Ngonka ɗemɗe nder leydi Mali

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Kartal Mali

Mali woni ko e Afrik hirnaange. Heedi ndi rewo ko Alaseri, bannge fuɗnaange ko Niiseer e Burkinaa, bannge worgo ko Koddiwaar e Gine, bannge hirnaange ko Senegaal e Muritani. Mali ko leydi njaajndi sibu wertallo mayri ko 1,2 miliyoŋ km2 (Almaañ e Farayse e Angalteer e Belsik e Pays-Bas so ndenndinaama). Yolnde hakkunde rewo oo e worgo ngoo ko 1 600 km. Ndi waɗi ko diiwanuuji 8, ɗiin ngoni : Tummbuktu, Gaawo, Mopti, Kaay, Kulikoro, Sikaaso, Segu, yanti e laamorgo hee, hono Bamako.

Mali woni ko e Afrik hirnaange. Heedi ndi rewo ko Alaseri, bannge fuɗnaange ko Niiseer e Burkinaa, bannge worgo ko Koddiwaar e Gine, bannge hirnaange ko Senegaal e Muritani. Mali ko leydi njaajndi sibu wertallo mayri ko 1,2 miliyoŋ km2 (Almaañ e Farayse e Angalteer e Belsik e Pays-Bas so ndenndinaama). Yolnde hakkunde rewo oo e worgo ngoo ko 1 600 km. Ndi waɗi ko diiwanuuji 8, ɗiin ngoni : Tummbuktu, Gaawo, Mopti, Kaay, Kulikoro, Sikaaso, Segu, yanti e laamorgo hee, hono Bamako. Ndi jeyaa ko leyɗe burɗe waasde e winndere ndee. Fotde 13,5 miliyoŋ aadee ina nguuri e mayri, tawi heen 9/10 (cappaɓe jeenay) ko e worgo mayri. Fotde 90% e maɓɓe ko juulɓe.

E hitaande 2005, won wiyɓe ko nii leƴƴi mayri peccitorinoo : 40% manndeŋ en (ko ɓuri heewde heen ko bambara en), 13,9% fulɓe, 9% senufoo en, 8,8% soninkooɓe, 8% dogoo en, 7,2% sonngaay en, 6,6% Julaa en, 2,4% Bwaba en, 1,7% tuwaareg en, 1,2% safalɓe. Fulɓe ɓee ɓuri hoɗde ko e diiwaan Maasina oo (Kayes).

Kartal MaliMali ina waɗi ko ina tonoo e capanɗe tati (30) ɗemngal, tawi ko fotde 10 heen tan njogii ko ɓuri 100 000 kaaloowo. Ɗum noon, ɗemɗe keddiiɗe ɗee kala, e tuugnaade e binndanɗe men ɓennuɗe ɗee, ko ɗemɗe parwuɗe. Fotde 17% e malinaaɓe ina kaala Pulaar/Fulfulde, tawi ko ɓuri heewde e maɓɓe nguuri ko e diiwanuuji Kayes, Mopti e Segu.

Ko nii doosɗe leydi ndii tonngiri politik laamu Mali paatuɗo e ɗemɗe, e nder kuulal mum 25 :

– Ko Farayse woni ɗemngal haala laawɗinangal

– Sariya maa dottu laabi ƴellitirɗi e laawɗinirɗi ɗemɗe ngenndiije.

Eɗen paama ɗoo tan, Farayse ko ɗemngal laamu, haa arti noon to bannge diskuraaji ekn … Ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee ko potɗe ƴelliteede, laawɗinee. Nii woni, so en ƴettii yeru e ñaawoore, ñaawooɓe ɓee ina kaalda e yimɓe ɓee e ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee kala, hay so tawii binndi ɗii kala ko e Farayse… E nder njuɓɓudi laamu ndii, ina waɗi nii e nokkuuji ɗo ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee kuutortee e binndol.

Caggal jarribo juutngo, tuugnorgal jaŋde kesal lelnaama e hitaande 1993, tee yamiroore sariya (dekere) ƴettanooma ngam naatnude ɗemɗe ngenndiije 6 e nder tippudi nehdi e jaŋde leydi ndii e hitaande 1994-1995, ɗeen ngoni : bammbara, tamashek, sonngaay, sooninke, fulfulde e dogon. Caggal ɗuum, e hitaande 1996, yamiroore woɗnde ƴettaama ngam ƴellitde ɗemɗe 13 (ina heen xaasongaxanŋo, maninkakan e safatoore).

