii, jeyanooɗi e njiimaandi Sudaan farayseejo, ñalnde 5 sulyee 1944. Gaa gaa ɗee geɗe nokkuyeeje, ina teskaa jotondiral jiimoowo oo e jiimaaɓe ɓee, wonaano gootal to safalɓe e to ɓaleeɓe. Njiimaandi ndii to nokku safalɓe ina deestii seeɗa, sibu ndi rewratnoo ko e mawɓe tirbiiji gollantonooɓe koloñaal, ɓe ɓe ɓurnoo jokkondirde, tawi noon, wonande leƴƴi ɓaleeji daande maayo ɗii, ko njiimaandi ŋaddet rewrude e mawɓe kantoŋaaji ɓe laamu koloñaal toɗɗotonoo, fooɗondirtunooɓe e laamaandi ngaadanteeri ndii. Ko ɗumɗoon waɗi, laamaandi ngaadanteeri salafɓe ɓuri heddaade sibu njiimaandi koloñaal e maɓɓe ɓuri raɓɓiɗde. Ɗum na jeyaa e ko addani koloñaal ɓurde wuuranaade ɓe nde tottitta laamu ndee. Koloñaal en mballitii no feewi kanndidaaji jaɓannooɗi ɗum en e nder woote depiteeji baɗnooɗe e hitaande 1946 kam e toɗɗe diiso guwarnama e hitaande 1957 juumtunooɗe e wellitaare, caggal ɗum e jeytaare leydi men.

Njuɓɓudi mbaawka politik ndii wonaano ngootiri, tamiindi, wonande leydi ndii kala. Sibu e oon sahaa, wonnoo e rewo leydi hee ko amiraaji safalɓe, hono emiraa Tararsa e Barakna e Tagante e Adraar, cawndondirnooɗi, to bannge worgo, e dowlaaji ɓaleeɓe Tekruur e Ganaa e Jolof, ɗuum woni laamaandi Gidimaka e Fuuta Tooro e Ngalam e Waalo Barak, maantinirnooɗi, e nder jotondire mum en, kaɓɓondire heen sahaaji, kareeli heen sahaaji, tawi teskaaki jeyegol e safalɓe walla e ɓaleeɓe. Njuɓɓudi koloñaal waawii haɓɓondirde e lawakooɓe e laamaandi ngaadanteeri. Nde ndi sompata laamu mayri tuugiingu e laawakooɓe ndee, ndi ɓuri heedande ko ɓurnooɓe jaɓde njiimaandi Farayse. Nde Muritani sompetee e mbaydi kesiri ndee, ndi roni ko renndooji lawakooji adiikoloñaal, tee rewaa tan ko ɗo koloñaal rewnoo ɗoo, sibu, e nder jiirondiral laamu hee, ko jotondire goodnooɗe ɗee tan ƴettitaa, yantude e kuutoragol paltoraaji ngam tiiɗtinde laamu lawakooɓe.Ɗee peeje laamagol ɓooyɗe, tabitɗe, tuugiiɗe e cehilaagal hakkunde njuɓɓudi laamu e lawakooɓe, maa ɓeydo teeŋtude e nder Muritani nde keɓi hoore mum ndee, sibu laawɗinaa tan ko ɓurondire renndo duumtuɗe.

E nder kaan ngonka tiimtagol e aadaaji, ɗooftagol jiimaaɓe ɓee laamu nguu, fawii ko e kulol ɓe njogii e doole laamu nguu. Ko ɗum addani laamotooɓe ɓee teeɗanaade tamde laamu nguu fof e innde neɗɗo. Seede mum, ko laaminooɓe e tuma nde Muritani heɓi jeytaare mum ndee, ngoppii, e nder daawal jaasngal duuɓi joy, laamu tuugiingu e parlamaan ngu koloñaal ɗaccirnoo en, ɓe lomtiniri ɗum laamu hooreleydaagu. Ko ɓurnoo teeŋtude e mbaawkaaji waɗtaa e juuɗe laamɗo leydi. Ɗoon e ɗoon mbaawka carɗinoowa reftii mbaawka ciynoowa ; kaaɗoo mbaawka kadi wonti tan laamu hooreejo leydi, sibu, e ko tabiti, terɗe guwarnama, woni hilifaaɓe, kam e kanndidaaji depiteeyaagal ciññinantuno hooreejo leydi oo demisiyoŋ mo ñalɗaaka (sarɗanaaka ñalngu) ko adii nde toɗɗetee. Ɗum firti ko kala nde o yiɗi ittude gooto e mum en, o yaltintu demisiyoŋ siññinnoo oo, o waɗa heen ñalngu ngu o welaa. Ko jiidaa e ɗuum, ko parti bajjo laawɗinaa, woni parti-dowla (parti-Etat) ngam tamde haa tiiɗa denndaangal gini laamu ngu o renndaani hay gooto. Kuufgol yimɓe leydi ndii e yeeso finndinde ɗum en e mahde hakkillaaji mum en e ɓiyleydaagu e demokaraasi e ittude denndaangal mbaadiiji paltoor donaaɗi, maa renndoyankooji, leƴƴiyankooji, walla tuugiiɗi e edda, kuufgol jojjunongol ngam mahde Dowla-Ngenndi, ngool kuufgol yejjitaa.

Yanti heen kadi, ndeen hinnde njuɓɓudi laamu lawakeere wonti hinnde njuɓɓudi laamu koninkaagu ngaadanteeri caggal kuudetaa 1978 e denndaangal daawal ngal konu laamii ngal, rewrude e silsil nanondiraaɗo e nder goomuuji koninkaagu dartingol, caggal ɗum goomuuji kisal ngenndi, hade mum wontude hinnde njuɓɓudi reenooɓe ngaadanteeri caggal cosgol BASEP. Neeɓaani, oon BASEP heɓti kaɓirɗe konu nguu kala, konu ngontungu konu ndeenka laamu hoorameewu. Nde tawnoo nehdi ɓiyleydaagu e jikkuuji demokaraasi ngoodaani, wonti laamu neɗɗo gooto ɗo hakkunde ɗoo, banndiraaɓe catii ɗum, rewi heen tirbii, caggal ɗuum jinngere fotnde suddude ko heddii koo. Nii woni, so a ƴeewii dow, laamu nguu ina jogii mbaadi Dowla keso jogiiɗo juɓɓule demokarasiije, kono nder, ngu gollortoo ko kongol laamu e yedditaare goodgol Dowla oo e hoore mum. E nder ɗuum, ardiiɓe ɓee, gooto e mum en kala ina huutoroo ɓallagol mum laamu nguu, ngam honde ngalu e keɓe leydi ndii, haa ko jeyi keeriiɗo e jeyi buur ndenti ceerndotaako. Ngolɗoo jeɗgol njeenaaje e teddule huutortoo ko coodgu ngam suddude jinngere tuugiinde e jiidigal. Nii woni, mawɗo « geese » (système) cañeteeɗe ɗee, nde tawnoo huutorii ko njeenaari e bellitgol bonannde, faggoo caggal ballowal ɗum, tawi woni heen ko yimɓe politik e omdafeer en reftiiɓe, ɓe o sosi, ɗum noon yowitiiɓe e makko banngeeji fof. Ɗum ko gaagaa galle makko e tirbii makko e leñol makko e edda ɓalndu makko. Nafoore ngolɗoo kowol laamu tataɓol ko ɓoornude laamu nguu wutte demokaraasi e rokkude ɗum mbaadi laamu tirbiiji keewɗi e leƴƴi keewɗi e eddaaji ɓalndu keewɗi, haa nanndita e Ngenndi e huutoraade ɗum e woote.

II. Batte maajum dow mahngo dowla-ngenndi keso

Laamuuji deggondirɗi e ngardiigu leydi Muritani dewɗi heen ɗii fof, tuugotoo ko e denndaangal ɗeeɗoo geɗe cifaaɗe, kañje fof e luutondirde e mahngo leydi. Ɗuum woni compugol tippudi laamu tuuginoondi, ɗo adan ɗoo, e « keertingol neɗɗaagal Arab » (A), keertingol baɗngol e dow keeci mbaadiiji pinal tawaaɗi e nokku hee, ɓurɗi ɓooyde. Ndiin tippudi heɓti mbaawka politik e faggudu leydi ndii fof, tabitini heedi-heeda (B) e nder denndaangal juɓɓule pewjooje, heedi-heeda donaaɗo wonande hardaneeɓe, jaajtinaaɗo e haalpulaaren e sooninkooɓe e jolfuɓe, rewrude e jiilyiiltugol mbaawka e doole laamu. Ɗum yuumti e wasre laamu to bannge politik (C), wasre nde dente loraaɗe ɗee cifortoo rasisma dowla walla warhoore aadeejo, walla warhoore leñol, fawaade e no juɓɓule winndereeje cifortoo ɗum.

A. Keertingol neɗɗaagal Arab e dewondiral geɗe ɗee

Keertingol neɗɗaagal Arab garngol e duumaade e leydi hee, ɗeɓi wayde ko no ardinde ƴellitaare neɗɗaagal arab e dow mbaadi leƴƴi keddiiɗi ɗii, jeyaaɗi kam enne e Ngenndi Muritani. Ɗuum ko rewrude e keɓtingol ɗemngal Arab tan, e baawnugol mum nder jaŋde.

Ngolɗoo keertingol neɗɗaagal Arab ina laawɗinaa e sariya gorworo oo, gila e Doosɗe leydi 22 marse 1959, e doosɗe leydi 20 mee 1961, rewrude e baɗgol Arab ɗemngal gootal ngenndiwal, oon sahaa ko Farayse tan wonnoo ɗemngal laawɗungal. Doosɗe leydi 4 marse 1968 wayliino ɗum seeɗa nde waɗti Arab ɗemngal laawɗungal, fotndi ɗum e ɗemngal jiimnooɗo oo, heddii kadi e wonde ɗemngal ngenndiwal gootal : pulaar e sooninke e wolof mbinndaaka heen boom. Ko maa 20 suwee 1991 nde Arab waɗtaa ɗemngal bajjal laawɗinangal, ɗemɗe e pine keddiiɗe ɗee, jeyaaɗe e Muritani kam enne, ndañi hankati wontude ɗemɗe ngenndiije. Ngolɗoo keɓtingol ɓurondirngol mbaadiiji gorwori leydi men kesiri ndii, dalliniraa ko konngol « dokkitgol muritaninaajo neɗɗaagu mum » (repersonnalisation de l’homme mauritanien). « Dokkitgol muritaninaajo neɗɗaagu mum » noon, maa dagotono no haanirta nii so tawiino miijiranoo, tabitiniranoo ko e yeeso teskaade denndaangal muritaninaaɓe e kuuɓal mum en, ko aldaa e paltoor. « Dokkitgol muritaninaajo neɗɗaagu mum » waawaano wonde, waawaano tabitde ɗoon ɗo jiyaaɓe e rimɗinaaɓe e kinɗe lesɗinaaɗe e renndo men, taweteeɗe e leƴƴi Muritani ɗii fof, keɓtaani « aadeeyaagu » mum en. Ngolɗoo « Dokkitgol muritaninaajo aadeyaagu mum » nooynangol, rewrude e dimɗingol e keɓtingol timmungol, maa addantuno mo heɓtude mbaadi makko fof e ndimaagu makko kala, so wonde aadee timmuɗo. So tawii « dokkitgol muritaninaajo neɗɗaagu mum » yiyranoo ko e yeeso toɗɗaade kadi denndaangal leƴƴi ɓaleeji Muritani, maa pellital politik ngal yettotono laawɗingol, no Arab laawɗiniraa nii, e janngingol e ekkolaaji laamu hee, ɗemɗe keddiiɗe ɗee, hono Pulaar e Sooninke e Wolof. Hannde, ko pellital tan ŋakki, sibu duɗe jarriborɗe Duɗal Ɗemɗe Ngenndiije kollitii juumtugol heblo majje. Keertingol neɗɗaagal Arab ina haawnii gila e fuɗɗoode mum, sibu dalliniraa ko ɗaɗndude en e wostaare to bannge pinal, wostaare jotondirnde e njiimaandi koloñaal, kono ngol wonti kadi ko feere waɗtirde Muritani fof mbaadi ngootiri, e waasde teskaade pine leydi ndii keddiiɗe ɗee. Wonande muritaninaaɓe ɓe ngonaa aarabeeɓe, « dokkitgol muritaninaajo neɗɗaagu mum » wontani ɗum en ko « waasde neɗɗaagu mum en goɗngol », ko joñegol. Mbaadi yimɓe e leƴƴi wonaa huunde nde tagaaɗo waawi sarɗude, ko Alla tan sarɗi ɗum nde felliti tellinde ɓe e leydi mum hee. Ɗum noon, eɗen poti teskaade gootol kala e leƴƴi leydi men, tesko-ɗen ɗi kañji kala, potnden ɗi, e nder mahngo ngenndi ndii. Mbele Allah wiyaani, e aaye 13 simoore 49 Quraana tedduɗo oo « Eehey mon yimɓe, Min tagii on ummoraade gorko e debbo, min mbaɗi on leƴƴi leƴƴi mbele nganndondiron. Ɓuri rimɗude e mon fof to Allah, ko ɓurɗo hulde ɗum oo … » ?

Ngootaagu ngenndi firtaani wontude gootel, wontude gootum. Ngootaagu ina waawi waɗde e nder ceertugol e keewal, tawi aldaa e sarɗi walla jojjeende reftaare, walla wosteende, walla caaygol gooto oo nder heddiiɓe ɓee. Ngalɗoo keewal pine fotaani wonde mumangal, walla muñanaangal, walla waɗde tolnooji. Ngal foti ko hisneede, hormeede, jojjiteede no ngalu nii, rewrude e carɗingol kam e ɗooftagol poyngol juɓɓule Ndenndaandi ndii pine ɗee kala.

Demokaraasi firtaani keeweendi njaltundi e woote ina jiima ko heddii koo. Ndiin keeweendi rokkaa tan ko hakke, dagnanaa ardaade e lelnude sariyaaji, tawi ina gaddanii ɓiɓɓe leydi kala, e kala ɓiɗɗo leydi, denndaangal hakkeeji mum gorwori, rewrude e teskagol leƴƴi Ngenndi men ndii kala, haa arti noon e leƴƴi kiisaaɗi ko ɓuraaɗi keeweendi ɗii.

Hay so tawii en koddirii wonde keertingol neɗɗaagal Arab ngol joopii ko ɗemngal Quraana, ina moƴƴi ciftinen wonde, tuggi njaatiraaɓe men haa yettii yontannde men, hay gooto fadaani haa ɗemngal Arab tan laawɗinaa e Muritani nde fuɗɗii janngude Quraana e nder ɗemngal Arab, walla waɗti janngude Arab ngam ɓeydaade faamde nelal kuuɓtodinngal gonngal e Quraana tedduɗo oo.

So en koddirii woni daliilu keertingol neɗɗaagal Arab ngol ko sabu haalooɓe Arab ɓurde heewde e leydi hee, ngam dallinde baawnugol e dow yimɓe fof aarabaagal rewrude e laawɗingol mum kam tan, kam e joñgol mbaadiiji pine ngenndiije keddiiɗe ɗee, eɗen poti siftinde wonde miijannde keeweendi keertinndi woodaani : woodi tan ko leƴƴi cosɗi Dowla Muritani. Ɗiin leƴƴi noon, e fawaade e ɗuum, mbaawaa, etee potaani adaba joñeede.

Feere wootere ngam mahde mbaadi ngootiri, tuugiindi e ɓiyleydaagu, ngaroori dow leƴƴi ɗii fof, ko heɓtinde mbaadiiji keeriiɗi denndaangal leƴƴi leydi men, tawa noon eɗen ndeentoo waɗtude ɗum leñamleñamaagal.

Addata ñoofagol e nder keertingol leñol e felɓondirde ɗum e keddiiɗi ɗii, ko baasgol fotndude mbaadiiji leƴƴi cosɗi Muritani ɗii, mbaadiiji potɗi alɗondirde.

Leƴƴi kiiseteeɗi ko ɓuraaɗi keeweendi e Muritani ɗii, njeyaa ko leƴƴi cosɗi Muritani, to bannge daartol, kono kadi hay to bannge sippiro politik addanngo leydi ndii jeytaade.

To bannde daartol, ɗiin leƴƴi ko ɗoo koɗnoo gila dawaa-dawi, won heen idiiɗi goɗɗi ɗii, kono kañji fof ko juuti ko idii kalfaandi koloñaal Farayse e leydi men e ko rewi e mum, ko juuti ko idii jeytaare Rippoobilik Islaamiyeejo Muritani. Wonande sooninkooɓe, koɗki maɓɓe e leydi hee ina yaajnoo, sibu yettiima lowlowi cahe nannduɗe e Kummbi Saaleh e Waalata e Tiisiit e Shinngiti e Attaar, kono kadi ɓe idiima wattiindiiɓe arde ɗoo ɓee, hono Beni Hasaan en, ko ina wona duuɓi ujunere e leydi hee.

Persidaa Muttaar wul Daddaa, neɗɗo mawɗo e jeytaare leydi men, kam fof e woɗɗude jiyle e daranaade cosgol Dowla Muritani, dañaani heeroraade innde baaba coso. Kanko e hoore makko o heɓtinii ɗum e wondude e yankinaare e nder deftere makko siftorde, wonde o heɓiino « ardaade e yuɓɓinde golle cosgol Dowla Ngenndi Muritani ». Hono no huunde e hoohooɓe aarabeeɓe-berbeer en, haa arti noon e Ahmedu wul Horma wul Baabanaa, Sileymaani wul Seek Sidiyaa e Muhammed wul Seek, hoohooɓe woɗɓe jeyaaɓe e leƴƴi goɗɗi ɗii, ko wayi no Sileymaani Joop e Njawaar Saar e Ahmadu Mammadu Bah e Siidi el Muttaar Njaay e Bah Maamuudu Sammba Booli e Ceekura Demmbele e Sammba Ganndegaa e Jeeri Sidibe e Bah Aamadu Jaaje Sammba Joom e Yuusuf Koytaa e Yaayaa Kan e Siidi Muhammed Jagana e Seek Saad Buuh Kan e Gaay Silli Sumaare, en mbaawaa limtude fof, ɓee fof ndariima, kaɓaa ngam ndimaagu ngenndi men. Aɓe njeyaa e daraninooɓe laŋ mahngo neɗɗaagu politik leydi men, gila noon e woote depiteeji gadane Farayse wonande nokkuuji gaɗa-maayo geec ɗii, e hitaande 1946 haa yettii referaandoom wellitaare, haa yettii termondire baɗdanooɗe e Farayse ngam jeytaare leydi ndii. Ɓee hoohooɓe kala ina njeyanoo e ardiiɓe ɓurɓe yiytinaade kaɓɓondire politik keewɗe baɗetenooɗe ina pirtee, haa arti noon e Mooɓondiral Eeleega e lewru mee 1958, nde jooɗaninooɓe daande maayo mbaɗi maslahaa mawɗo, so jaɓde dirtinde carɗingol peccugol laamu kam e juɓɓingol laamu tuugingol e Dental (federaasiyoŋ) ɗi ɓe mbiynoo alaa sago ngooda ngam reentoraade. Ɓe kollitii ngenndiyankaagal mawngal, ɓe cuɓii ngootaagu ngam huccitande musibbaaji ummortooɗi caggal, ketɗi goodal Muritani. Ina jeyanoo e ɗiin musibbaaji ketɗi, hujjaaji « Maruk mawɗo » kiisinooɗi wonde Maruk yahii haa daande maayo Senegaal. Ɗuum ummorinoo ko e eɓɓaande nde jiimooɓe korsinnoo, yiɗde sompude Fedde Renndinnde Diiwanuuji Saharaa, nde fotaano moƴƴude e leydi Alaseri, yantude e eɓɓaande Njuɓɓudi Ndenndinndi Leyɗe Afrik Hirnaange mo Farayse. Ɗee eɓɓaaɗe dental maa ngontatno dente mawɗe ɗo njogorno-ɗen saayde so en naatii e mum en. Ko e cosgol e pirtugol dille e partiiji politik e nder Muritani, dille ngenndiyankooje Arab e Afrik njibinaa. Ina himmi kolliten wonde dille cakkitiiɗe ɗee njibinaa ko caggal juɓɓitgol dille ngenndiyankooje aarabeeɓe gidinooɗe soseede. Ɗeen dille kadi eɗen mbaawi wiyde ko kaannooɗo, so ƴeewraama bannge dartagol njiimaandi koloñaal, to bannge njuɓɓudi e politik e pinal. Kono kadi eɗe mbaawnoo yiyreede no dille ceɓɓitiiɗe nii, ɗoon ɗo ɗe njeddi hujjaaji leƴƴi ɓaleeji ɗii, baaɗi no hujjaaji maɓɓe ɗii nii haande.

Jaltugol njiimaandi e naatgol e jeytaare hesere, ittii en e ngonka cawndondiral leƴƴi men, e nder jotondiral ɗeɓnongal yerondirde, sibu ndeen, hare laamu ɓurnoo wonde ko e nder leƴƴi ɗii e koye mum en, naatni en e ngonka dowla tamiiɗo ɗo laamu woni ɗo gootel, huunde jibininnde pooɗondire hakkunde leƴƴi ngam tamde laamu, kam e ɓurondire hakkunde majji.

B. Ɗawgol, gila ɗo wonnoo seeɗa-seeɗa, haa huuɓtodini

Ko goonga, caɗeele koɗdigal ɗee mbaawaa tan haaɗtineede e pelɓondiral hakkunde leƴƴi. Kono tan, kuutoragol leƴƴi ina jeyaa e ko ɓeydi geɗe ceerndooje Ngenndi Muritani : ɗawgol e geɗe renndo, to bannge politik e faggudu kam e cuɓagol dente gollondiral diiwaniije. Yeru jeyeede e sosnooɓe Dental Magreb Arab (UMA) e hitaande 1989, e jaltugol e Dente Afrik hirnaange ; yeru jaltugol bannginteewol e Dental Faggudu e Ƴellitaare Dowlaaji Afrik Hirnaange (CEDEAO), tawi Muritani ina jeyanoo e sosnooɓe ɗum e hitaande 1975, ko juuti ko adii cosgol UMA. Faamaama wonde paltoor oo ko kuutorgal ooyrugal laamu kuuɓtodinngal e tolnooji kala. Woni hoore, ɓuri teeŋtude e oon paltoor fof, ko ɗawre to bannge renndo fawaade e jibinannde, woɗɗitinnde ceŋɗe ɓesngu nguu no ndiidorinoo denndaangal nokkuuji e fannuuji nguurndam renndo ngoo, rewrude e leeltingol lelnugol kaɓirɗe ñaawoore sariya ngam haɓde e jiyɗingol e batte mum e mumtude ɗum. Ɗum haaɗaani tan ndeke e ŋakkeende pellital politik. Alaa e sago keɓtinen wonde, e goonga, ɗumɗoo fof ko feere ooyrude faggudu e renndo rewrude e leeltingol pinal moɓe ɓesngu jiimaaɗe ɗee, sabu kulol duumingol feccoyde e mum en laamu. Ooɗoo paltoor ina jogii sifaa renndo, ɗum noon omo toɗɗii leƴƴi leydi men kala. Kono kadi, omo jogii sifaa keeriiɗo, renndo-leƴƴiyankeejo wonande Hardaneeɓe e Haalpulaaren e Sooninkooɓe e Jolfuɓe. Ooɗoo paltoor ina yaaji, ina huuɓtodini juɓɓule politik e koninkaagu e faggudu. Paltoor oo ina feeñira e famɗude hilifaaɓe (ministereeɓe) e nder guwarnama, kam e Njuɓɓudi toowndi Dowla oo, e to diiwanuuji ɗii, e to bannge dipolomaasi. Ko yimɓe seeɗa kadi ɓe njogii e nder konu hee e doole kisal ɗee, sabu yimɓe maɓɓe ɓooreede e konu hee haa laaɓi, walla heɗɗooji kaɗooji yimɓe maɓɓe ƴetteede e kawgelaaji. Ko ceɗta kunal kadi ɓe keɓata e ngalu leydi hee, sabu politik paltoor to bannge faggudu tuugiiɗo e baɗtugol sosiyateeji laamu sosiyateeji keeriiɗi bannginteeji, kam e cosgol bankeeji e pelle gaddotooɗe kisal, kam e dokkitgol jamirooje awo tuugingol e heedi-heeda.

Wonande soninkooɓe, no ɓe ɗawraa nii ɗooftaaki hay doosɗe ɗe mbinndaaka dottooje geɗal kala leñol heewi rokkeede e nder juɓɓule pinal e faggudu e dipolomaasi e koninkaagu e ñaawoore. Ɗiiɗoo ɓetooji garooji njeddotaako. E oon sahaa gooto mo yimɓe leydi ndii ɓeydotoo, faggugu mum ina ɓeydoo yaajde e ƴellitaade, njuɓɓudi laamu ina ɓeydoo saraade, jagge ina ɓeydoo sokleede, Muritani ina yaajtina jotondire mum banngeeji fof e winndere ndee kala, geɗal sooninkooɓe kañum woni tan ko e ustaade ñalnde kala, haa wonti hay huunde wonande nokkuuji keewɗi.

Nde Muritani heɓi hoore mum ndee, e saanga nde faayiida neɗɗo wonnoo ɓetirgal teeŋtungal ngam heɓde poosto, sooninkooɓe ngoniino e poostooji keewɗi : ɓe meeɗii wonde Persidaa Asaambele Ngenndi, ministereeɓe, hoolaaɓe kuuɓal, ardiiɓe kabineeji, kumaandaŋ serkaluuji, waaliiji, perfeeji, ñaawooɓe, ammbasaderuuji, konsileeɓe, ofiseeji toowɗi e nder konu, e nder sanndarmori e garde e duwaan. Ɓe ngardinooma bankeeji, ɓe ngardinooma sosiyateeji laamu, ɓe ngoniino komersaaji mawɗi e omdafeer en. En mbaawaa limtude fof. Gila laamujji militeer en ngari, haa teeŋti noon e feccere kitaale capanɗe jeetati, yimɓe amen ustiima no feewi e nder juɓɓule laamu haa wonti ceɗta kunal.

So en ƴettii yeru e guwarnama hee, ɓe meeɗii jogaade heen Kuuɓal kalfinaangal Sato fat. Ɓurii ɗoon bonde, sibu ɓe ngalaano hay neɗɗo gooto e nder HCE (Diiso Dowla Toowngo). Ngool woni go’o gila laamuuji militeer puɗɗii laamaade. Geɗal amen hankadi natti diwde kalifu gooto, walla ɗiɗo, Kuuɓal kuɓtodinngal gootal, ammbasadeer gooto walla hay gooto, e konsil gooto walla hay gooto ; ɗumɗoo ko wonande pootooji laamu toowɗi ɗii. Wonande poostooji keddiiɗi ɗii, amin njogii kalfinaaɗo donngal (chargé de missions) gooto to persidaas, ballitoowo gooto (attaché) to pirimatiir, hooreeɓe diiso njuɓɓudi (conseil d’adminsitration) ɗiɗo e gardo kuuɓtodinɗo nokku dowla gooto. Wonande konu nguu e doole kisal ɗee, min ngalaa hay seneraal gooto, hay kolonel gooto. Min kaaɗdaa e konu hee ko e lietnaaji kolonel jeegom, e kumaandaŋ gooto e kapiteen gooto, lietnaa gooto, cukko lietnaa gooto. To garde ngenndi, min njogii ko lietnaa kolonel gooto. A min njogii kapiteen gooto garde e gooto sanndarma. To polis, amin njogii gardo (directeur) gooto e komiseer gooto e juurnittooɗo (inspecteur) gooto. Wonande njuɓɓudi laamu nokkuyeeri (administration territoriale), min ngalaa hay Waali gooto ; a min njogii cukko Waali gooto, e haakem gooto, e sukkuɓe haakem tato. Min ngalaa hay mawɗo rondismaa gooto. Ko min ɗawaa koo ɓuri laaɓtude kadi ko to Ministeer ñaawoore, sibu min ngalaa hay carɗo (Magistrat) gooto, hay ñaawoowo gooto, hay binndoowo (gerefiyee) gooto.

Ɗumɗoo kam, ma a taw warii hoore. Naamndal amen ko hol nde ɗumɗoo jogori nattude. Eɗen teskoo noon sooninkooɓe keeroraaki ndee ɗawre. Ko ɗum addani min naattinde gollal amen e hare ɓurnde yaajde ngam compugol Muritani nuunɗuɗo, dentuɗo, Muritani ɓiyngu yummaagu, ɗo faayiida neɗɗo e yarlitanaare mum ngenndi mum, e kaɓɓagol mum e ngootaagu ngenndi ndii kam e renndo ngoo, njogotoo faayiida.

Peeje ɗawgol ɗee tuggi ko e ɗawre to bannge politik kam e politik ƴellitaare e peewnugol leydi (aménagement territorial) rewrude e taƴngo keeri njuɓɓudi laamu e kominaaji, ngo rewaani laawol, ngo teskaaki softeende yimɓe, haa yettii jedditagol ngenndaagu (deni de nationalité) e kaɗgol ɓiyleydaagu to karnal etaa siwil. Wonande sooninkooɓe, eɗen mbaawi rokkude yeru e fenaande fuŋŋiniinde wonande diiwaan Gidimaka oo to bannge keewal depiteeji, sibu teskaa ɗoo tan ko mukaataaji ɗiɗi e ronndismaaji tati, keewal yimɓe mum teskaaka. E oon sahaa gooto mukaataaji ɗiɗi kesi (Saami jowitiiɗo e Daklet Nuwaadibu e mukaataa Dar jowitiiɗo e diiwaan Hod hirnaange, tawi laamorgo mum ko Nbeiket Lahuwash) cosaama e nokkuuji pamɗuɗi yimɓe. Wonande binnditagol e karnal ngenndiwal yimɓe e kaayitaaji kisnaaɗi (registre national des populations et des titres sécurisés) alaa no waawi faamreede, so wonaa weleede waɗde paltoor. So wonaano ɗuum, hol no neɗɗo suusirta naamnaade muritaninaaɓe wonɓe caggal leydi kaayitaaji goɗɗi ɗi muritaninaaɓe wonɓe e leydi ndii naamnaaka ? Ƴeewaa batte mum bonɗe wonande sooninkooɓe wonɓe caggal leydi, haa arti noon to Farayse, ɗo ɓe ɓuri heewde ɗoo, ɗo ɓesngu mum en waawi heɓde ngenndaagu Farayse, sibu ko toon jibinaa, kono ina keddii e wonde muritaninaaɓe e haɓɓaade e muritanaagal mum en haa tiiɗi to bannge renndo e pinal e faggudu. Haa hannde, wonande binnditagol etaa siwil ngol : paltoor oo haaɗaani tan e kaayitaaji naamneteeɗi ngam waawde winnditaade ɗii, so wonaa wonande muritaninaaɓe wonɓe caggal leydi, no kollitir-ɗen nii. Kono paltoor oo ina woodi haa e terɗe goomuuji kalfinaaɗi binnditagol ɗii, sibu ma a taw kamɓe fof ko ɓe safalɓe. Yanti heen aɓe ngondi e solteende ina ɓurti no feewi, ɓe cuuɗaaki, ɓe moggaaki e naamne maɓɓe ɓurtuɗe ɗee, naamne kaawniiɗe ɓe naamnotoo ɓaleeɓe ɓee. Ɓaleeɓe heewɓe mbaasii ngenndaagu mum en (nattii jogaade leydi ɗo njeyaa) sabu tan caliima, walla ndonkii jaabaade naamne puuyɗe, doondiiɗe ngañantumaagu, ɗe ndewaani laawol, naamneteeɗe ɗee. Naamne ɓurtiiɗe kaayitaaji laamu rokkunoo ɗii, kam e kaayitaaji etaa siwil dewɗi laawol ɗii, himmude ngam dallinde ko ɓe Muritaninaaɓe. To bannge goɗɗo oo, mbayliigu jeyi leydi 1983 ina fotnoo wonde taaɓal mawngal, e coktirgal moƴƴal ngam ñawndude caɗeele nguura e nder leydi hee, walla kam wona fartaŋŋe tabitinde kisal nguura, tawa kadi ina ñawnda tooñannge fawaange e hardaneeɓe e jiyaaɓe e jibinannde jiyaaɓe to leƴƴi ɓaleeji. Sibu nana wona duuɓi teemedde jooni ko ɓe ngollinee, doole maɓɓe ina ciiɓee, aɓe keedaa e ndimaagu maɓɓe, aɓe ndema leyɗeele daande maayo ngam wuurnude Muritaninaaɓe fof. Gagga jeyi leydi ileteendi daande maayo ndi golle Fedde Peewnugol Maayo Senegaal (OMVS) rokkiti faayiida, ina jokkondiree e caɗeele koɗdigal leƴƴi leydi ndii. Waɗi ɗuum, ko mbayliigu jeyi leydi nguu ittii mbaadi ngaadanteeri jiilgol leyɗeele ɗee, tawi teskaaki hakkeeji jeyi ɗi ɓaleeɓe Muritani ndoni e njaatiraaɓe mum en, hakke maɓɓe dow leyɗeele ɗe ɓe ngollotoo ko ina ɓura duuɓi ujunere. Ɓaleeɓe Muritani lomtinanaaka kaalis baawnooɗo addande ɗum en jokkude gollaade leyɗe ɗe ndematnoo, ndaa ɓe ngalaa mbaawka naatnude karallaagal kesal ndema. Ɗum na waawnoo addande ɓe hattande dartaade yooro e kirisaaji faggudu deggondirɗi. Hare haannde luulndiinde mbaadiiji jaanduyaagal e nder jeyi leydi ɗo hardaneeɓe e ɓiɗɓe jiyaaɓe to leƴƴi ɓaleeji, fotaano wonde daliilu ittugol jeyi denndaaɗo jotondirɗo e jeyi enɗam gure. Ndema galleeji e gure firtaani ndema ndaɗaaka. Haralleeɓe ina keɓtini wonde ko ka ndema njahduka e ngonka daande maayo. Ka nanndaani e ndema kolaaɗe mawɗe ka jom kaalisaaji en, ummoriiɓe caggal leydi walla jeyaaɓe e leydi ndii ɓe kattanaani ɗum mbaɗata, tawi alaa ko mbaaw-ɗen heen. Tabitingol mbayliigu jeyi leydi nguu addanii ɓaleeɓe Muritani ɓeydaade mettinde, e hiisaade ko teettaaɓe leyɗe mum en e dow fenaande, tawi kadi ina ɗawaa e ñamaale kaalisaaji bankeeji kam e peeje ƴetteteeɗe ngam wallitde ndema. Ɗumɗoo ina holliti wonde, no laamu nguu wayi e ɓaleeɓe nii, wonaa noon wayi e safalɓe, sibu, duuɓi ɗiɗi ko adii ɗuum, sariya mumtuɗo macungaagu oo ina yamiri huunde haawniinde, so lomtinande halfunooɓe yimɓe. Hannde eɗen ngoɗɗi tawo faandaare kisal nguura, tee leydi men ina ɓeydoo, hitaande kala, yowitaade e jiggoore caggal leydi nde balle adunankooje coodanta en. Ndema jom kaalisaaji en ko ko galli e nder leydi men, tee haa hannde hardaneeɓe e jibinannde jiyaaɓe jeyaaɓe e leƴƴi ɓaleeɓe, ngalaa tawo leydi.

Ardiiɓe leydi ndii ndañaani wune naftoraade fartaŋŋe daartiyankeejo, so waɗde mbayliigu jeyi leydi miijaangu no moƴƴi, ciyniraangu no feewi. Mbayliigu jeyi leydi ngoodngu nguu, wonti ko mbayliigu ceerndoowu, njaggiraangu no fuɗɗoode bone jogorɗe kewɗe e Muritani duuɓi sappo caggal ɗuum, to bannge jaɓɓugol jojjanɗe aadee e warhoore aadee, e warhoore leñol.

C. Piggal e wasre politik, jaɓɓugol jojjanɗe aadee e warhooreeji laamu

Leƴƴi Muritani ɓaleeji ina piɗɗitoo kala nde kuule ɗe moƴƴaani en ƴettaa.

Ngool dartagol ina haani, sibu jotondiri ko e jojjanɗe gorwore, tee dartagol maɓɓe ko jamyamol, kaaɗngol e juuɗe, tawi faandaare mum ko fooɗtude hakkillaaji ardiiɓe leydi ndii tan. Kono ɗum haɗataa, kala nde ɓe ndilli, laamu yanat e maɓɓe, haa yaɓɓa jojjanɗe aadee, ɓeyda mette ; ngool jaɓɓugol jojjanɗe aadee yanta e paltoor gulletenooɗo oo, naatna leydi ndii e yiriinde wasre mettunde yaltude.

Caggal dummbugol hoohooɓe ɓaleeɓe Muritani e hitaande 1966 caggal nde njaltini kaayit ganndiraaɗo « Bayyinaango Sappo e Njeenayo », to Nebeyba, nder caɗeele teeŋtuɗe, e hitaande 1986 to Waalata, caggal nde mbayyini kaayit ina wiyee « Bayyinaango Ɓaleejo Muritani Kiiɗaaɗo », Waalata ɗo laamu nguu yaɓɓi jojjanɗe aadee jaɓɓugol teeŋtungol, juumtungol e maayɗeele won ɓeen dummbaaɓe ; caggal ɗeeɗoo geɗe fof mbiy-ɗen, hankadi jalluɗi ngañgu ngoni tan ko e ɓeydaade bewde. Ñalnde 22 oktoobar 1987 kuudetaa mo mbaadi leñol yiytaa. Tuumanooɓe ɓee ndañaani hakke jogaade keedoowo, keedanoowo ɗum en ñalnde ñaawoore ndee. Wonaani lewru, ñaawoore maɓɓe udditi ñalnde 18 noowammbar. Ñaawoore ndee yani ñalnde 3 desaambar : ofiseeji tati haalpulaaren ñaawaa warngo, ɓe mbaraa e nder balɗe tati dewɗe heen ɗee, ñalnde 6 desaambar ; nii woni ɓe ndañaani hay hakke yedditaade (waɗde appel). Maa aduna kala tesko huunde haawniinde : kanko barnooɗo ɓe oo, o yurmiima umminnooɓe fiyannde ñalnde 8 suwee 2003, ngam follude laamu makko, haa yimɓe heewɓe maayi heen. Ina jeyaa e ɓeen, kolonel Muhammed Lemiin wul Njaayaan, gonnooɗo mawɗo Taamasoor. E baawɗe Alla, kamɓe umminnooɓe ndee fiyannde, ɓe keɓii hakke jogaade heedooɓe, ɓe ñaawaaka warngo, caggal ɗuum nii, ɓe njaafaama. Kono ɓeeɗoo kadi enndunoo ko kuudetaa mo mbaadi leñol, leñol safalɓe, sibu hay ɓaleejo gooto alaa e maɓɓe ; kono kadi, ngolɗoo ɓuri bonde, sibu kuudetaa oo jogii nii ko mbaadi tirbii.

E hitaande 1989, Muritani jaggondirii e Senegaal jaggondiral muusngal.  Hare hakkunde remooɓe e aynaaɓe ɓaleeɓe, hare keewnde waɗde e keerol hakkunde leyɗe ɗiɗi ɗee, hono daande maayo Senegaal, waɗi toon kadi, haa woodi maayɓe heen. Ko ñalnde 9 abriil wonnoo. Caggal ɗuum, ñalnde 23 abriil, pelɓondire puɗɗii hakkunde muritaninaaɓe e senegaalnaaɓe. Komersaaji safalɓe wonnooɓe Senegaal njanaa, marsandiis mum en ƴettaa. Woodi maayɓe heen. Ñalnde 25 abriil, Senegaalnaaɓe wonnooɓe e Muritani puɗɗi yaneede kam enne. Ndee hare yuumtunde e warngo yimɓe heewɓe nder leyɗe ɗiɗi ɗee, hay dara jotondiraano e luure hakkunde Safalɓe e ɓaleeɓe (sibu ɗoo, ko Pullo e Sooninko mbaɗdunoo), kono nde reɓii, haa nde yuumti e pelɓondire hakkunde safalɓe e senegaalnaaɓe, to rewo e worgo fof. Hare ndee raayti, nde tawnoo nde hanndaaka e leyɗe ɗiɗi ɗee kala, haa wonti raddo ɓaleeɓe e nder Muritani. Capanɗe ujunnaaje ɓaleeɓe Muritani taccinaa feewde Senegaal e Mali : gure no ndiidorinoo mumtaa ; jawdi ndariindi fefaa ; leyɗe ndema teettaa. To daande maayo too, laamu nguu, e konu nguu, e doole kisal ngoppi woɗɓe ina owna beeli yimɓe nokku oo, yimɓe ɓe mbiyaani mbaɗaani. Ɓe kaɗi ɓe boom hay dartaade kiiɗal e tooñannge. Kankadi, wonti ko uddo wonande ɓaleeɓe daande maayo. Seede majjum ko heewɓe majjii toon, gaññeeje denndaaɗe (biidi) keewɗe njiytaama toon. Ina jeyaa heen wiiduru Sorimalee e wiiduru Wocci. Gidimaka daɗaani e ɗuum, sibu biidi njiytaama Woynduyol e Tektaake. Nde yahnoo haa hedde feccere 1990, kooninkooɓe ɓaleeɓe puɗɗii nanngeede nder konu hee, ɓe mdummbaa e tuddule warngo (camp de concentrations) Inaal e Ajilaan e Jereyda, ɗo jojjanɗe aadee njaɓɓaa ; heewɓe e maɓɓe mbaraa. Kaaɗtudi majjum ko jamma 27-28 noowammbar 1990. Oon jamma, ngam mawninde jeytaare Muritani, koninkooɓe Muritani mbaɗi 28 soldaat ɓaleejo yargo, mbari ɗum en warngo bonngo. Sariya yaafuya ƴettaa e hitaande 1993 ngam haɗde ñaawoore warkoyeeɓe ɓee, e daɗndude ɗum en. Ɗuum hollitii wonde won yimɓe toowɓe e laamu nguu moddi e warngooji hee. Nii woni pooɗondire hakkunde leƴƴi to bannge politik goodnooɗe ko adii jeytaare, ɓeydii ŋeerde sabu kuutoragol leƴƴi e laawɗingol keertingol neɗɗaagal Arab.

Pooɗondiral laamu hakkunde leƴƴi to bannge politik reɓi haa naati e konu e doole kisal, hade mum yettaade, e hitaande 1989, denndaangal ɓesngu Muritani. Kankadi, fof yiyretee ko e mbaadi « ngenndiyankooɓe safalɓe » bannge, « tumarankooɓe » ɓaleeɓe, waɗtaaɓe senegaalnaaɓe, bannge goɗɗo oo ; tumarankooɓe fotɓe muumteede e leydi hee.

III. Jojjugol mahtaade Muritani e dow goonga, e mbaadi ɓooyoori

Feere amen ko feere huɓtondinnde. E nde waawi innireede « Mooɓondiral Mahtagol Muritani » (les États Généraux de la refondation en Mauritanie). Faandaare mayre ko yiytidde peeje gonooje ngooroondi potal nder renndo, e ɓiyleydaagu e ndimaagu aadee e ɗooftagol hakkeeji gorwori aadee, gardagol sariya, tiiɗtingol gootiɗingol Ngenndi, tawa gooto kala ina hormii heddiiɓe ɓee, e nanondirde e eɓɓaande renndo waawnde tiiɗtinde ngootaagu renndo e jam.

Ɗum noon ko nokku ɗo pecce gonɗe e leydi ndii kala njiytotoo koye mum en. Huunde ɗaɓɓunde kuutoragol peeje juumtuɗe, mbele hay gooto ina waasa yejjiteede, tawa ko e nder nuunɗal, tawa kala feere ƴettaande ina dagoo, peeje e wasiyaaji cakkitaaɗi kala ine teskee. Ɗum noon, ko idii fof : suɓaade e yuɓɓinde Mooɓondiral Mahtagol Muritani ngal ; toɗɗaade e hirjinde dente jonaaɗe potɗe tawtoreede ɗee ; hawrude e doosɗe ɗowirɗe golle mbele pooɗondire baawɗe feeñde heen kala, ina kaaɗa e juuɗe, haa yimɓe mbaawa yettinde ndee faandaare teddunde, daartiyankoore, so nanondirde e geɗe mawɗe potɗe yeewteteeɗe ɗee. E daawal ɗiɗmal ngal, lelnude doggol tiitooɗe jeewte baawɗe yeewteede, kam e toɓɓe potɗe yeewteede. Miijooji ɗi DHSM sakkitta (cakkitte), kam e wasiyaaji waɗata ɗii, ina peccitoo e dame 5 garooje ɗee :

1. Cakkitte baawɗe wonde ngooroondi Piɓondiral Jojjanɗe Gorwore waali-wuro en, jeyaaɓe e sosɓe Dowla Muritani keso oo.

Ɓesngu Muritani ina foti hollitoyde wonde ina haɓɓii e ɗeen piɓle, hono no waɗiraa e naatirɗe Doosɗe Leydi nii wonande Bayyinaango huuɓtodinngo Jojjanɗe aadee nde 10 desaambar 1948, e Piɓondiral Afrik wonande Jojjanɗe aadee e ɓesnguuji, nde 28 suwee 1981.

• E fawaade e deggondiral abajada, leƴƴi jeyaaɗi e leydi hee, kiisaaɗi ina njeyaa e cosɗi Dowla Muritani ko : Wambarankooɓe, Biidaan en, Haalpulaar en ; Hardaneeɓe ; Sooninkooɓe e Jolfuɓe.

• Denndaangal leƴƴi cosɗi Dowla Muritani ko bellitiiɗi, potɗi to bannge hakke e to bannge faayiida e ndimaagu. E ɗi njogii hakke e wuurde e deeƴre e hakke e kisal.

• Eɗi njogii hakke e waasde falteede, tee hay huunde waawaa dallinde njiimaandi gootol e majji dow keddiiɗi ɗii.

• Ɗii leƴƴi kala ina njogii hakke mo ruumtataa, mo teettotaako to bannge waawde tamde fiyakuuji heerorii.

• Eɗi njogii hakke e waasde waawneede saayde ender leñol goɗngol, walla « waawneede naattude », walla pusgol pinal majji.

• Eɗi njogii hakke heɓtinaneede ballal keeringal ɗi ngaddi e ngalu leydi hee, so keewal leƴƴi e pine cosɗe Ngenndi Muritani.

•Eɗi njogii hakke faamde e faameede e nder ɗemɗe majji, haa arti noon e nder njuɓɓudi laamu e ñaawoore nder Muritani.

• Ɓee waali-wuro en ina njogii hakke tawtoreede, e timmal, e nguurndam politik e faggudu e renndo e pinal nder Muritani.

• Denndaangal leƴƴi ɓeeɗoo Muritaninaaɓe, ina jogii hakke e peccitagol potngol ngaluuji ngenndi ndii, hakke fotndeede to bannge cellal e nehdi e jaŋde e heblo e golle e kumpital e geɗe kumpitirɗe e ƴellitgol ɗemɗe e pine majji, kam e daarti majji.

• Eɓe njogii hakke nde jaŋde e geɗe kumpital peeñninta, nder nuunɗal, aadaaji majji e daarti majji e muuyaaɗe majji.

• Eɗi njogii hakke heɓde denndaangal mbaadiiji jaŋde laamu, ko aldaa e paltoor gooto ; hakke e jaŋde worworde wonande sukaaɓe majji, e tuma nde njiylotoo gannde gidiiɗe, tawa janngintee ko e ɗemɗe ɗe sukaaɓe ɓee muuyni, rewrude e peeje juumtuɗe. Eɗi njogii hakke jogaade jaaynirɗe e nder ɗemɗe majji e heɓde denndaangal sifaaji jaayɗe, ko aldaa e paltoor gooto.

• Eɗi njogii hakke e jogaade e ƴellitde, haa caggal leydi majji, jotondire e gollondirde e yimɓe ɗi njiidi leñol walla goɗɗi, haa arti noon e geɗe diine e pinal e faggudu e renndo.

• Eɗi njogii hakke e jeytoreede no haanirta nii e lelnugol tuugnorɗe faggudu e renndo, haa teeŋti noon so tawii ko kañji poti yiilde ɗum en nder kominaaji majji walla mukaataaji majji maa wilaayaaji majji nder tuugnorgal bellitgol nokkuuji.

• Eɗi njogii hakke e diisneede e jeyeede no haanirta nii e kala mbayliigu jeyi leydi tawaangu ina hatojinaa, haa teeŋti noon e joopagol e lelnugol geɗe gardiiɗe, kam e peeje, wonande moƴƴingol leyɗe ndema ɗi ngaadorinoo gollaade. Ɗumɗoo ko mbele ina gaddoo laaɓal e jaamburaagal teskotoongal aadaaji to bannge jeyuuji leydi keeriiɗi, tawa kadi, e fawaade e sariya Lislaam, fiɓnde wiynde wonde « jeyi leydi ko guurnoowo ɗum » ina tabitinee. Feere fotnde huutoreede ko gollondiral e joom mum en ɓee, mbele peeje juumtuɗe ina ƴettee ngam lomtingol moƴƴol, nuunɗungol ; peeje deentorɗe batte goɗɗe ɗe ɗum waawi jibinde cakkee, tawa ko baawɗe bonnude sato walla faggudu maa renndo e pinal.

• Eɗi njogii hakke dañde peeje nuunɗuɗe ngam ñawndude luure e kareeli ɗi mbaawi dañdude e woɗɓe, hakke e ñawndugol jaawngol ɗeen luure maa kareeli. Eɗi njogii hakke e dañde ɗo ɗi ngullitii kala nde hakkeeji majji njaɓɓaa.

• Eɗi njogii hakke dottude hol ko foti wonde doŋngal yimɓe feewde e leñol heen fof.

2. Miijooji e wasiyaaji e kuule teskinɗe wonande gagga hardaneeɓe, gagga jibinannde jiyaaɓe nder leƴƴi ɓaleeji ; wonande kadi paltooraaji taweteeɗi e leƴƴi ɗii kala, hono paltoor feewde e won ɗeen kinɗe renndo lesɗinaaɗe, ko wayi no fitiram golleeɓe (wayluɓe, lawɓe, sakkeeɓe), kam e kinɗe awluɓe e wammbaaɓe (kinɗe awluɓe kala : yimooɓe, huutortooɓe kaɓirɗe gaaci).

Laamu ina foti heɓtinde haa laaɓta, haa aduna fof nana, geɗe bonɗe baɗeteeɗe hannde ɗee to bannge jiyɗingol e paltooraaji renndo guuraaɗi ɗii.

• Tabitinde kuule sariya jowitiiɗe e mumtugol njiyaagu e toppitagol kala wullitaango, ko aldaa e sarɗi, ɗoon e ɗoon, ummanoo ñaawde ɗum ko yaaccii, e darnde, haa nde porkireer felliti yettinde ɗum walla waasde yettinde ɗum ñaawoowo cunnotooɗo (juge d’instruction).

• Sariya oo ina foti timmitinireede dokkugol pelle daraniiɗe haɓaade ɗum ɗee, mbaawka wullitaade sibu mum en jeyeede e loraaɓe.

• Fawde kuugal sariya e kala jedduɗo golle njiyaagu sabu mum wonde warhoore aadeejo.

• Waɗde wiɗto jaambureewo, yaajngo, e nder leydi hee kala, ngam ɓetde ɗo njiyaagu tolnii e renndo hee, e anndude sifaa baɗe goɗɗe gabbitiiɗe heen. Pelle jooɗaniiɗe, walla daraniiɗe jiyɗinaaɓe ɓee, ina poti tawtoreede e jeyeede e ngoon wiɗto.

• Heblude polis kam e ñaawoore, mbele ina mbaawa huuɓnude ko fawii e mum en koo, ngardoo hare haɗoore duumagol njiyaagu kam e paltooraaji renndo donaaɗi e njuɓɓudi renndo ndaɗaandi.

• Hirjinde ardiiɓe diine kam e hoohooɓe aadoraaɓe, ngam softinde ɗum en e wallitde jikkuuji e golle jahooje e mumtude haa laaɓa baɗe njiyaagu.

• Humpitde loraaɓe ɓee, mbele aɓe ngannda hakkeeji maɓɓe, ɓe ndaranoo ɗum en.

• Hirjinde yimɓe leydi ndii kala, mbele ina ndaranoo muumtugol baɗe njiyaagu, mbaɗta ɗum e hoore geɗe potɗe daraneede.

• Waɗde feere mbele gollodiiɓe leydi men kala e nder winndere ndee, ina naatna e sarɗiiji dokkugol balle mum en « keɓgol njeñtudi tabitndi, ɓetotoondi nder hare baɗe njiyaagu », natta haaɗnude ɗii sarɗiiji e ɓamgol kuule ɓole, ɗe ngandu-ɗaa tabitintaake boom.

• Lelnude feere ngenndiire hare mumtugol baɗe njiyaagu wondude e tuugnorgal e eɓɓaade ciynugol.

• Reende e lomtinande e ɗoftude jiyɗinanooɓe haa keɓta neɗɗaagal mum en, coɗtoo e renndo hee. Ɗum fof noon ko mbele aɓe lomtinanee haa  timma, e nder nuunɗal.

• Laawɗinde waɗɗiinde ciftorgol (devoir de mémoire) wonande njiyaagu ngam siftinde yimɓe ɗee baɗe kaantoriɗɗe, mbele kala baɗe njiyaagu ina keɓa geɗal mum en nder defte janngirɗe kam e hakkillaaji yimɓe fof, e Ngenndi ndii fof.

• Sosde njuɓɓudi njaambureeri, ndi jiidaa e juɓɓule laamu goodɗe hannde ɗee. Ina foti jeyeede e ndiin njuɓɓudi : pelle renndo siwil (feccere), e fiilaaɓe (konseyeeji kominaaji e depiteeji) kam e jooɗaniiɓe laamu halfinaaɓe potal fartaŋŋeeji e hare luulndiinde paltooraaji, haa teeŋti noon e baɗe njiyaagu, yantude e kala ɓe paltoor yettinoo sabu tolno mum en nder renndo walla sabu mbaadi mum en, tirbii mum en, maa leñol mum en, walla ɓalli mum en (feccere heddiinde ndee).

• Hokkude ndiin njuɓɓudi kalfinaandi potal fartaŋŋeeji e haɓde e paltooraaji, yimɓe yonɓe e kaɓirɗe katojinaaɗe nder golle muumtugol baɗe njiyaagu e baɗe jokkiiɗe e mum.

• Hitaande kala saaktude ciimtol horo e ɓeto ko heɓaa e hare muumtugol baɗe njiyaagu.

• Jinngande jiyɗinanooɓe walla faltanooɓe sabu jibinannde. Ɗum ko gaa-gaa potal fartaŋŋeeji.

• Newnude binnditagol Muritaninaaɓe kala e nder karnal Nokku ngenndiijo toppitiiɗo yimɓe e kaayitaaji kisnaaɗi, haa arti noon e hardaneeɓe, sikkaaɓe ko kam en ɓuri famɗude ko mbinnditaa, kam en fof e ɓurde heewde e leydi ndii.

• Sompude nokkuuji nehdi e jaŋde gardinaaɗi e nder deebayuuji e leeɗe ɗo baasal ɓuri heewde, kam e kebbe kuufɗe gure teeru, tawa ina ndokkaa kaɓirɗe e ngalu katojinaangu, e huufde ɗum en to bannge rewindo karallaagal jaŋde juumtungal, e ɓeto e coftingol jannginooɓe e janngooɓe e jiknaaɓe almudɓe, rewrude e dokkugol bursi e cosgol enternaa e kantinaaji duɗe…

• Huufde jiyɗinanooɓe, haa arti noon e sukaaɓe, reena ɗum en e kuutoragol to bannge faggudu walla kala golle coomɗe tanaa, maa baawɗe telɓinde nehdi mum en walla ñawnude ɗum en, jugginde ƴellitaare terɗe mum en, maa hakkillaaji mum en, maa telɓinde ɗum en to bannge diine e hakilantaagal e renndo, tawa noon ina teskoo farweende maɓɓe heeriinde e kimmugol jaŋde ngam seerndude ɓe e yowitaare.

3. Cakkitte e wasiyaaji e kuule taƴondiral (kuule taƴondirooje e ko woodnoo) wonande gagga keertingol

• Waylude tippudi nehdi e jaŋde, woɗɗitina ndi politik, mbele ekkol Muritani ina wona ekkol ñiɓiiɗo e nokku mum to bannge renndo e faggudu e pinal. O wona ekkol kebloowo ɓiyleydi janngo, potɗo jogaade mbaadi ndiwtundi leñol ngam ustude gallugol e goppugol jaŋde, rewrude e guurtingol peeje jannginirɗe to bannge laabi e mbaadiiji.

• Tabitinde e ƴellitde jaŋde tuugiinde e ɗemɗe muuynaaɗe sabu mum en wonde codorgol keɓtinangol to bannge karallaagal jaŋde, sibu ko ɗemɗe ɗe sukaaɓe mbaawi ko adii na naata ekkol, ballitooje cukalel faggaade gannde gila law.

• Huutoraade jaŋde ɗemɗe muuynaaɗe ɗee e faamamuya e jaŋde ɗemngal Arab e Farayse ngam newnude paamondiral nder duɗe hee, kam e newnude paggagol ganndal, sibu jeddi naattii woodde wonde, cukalel so fuɗɗoriima jaŋde e ɗemngal ngal waawaa no feewi, ɗuum ina bonna jaŋde mum, haɗa ɗum yahrude yeeso.

• Hokkude daɗndugol ngaluuji pinal e keewal ɗemɗe, faayiida, rewrude e guurtingol Duɗal Ɗemɗe Ngenndiije, ngam kadi ƴellitde gostondiral e kaaldigal hakkunde leƴƴi ; ɗum fof noon fawaade e hakke faggaade ganndal e hakke neheede e janngineede, kam e hakke jogaade sifaa keeriiɗo mo teettotaako.

• Newnude binnditagol Muritaninaaɓe kala e nder karnal Nokku ngenndiijo toppitiiɗo yimɓe e kaayitaaji kisnaaɗi, haa arti noon e ɓaleeɓe Muritani, tawi ina dartini kaljingol ngol rewaani laawol ɓe kaljintee ngol, kam e koyeera ɓe koynatee mbele aɓe mbaasa artude winnditaade. Ɗum ɗoon noon ina foti yahdude e juɓɓitingol goomuuji gardiiɗi binnditagol ngol e nder leydi hee kala, mbele leñol kala ina jeyee e goomuuji hee kala.

• Dartinde fuuntiiji e ɗawgol ɓaleeɓe e ekkolaaji militeer Nuwaasoot (Liisee e ekkol Politeknik Toowɗo) e Ekkol Konuuji Attaar (EMIA) kam e Ekkol Ngenndiijo Njuɓɓudi (ENAJM).

• Fotndude jeyegol Muritani e bannge Arab oo kam e jeyegol mum e bannge Afrik oo. Ɗum woni fotndude jeyegol mum e Magreb rewrude e Dental Magreb Arab, yantude e senngo Arab rewrude e Dental Aarabeeɓe (Ligue Arabe) e jeyegol mum e diiwaan Afrik Hirnaange oo, woni CEDEAO kam e Afrik, rewrude e Dental Afrik. OMVS kañum foti hiisoreede tan ko denndingol doole e leyɗe keediiɗe, ngam huutoraade ngalu maayo Senegaal.

4. Cakkitte e wasiyaaji e kuule taƴondiral ko faati e ndonaandi aadeeri (Passif humanitaire).

En mbaawaa waasde rewrude e Goomu Kaaldigal, Goonga, Ñaawoore, Ciftorgol, e Beldital, feere jarribaande e leyɗeele keewɗe ngam wallitde diwtude caɗeele teeŋtuɗe, e sellinde ñawannde jaɓɓugol ɓurtungol jojjanɗe aadee baɗnongol e leydi men. Nguun goomu maa addan en :• Yaltinde goonga e anndude tigi rigi bone baɗnooɗe ɗee ;

• Anndude waɗnooɓe bone ɓee ;

• Waɗde feere haa ɓe nimsa ;

• Darnude heɗɗooji to bannge sariya hoto ko wayi noon waɗtude ;

• Teeŋtinde, e mbaadi kuuɓtodinndi, jojjogol hokkitde loranooɓe ɓee neɗɗaagu e ndimaagu mum en ;

• Ƴettude kuulal sariya wonande waɗɗiinde ciftorgol wonande « ndonaandi aadeeri ». Ɗumɗoo ko huunde teeŋtunde ngam haɗde bone waɗtude e haɓde e majjere, e jejji e kutuya. Ɗum foti rewrude ko e ciftingol musiiba kewnooɗo oo, e yeeso nehde yimɓe ɓee, rewrude e naatnugol geɗe ɗee e defte jaŋde ekkol kam e hakillaaji yimɓe fof e ngenndi ndii kala.

• Ittude kala baɗnooɗo bone e golle laamu ;

• Yiylaade e heɓde yaafuya potɗo yuumtude e beldital. Feere laamu nguu rewi haa jooni ndee, haa wiyi ooɗoo doosiyee uddaama, wonaa feere yuumtunde wonande ko ɓuri heewde e pelle loranooɓe daɗɓe, walla ronooɓe ɗum en ɓee. Ko ɗum tagi ndeen feere waawaa hiiseede e feere beldital ngal yimɓe fof teeɗanii ngal.

• Himme majjum ina mawni no feewi wonande ngenndi ndii, haa ko en mbaawaa jaɓde won ɗeen peeje dagnirɗe ñawndugol gagga ndonaandi aadeeri ɗe ardiiɓe leydi ndii tan njiɗi heñoraade e waawnude yimɓe. Ɓe etiima rokkude feere maɓɓe mbaadi nanondiraandi, rewrude e fiiltomooltooji e njeenaari, e ballal taƴel ngel yonaani loraaɓe daɗɓe ɓee, kam e ronooɓe ɓee.

Yimɓe fof ina nganndi yaafuya e beldital mbaawaa dañeede ko idii nde won ɗeen geɗe ndañantee jaabawol, geɗe ɗe ñawndaaka haa hannde e Muritani. Hol ko yaafetee e hol yaafeteeɓe ? Mbele sikkaaɓe na njeyaa e waɗboniiɓe ɓee naamndiima yaafuya ? Mbele won ɗo hunaa ko wayi nii wontaa waɗtu ?

5. Cakkitte e wasiyaaji e kuule taƴondiral paatuɗe e potnditgol juɓɓule demokaraasiije, e bellitgol nokkuuji e peccugol laamu hakkunde leƴƴi ɗii. Ɗum firti ko yeewtude ngam ƴeewde mbele en potaani dottude peccugol laamu teskotoongol leƴƴi leydi ndii kala, laawɗina ɗum, hono no leyɗe keewɗe mbaɗi nii. Ɗum ko gaagaa peccitagol mbaawka ɓurngol moƴƴude hakkunde juɓɓule demokaraasi ɗee, kam e mbayliigu luggu e taƴtagol keeri e bellitgol nokkuuji ngam reenaade laamaandi mbonndi e paltooraaji ɗi njoofataa.

E Muritani, e ko tabiti, ndimaagu mbaawka ñaawoore kam e ceertugol mbaawka ciynoowa e mbaawka carɗinoowa njettaaki ɗo poti yettaade e nder Dowla nuunɗal e demokaraasi. E nder ɗii mbaawkaaji tati, ko mbaawka ñaawoore ɓuri himmude ngam mahgol Dowla ngenndiijo. Maa ka rimɗa, ka seerta e mbaawka ciynoowa e carɗinoowa tan, nde ka waawa wonde mbaawka nuunɗuka nder ciynugol Sariya.

Nii woni, nguu ndimaagu ñaawoore ina foti wonde ngoƴa gadano mahooɓe leydi ndii. Ko ŋakkeende ndimaagu e hattan ñaawoore haɗi nde waawde, e yeru, maslude hakkunde mbaawkaaji goɗɗi ɗii, ko ɗuum haɗi ka waawde faddaade fenaande e tooñannge laamu ; ko ɗum woni sabaabu laamuuji hoorameeji e jaɓɓugol jojjanɗe aadee e nder leydi men.

Ko ɗooftagol ñaawoore ndee hinnde njuɓɓudi laamu lawakeere, addani nde wonde ñaawoore edda ɓalndu, ñaawoore leñol e tirbiiji e lanndaaji. Ciimtol Fedde Ngenndiije dentuɗe, jowitiingol e mbaadiiji kesi añamnguraagu (rasisma) e paltoor leƴƴi e ooyre e ŋakkeende muñal e nder Muritani, nde nelaaɗo maɓɓe biyeteeɗo Mutana Ruteere yillii Nuwaasoot e Rooso e Kayhayɗi, no siforii ñaawoore leydi ndii ina laaɓti to oon bannge.

Ciimtol ngol ina wasiyii laamu Muritani « nde ƴettata kuule teeŋtuɗe, waasaa muñande hay huunde baasgol hulde waɗde bone, ngam yaawnude potal nder renndo Muritani leƴƴi-leƴƴinngo, tuugiingo e kormagol jojjanɗe aadee wonande yimɓe fof ». Ndimaagu e mbaawka e nuunɗal ñaawoore, kam e peewnitgol binndol mum nder sariya haa ɓeydoo laaɓtude, laatotaako gaa-gaa mbayliigu luggu tippudi ñaawoore. E ngoon yeeso, min mbasiyoo :

• Rokkude tippudi ñaawoore ndii yimɓe heblaaɓe yonɓe kam e ngalu njonngu.

• Rokkude tippudi ñaawoore ndimaagu to bannge njuɓɓudi e ngalu.

• Haɓde e geɗe goɗɗe kam e mbaawnoraaji naattude e geɗe ñaawoore.

• Ɗooftaade laŋ fiɓnde deŋgol (baasgol dirtineede, fektee nokku goɗɗo) wonande gollotooɓe e ñaawoore.

• Jiilgol moƴƴol kariyeer gollotooɓe e ñaawoore, haa teeŋti noon to bannge pektugol.

• Ƴettugol gollotooɓe e ñaawoore tuugingol e doosɗe teeŋtuɗe kaandugol e kattangol.

• Ɓeydaare gollotooɓe e ñaawoore tuugiinde tan e kaandugol e kattangol.

• Njoɓdi moƴƴiri ndi ustetaake wonande gollooɓe e ñaawoore.

• Waylude Diiso Toowngo Ñaawoore, njuɓɓudi kalfinaandi horo e toɗɗagol e pawgol kuuge dow sarɗooɓe, tawa wonata heen ko sarɗooɓe toppitiiɓe ñaawde (magistrats du siège) e sarɗooɓe toppitiiɓe tabitingol sariya (magistrats du parquet) kam e hoohooɓe hattanɓe ɓe ngonaa sarɗooɓe, tawa toɗɗii ɗum en ko hoohooɓe jaambureeɓe, tawa noon ina wondi e sarɗi, so suudu sarɗi jaɓde ɓe. Gardiiɗo Diiso ngoo waawataa hankadi wonde hooreejo leydi walla kalifu ñaawoore, kono ko neɗɗo mo denndaangal terɗe Diiso ngoo njaɓi, jeyaaɗo e hoohooɓe ɓe ngonaa sarɗooɓe ɓee.

• Ngam yimɓe fof mbaawaa fotde e Ñaawoore, Ñawoore ndee kadi seerta e mbaadi mbonndi ñaawoore leñol e lannda. Ittude ko nde waɗtaa ñaawoore Arab koo tan, e hirjinde jeyegol hardaneeɓe e ɓaleeɓe Muritani e tippudi ñaawoore hee, ɓe ngidoo ƴetteede e doge ENAJM garooje.

• Nguu mbayliigu maa addan ñaawoore hisde e kuutoragol ngam haɓde e woɗɓe, walla to bannge piggal politik walla polis maa konu ; nde hisa e jaawondireede e politik e kuutoragol laamu luulndingol fiɓnde Dowla sariya, kuutoragol dallinirteengol deeƴre renndo e kisal Dowla walla, ko wattindii koo, jedditagol diine walla bakkodingol.

Caggal waɗɗiinde ndimaagu e nuunɗal, ko waɗɗiinde ceerndugol hakkunde mbaawka ciynoowa e carɗinoowa. Min mbasiyii ko mbayliigu luggu jotondire hakkunde ɗiiɗoo mbaawkaaji, mbele aɗi mbaawaa seertude, tawa heen mbaawka kala ina jogoo hattan waawde reende keddiika kaa. Nii woni :

• Tabitingol kujjinagol guwarnama yeeso parlemaa, maa addan mbaawka carɗinoowa waawde horde guwarnama, e luulndaade politik mbaawka ciynoowa, sibu ina waawi liɓde ɗum rewrude e ɗaɓɓaande goppugol golle (motion de censure) walla caggal nde guwarnama ɗaɓɓi ɗum rewrude e ɗaɓɓaande hoolaare (question de confiance).

• Tabitingol hoolaare Hooreejo leydi wonande won ɗiin mbaawkaaji ɗi o heerorii, gaa gaa mbaawkaaji guwarnama, maa waaw rewrude e mbaawka carɗinoowa njogiika hattan ittude mo.

• Tabitingol hakke mo hooreejo leydi rokkaa waawde yedditaade mbaawka carɗinoowa e fusde asaambele ngenndi, maa addan ɓesngu rokkiteede mbaawka mum ñaawde hakkunde ɗiiɗoo mbaawkaaji ɗiɗi.

• Mbaawka ciynoowo ina jogii hakke sahtaade eɓɓaaɗe sariya ɗe asaambele sakkitta, yantude e hakke yettinde ɗum eɓɓaaɗe sariya ɗe eɓɓi.

• Mbaawka carɗinoowa ina jogii hakke fuɗɗude sariyaaji, rewrude e cakkitgol sariyaaji, yantude e hakke sahtaade eɓɓaaɗe sariya ɗe guwarnama eɓɓata.

• Mbaawka carɗinoowa ina jaɓa nanondire ɗe mbaawka ciynoowa haaldaa, siifi.

• Mbaawka carɗinoowa maa artire, haaɗtinee e asaambele ngenndi, sibu senaa gollotoo ko golle asaambele, ɗum noon senaa ko ko jolti. A min njoganii ɗum dalillaaji nay : daliilu daartol oo ko nde laamu ummii e Laamaandi neɗɗo (Roi), laamu ngonnoongu e juuɗe Laamɗo e Rimɓe e ɓesngu, wonti Rippoobilik, mbaawka ciynoowa kam ne lomtii Laamɗo (Roi), mbaawka ɓesngu tuugii ko e Asaambele, mbaawka Rimɓe tuugii e Senaa. Ndaa so wiyaama rimɓe, ɗum noddii lawakaagu, tee dowla Muritani keso oo ina foti wallitde ndimaagu tabitngu jiyaaɓe e jibinannde jiyaaɓe kam e kinɗe renndo lesɗinaaɗe, ngam wallitde mbayliigu njuɓɓudi laamu lawakeeri hannde ndii, mbele wonta tippudi demokaraasi. Hujja to bannge nuunɗal demokaraasi ngal, ko senaa ƴoogaani dagagol mum e ɓesngu, kono ko e wootooɓe mawɓe, sibu woote senaa ko woote ɗe ngonaa ŋaddet.

• Eɗen teskoo boom, e woote senaa kala, coodgu daaɗe konseyeeji ɓeydoto. Hujja deentagol deftagol mbaawka carɗinoowa mbaawka ciynoowa oo ne ko : e sahaa mo mbaawka carɗinoowa woni cuuɗi ɗiɗi, so mbaawka ciynoowa heɓii senaa tan, ina waawi wappaade yiɗde ɓesngu, rewra e senaa. Hujja battano oo ko hujja faggudu. Jogaade senaa ina ɗaɓɓi ngalu keewngu. E miijo amen ko bonnude jawdi.

• Alaa e sago mbaawka ciynoowa kaa feccitee e potal, hakkunde hooreejo leydi, jogiiɗo mbaawka kaa fof, e guwarnama. Mawɗo hilifaaɓe (premier ministre) ina foti wonde mawɗo guwarnama tigi rigi ; o yowitii ko e asaambele ngenndi ; kanko e hilifaaɓe heddiiɓe ɓee, ko ɓe njuɓɓudi bannge, ndi jiidaa e hooreejo leydi jogiiɗo kam ne mbaawkaaji mum e wellitaare mum heeriinde.

Ɓayri en cakkitii ittugol senaa, eɗen cakkita kadi cosgol gollal Cukko Hooreejo leydi. Kanko e hooreejo leydi poti wondude e doggol gootol woote, mbele so tawii Hooreejo leydi oo heɓaaki, omo lomtoo ɗum. Ɗuum maa addan en kadi waawde heƴnude leƴƴi men ɗii fof e hoore laamu nguu.

Ɗeeɗoo potnditte maa ngaddan mbaawkaaji ɗii fof ƴellitde kattanɗe mum en maslahaa, ngam ñawndude kirisaaji njuɓɓudi. So ɗum yahdinaama e mbayliigu doole kisal e konu, ɗee geɗe maa ittu kuudetaaji.

Guwaranama oo, e gardagol Hooreejo hilifaaɓe mo darnde mum e wellitaare mum cemmbinaa, maa wontu tergal jokkondiroowal mbaawka ciynoowa e mbaawka carɗinoowa, hoybina ceertugol mbaawkaaji ngol, sibu mum yowitaade e asaambele e hooreejo leydi kala. Asaambele maa waaw wonde jokkorgal, so parlemaa luurdii e persidaa.

Eɗen cikki ina moƴƴi ɓeyden e ɗeeɗoo cakkitte wonande peccitagol laamu, coftingol e tiiɗtingol wellitaare nokkuuji fuɗɗanoonde e hitaande 1986 rewrude e cosgol kominaaji, hay so tawii nde boosii law. Laamu weeɗa dente nokkuuji ɗee, woni kominaaji e mukaataaji e wilaayaaji, huunde e mbaawkaaji mum e kattanɗe mum.

Nii woni dente nokkuuji ɗee njogoo konseyeeji toɗɗaaɗi, ɗe njogoo neɗɗaagu to bannge njuɓɓudi e sariya. Ɗe mbellitee to bannge ngalu mbele aɗe mbaawa yiilde koye majje, ɗe njogoo ndimaagu to bannge njuɓɓudi kam e mbaawkaaji tabitɗi tuugiiɗi e laawol to bannge ƴellitaare faggudu e cellal e nehdi e jaŋde e pinal, nder Rippoobilik dentuɗo mo feccotaako goodɗo oo, kalfinaaɗo horde dewgol laawol peeje ɗe mbaawka nokku kaa ƴettata e nder ɗiin fannuuji, tawa noon mbaawka carɗinoowa e ciinoowa e ñaawoowa naataani heen.

Dente nokkuuje ɗee maa njokku e yowitaade e laamu nehaande nguu wonande geɗe paatuɗe e ndimaagu, ko nanndi e geɗe caggal leydi, ndeenka leydi e kaalis …

Faandaare bellitgol ngol ko jerondiral mbaawkaaji ɓurngal moƴƴude e denndaangal leydi ndii tawa ina ɓallina ɓiɗɓe leydi ndii ƴettugol kuule e nokkuuji ɗo tabitintee ɗoo, ina wallita tabitingol demokaraasi ɓalliiɗo yimɓe, kono kadi ina ƴellita kellifuya e horo ɓiyleydiiwo dow ngardiigu nokkuyeewu, rewrude e kalfingol nokkuuji ɗii huunde e mbaawkaaji laamu.

Ngolɗoo bellitgol njuɓɓudi laamu ina waɗi ɓural, so wallitde toppitaade geɗe keewɗe, ceertuɗe, nder ngonkaaji ɗi kala dental nokkuwal heerorii, nder jokkorɗe goodɗe e tolnooji ɗii kala, gila to tolno ngenndi haa e wilaayaaji e mukaataaji e kominaaji e hakkunde kominaaji ; rokka ɗum en safaruuji ɓurɗi yahdude e ngonka mum en. Bellitgol puɗɗanoongol e leydi men ndii yaawii hollude en wonde yonaani, tee teddeendi renndo e politik teppii ɗum, haa wonti ko woni hannde koo, so waasde wonde bellitgol.

Kominaaji ɗii ina kaaɗi tawo ɗo jaɓi, sibu nokkuuji keewɗi e leydi ndii, ɗo yimɓe yonɓe nguuri, ngalaa tawo kominaaji.

Kominaaji goodɗi ɗii ina ŋakkiraa yimɓe gollotooɓe e ngalu no feewi. Ɗuum yanti e peccitagol ngol moƴƴaani ngaluuji buur hakkunde Dowla oo e dente nokkuuje ɗee ; fof yiiletee ko e nokku gooto, ɗo ardorde toppitiinde gollotooɓe e nokkuuji hee, wondude e ŋakkeende kattanɗe njuɓɓudi ndi yowitaaki, haa teeŋti noon to bannge ƴettugol hoolaaɓe kuuɓe ɓe laamu nehaande nguu toɗɗotoo.

Haa e oo ñalawma, ministeer jiimɗo nokkuuji ɗii ina reɗɗi bellitgol ngol, ina darii e ittude bellitgol njuɓɓudi laamu ngonndi e nokkuuji ɗii, ellee yiɗi ko haɗde ɗuum. Haa hannde silsil bellitgol diiwanuuji kaalanoongol ko ɓooyi ngol siynaaka, ko noon kadi wonande bellitgol mukaataaji ngol. A min cakkitta geɗe garooje ɗee wonande mbaawkaaji dente nokkuuje ɗee potata rokkeede :

Ƴellitgol faggudu e renndo e pinal e peewnugol nokkuuji ɗii.

• Cosgol, mahgol, peewnugol, toppitagol, gollingol, baɗgol kaake e jiilgol nokkuuji toppitiiɗi laaɓal e jolngo kam e ekkolaaji buur e mahaaɗe pinal e coftal ɓalli, e nder nokkuuji ɗii (kominaaji, mukaataaji walla wilaayaaji).

• Juɓɓingol e toppitagol politikaaji koɗki e koɗorɗe kakindiiɗe e wuraagu e peewnugol nokku e ƴellitaare duumiinde kam e nokku nguurndam.

• Laɓɓingol sato, gaddugol  diƴƴe e kuuraa.

• Ittugol e naftoragol mbalitaaji kam e ndeenka e moƴƴingol sato, ha arti noon e haɓde e posnugol weeyo.

Ngam joofnude tawa ina faccira seeɗa fannuuji goɗɗi jowitiiɗi e taƴgol keeri nokkuuji ɗii e peccugol e majji mbaawka, amin cakkita geɗe garooje ɗee :

• Taƴgol keeri nokkuuji ɗii ɓurngol moƴƴude wonande njuɓɓudi nokkuuji ɗii kam e njuɓɓudi nehaandi ndii, tuugiindi e geɗe laaɓtuɗe (keeweendi yimɓe, ko nokku oo heerorii).

• Nomgol nuunɗungol ardiiɓe njuɓɓudi (Waali, Haakem, sarɗooɓe, halfinaaɓe kisal) tawa ina teskoo geɗe maantinɗe mbaaɗe no ɗowgol moƴƴol golle halfinaa, ngenndiyankaagal, kattanɗe. Harminde peccitagol poostooji laamu tuugingol e ƴele leƴƴi, tirbii, diiwaan, walla galle goodngol hannde ngol.

• Wonande toɗɗagol jooɗantooɓe leydi men to leyɗe goɗɗe, teskaade mbaadi leƴƴi-leƴƴinndi leydi men Muritani.  Semmbinde peeñningol mbaadi leƴƴi-leƴƴinndi Muritani e nder misiyoŋaaji dipolomasi, tawa ina noma heen ɓaleeɓe e hardaneeɓe.

• Semmbinde nomgol rewɓe ɓaleeɓe e hardaneeɓe, no rewɓe safalɓe nomretee nii, e nokkuuji hee kala. Wonande fannuuji ngalu e kaalis, feccitaade, peccitagol potngol, ngaluuji leydi ndii, tawa ina waɗta no moƴƴi hakkille e yimɓe joñaaɓe ko ɓooyi, yuɓɓitina tippule bankeeji ngam wallitde, e tolnooji hee kala, compugol e kuuɓtodingol ñamaale, mawɗe e tokoose, ngam ustude baasal e mumtude mbaadiiji kesi jiyɗingol yimɓe kam e ɗawgol leƴƴi e ngalu leydi ndii.

• Nguuɗoo mbayliigu luggu senngo faggudu e kaalis, rewrata kadi ko e booñ ballitoowo golle ƴellitaare faggudu ngam duusde to bannge kaalis, e ƴaañde eɓɓaaɗe jogiiɗe nafoore faggudu, kam e pelle e dente e gollorɗe tokoose, haa teeŋti noon wonande senngo ndema.

• Leñol sooninkooɓe e sifaa kuuɓtodinɗo, haa teeŋti kadi e sooninkooɓe Muritani, ina seedtanaa, e winndere hee kala, faayidaagal e yarlitaare e kaɓɓagol e ngenndi mum, kam e nuunɗal mum, e jikkuuji moƴƴi.

Hannde, ngol naamnii tan ko geɗal maggol, woni palaas ngol haandi, sabu maggol jeyeede jeyegol timmungol e ngenndi Muritani. Ɗum noon, e ngol teeɗanii jeytoreede e nguurndam ngenndi men, e tolnooji hee kala, ɗoon ɗo ngol jeyaa e dariiɓe ngam waɗtude Muritani nokku jam e deeƴre e koɗdigal renndo moƴƴal ngal ngenndiyankooɓe ɓee kala koyɗata.

Tonngol :

Kirisaaji ɓeydotooɗi ñalnde fof ɗii, kam en fof e reggondirdee bonnude ngootaagu ngenndi ndii, paani en e pusgu baŋ-yoo-baŋ, jogorɗi bonnande leƴƴi leydi ndii kala ; gaa gaa jiyle daɓɓe gartirooje geɗe ɗee fof e luural hakkunde safalɓe e ɓaleeɓe, ɗo warkoyeeɓe ɓee njiɗi uddude en, won miijooji daɓɓi jowitiiɗi e mahngo ngenndi njokki e woodde, jedduɗi gagga njiyaagu e koɗdigal hakkunde leƴƴi, jondikiniiɗi e fuuntirde yimɓe meewtankon, calikon haa yoori kos umminde kaaldigal nuunɗungal. Ndaa noon, ko ngaal kaaldigal tan waawi addande en faamondirde baŋ-yoo-baŋ e caɗeele ɗe ngenndi men wondi hannde ɗee, kam e safaruuji moƴƴi duumotooɗi potɗi siyneede.

DHSM ina ɗaɓɓi lelnugol piɓondiral cosgol ngenndi Muritani kesiri ngam mahde Dowla-Ngenndi goonganteejo, rewrude e dimɗingol lanndaaji renndo lesɗinaaɗi, e potal renndo kam e potal to bannge hakkeeji e fartaŋŋeeji, enen fof e seertude ngonka renndo, gaa gaa leƴƴi men, e tirbiiji men, ngam renndude ɓiyleydaagu tuugiingu e doosɗe Rippoobilik, kam e doosɗe Dowla nuunɗal e demokaraasi, renndude wellitaare, e nuunɗal, e beldital ɓiyngu yummaagu e ƴellitaare to renndo e faagudu.

Leydi men ina hatojini e nde ɓiɗɓe mum mbaawata waylude jiyle mum en, cuusa sakkitde peeje nuunɗal, woni peeje ɓooyooje, so renndude en battane. Ɓe lelna tuugnorgal eɓɓaande renndo ngam artirde hoolaare hakkunde yimɓe haa natta hulondirde e reentondirde, Muritaninaaɓe natta añondirde, ɓe ceegoo yimɓe jogiiɓe miijooji bonɗi, saliiɓe seertude e jiyle mum en daɗaaɗe, ngam yiɗde jokkude heɓde ɓure ɗe kaandaani, ɗe ngaaɓnotaako so wonaa e duumagol njiimaandi tippudi laamu hannde nguu.

Demokaraasi firti ko reende farwuɓe tawo, ko reende waasɓe, ɗawaaɓe e ɓiɗtaaɓe, ɓe nganndu-ɗaa ko kam en ngoni ɓurɓe heewde, ɓe daaɗe mum en nanetaake, gaa-gaa guri ɓalli mum en e leƴƴi mum en e tirbiiji mum en.

A min njiɗi renndude e ɓiɗɓe leydi ndii kala miijooji luggi ameriknaajo, palestiinnaajo biyeteeɗo Edward SAID, porfeseer coñce jerondiraaɗe (Littérature comparée) to duɗal jaaɓi-haaɗtirde Kulummbiya to New York. O yuurnittonoo ko miijanteendi caggal-koloñaal, jowitiingal e ceertugol pine, miijanteendi njahdundi e ngonka leydi men, so en njiɗaa Muritani wona keeri leydi tan, wona leydi ndi alaa miijo arngo dow leƴƴi walla banngambanngaagu, tawa yaltataa e hakillaaji men wonde, ngootaagu ngenndi ko huunde mettunde yettaade, nde heɓotaako abada, kono ko huunde teeɗanteende, fotnde teeɗaneede e kala sahaa : « hakkille loskoowo jaɓataa waawneede naattude nder lasal ngam haɓoyde e gaño carɗinaaɗo walla goɗɗo. Eɗen poti waɗtude hakkille e gollodaade ko juuti pine ɓooyduɗe, luɓondirooje, naatnaattondirɗe haa e tolno mo faamamuyaaji tokoosi, ɗi ngoodaani, mbaawaa yettaade. Kono ndii mbaadi jiyrugol geɗe ina ɗaɓɓi wiɗtooji juutɗi ɗi keñoraaka, loskitooji, guurɗi e goongɗingol goodal hakillaaji mettuɗi jaɓnude wonde, aduna oo tuugii tan ko e hannde, aduna ko waɗee waɗtoo. Neɗɗo lonnginte yiɗde aadee tan. Wuurnata ndeen yiɗde kadi ko miijo heeriingo, wonaa sikkeeji walla ɗooftagol laamu. Binndol foti jaggireede ko no paggaaɗe keddotooɗe e daartol. Miɗo waawi wiyde nii ko kañum tan woni heɗɗaawo wattano reenoowo en e yoorɓerndaagu e fenaande wayloore mbaadi daartol winndere ndee ».

Ko noon ne kadi min mbaɗtirta e jeyi amen, min ɗaɓɓa e kala ɓiyleydi nde waɗata hono noon, duwaawu moƴƴinoowo jikke, baawdo jaaɓeede, umiiɗo e kuɗol gooto e jaaynooɓe men lolluɗo, cuusɗo, hono Abdullaay Siree Bah, tuma mawningol hitaande capanɗe joyaɓiire jeytaare leydi men, nde waɗi winndannde tiitoriinde « Le pays de nos rêves » (No njiɗ-ɗen leydi men waya) : « Miɗo anndi noon, duuminooɓe e neema kala coftantaa waylo waylo mo ngummani-ɗen o; hooram hooraagu ɓooy falaade yiɗde men nuunɗal renndo ; maa jingere e heedi heeda ɓooy haɗde ɓiyngu yummaagu hakkunde ɓiɗɓe Muritani ; maa miijooji leñam-leñaagu e keeriiɗi gila hanki, ɓooy haɗde mahngo janngo men denndaaɗo oo.

So yiɗii ! Ɓe ɓesngu am ɓee ɓuraani, njaasaani worɓe e rewɓe winndere ndee. Kono aɓe njogii ɓural mawngal ngal ɓetotaako, ko kamɓe ngoni ɓe am. Etee ko e dental – kamɓe nder am, miin nder maɓɓe – min mahroyta, tuufeere tuufeere, wondude e muñal e pellital, leydi min koyɗata ndii. »

Diiso Hoohooɓe Soninkooɓe Muritani (DHSM)

Ñalnde 1 ut 2014

Fulo : Bookara Aamadu Bah