Yamiroore 26 desammbar 1999, hollitii wonde jaŋde ndee waɗetee ko ɗemngal laawɗingal ngal kam e ɗemɗe ngenndiije. E hitaande 2002, fotde 2050 janngirde ina ngoodnoo e nder 11 ɗemngal ngenndiwal (Bamanankan, Fulfulde, Songhay, tamasheq, Soninké, Dogon, Bomu, Syenara, Mamara, Bozo e khassonké), ɗo janngatnoo fotde 300 000 almuudo. E hitaande 2009 ndee, ɗemɗe ngenndiije 10 ina njanngetenoo e 2 466 ekkol (bammbara 2002 ekkol, sonngaay 157 ekkol, Fulfulde 72 ekkol…). E sahaa hannde oo ɗeen janngirɗe tolniima e 2550.

Jaŋde ɗemɗe ɗee yettiima hitaande adannde jaŋde hakkundeere (Kolees). Gila 1998 ɗe naatnaama e duɗe jaaɓi-haaɗtirde. Hannde, kañje 11 ɗee kala eɗe njannginee e hitaande adannde FLASH (Faculté des Langues, Art et Sciences Humaines) no fannu baɗɗiiɗo nii, kiiseteeɗo e kawgel ɓennugol. Ko noon kadi sanɗaaji ɗii mbagginiraa waɗde ciftorɗe (mémoires d’études) mum en e wiɗtooji doktoraaji mum en, e nder ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee to Duɗal Toowngal Keblorgal Jannginooɓe (ENS)…

Faayndaare laamu nguu wonnoo ko huutoraade ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee e jaŋde leslesre ndee mbele sukaaɓe ɓee ina njaawa marde ɗemngal Farayse ngal…

Ko jiidaa e ɗuum laamu nguu waɗii golle maantinɗe e jaŋde mawɓe e nder ɗemɗe ngenndiije. E desaambar 2010 aɓe njahratnoo hedde 8 000 nokku jaŋde mawɓe e nder 6 132 wuro ; fotde 1,2 miliyoŋ neɗɗo njanngii heen… Tee defte keewɗe kadi mballifaama heen.

To bannge jaayɗe, rajooji e ɗemɗe ngenndiije ina ngoodi (fotde 17 rajo dowri), kono rajo e tele dowla oo ɓuri waawde huutoraade ko Farayse. Jaayɗe binndaaɗe ɗee fof kadi ko e Farayse hay so teskaama jaayɗe puɗɗinooma feeñde e ɗemɗe ngenndiije (Jaaynde wiyeteende « Kabaaru » e Fulfule, Xibare e sooninke, e jaayɗe biyeteeɗe Jekabaara e Kote e Ñete wonande Bammbara). Ɗe mballitii no feewi e jaŋde mawɓe.

Kono tan ko Farayse ɓuri dowlude e leydi hee. Kono kadi ellee alaa mo ɗum metti toon. Ina gasa tawa waɗi noon ko leƴƴi leydi ndii ina njillondiri no feewi, gila ko ɓooyi, to bannge ƴiiƴam. Yanti e ɗuum, kañji kala poti e Farayse, alaa leñol ɓurngol heen goɗɗi ɗii. Yanti heen, ɗemngal bammbara ina yaaji e leydi hee, kono dowla oo welsindaaki ɗemɗe tati ɓurɗe waawde huutoreede e Afrik ɗee, hono Farayse, Engele e Arab.

Ina laaɓi tan, dowla Mali ina waɗti hakkille no feewi e ƴellitgol ɗemɗe ngenndiije, tee nafoore mayre to bannge karallaagal jaŋde e kisnugol pinal leydi ndii ko huunde faamaande no feewi. Fulfule ina jeyaa e ɗeen ɗemɗe ɗe laamu Mali waɗti hakkille. E nder ndiiɗoo leydi ɗum noon, eɗen mbaawi wiyde « dowla oo ina dadi ɗemngal ngal ». Ɗum ina seerti e Gine ɗo nganndu-ɗaa alaa politik ɗemɗe woodaa (gaa gaaa jarribooji laamu Seeku Tuure goppaaɗi ko ɓooyi), hay so tawii noon ko toon fulɓe ɓuri doolnude.

Bookara Aamadu Bah

3 JOWE

  1. Min calminiima aan Bookara

    Min calminiima aan Bookara Aamadu Bah  hayso kaa baabahone won e mon ne desi tummude min njettimaa et min njurimaama  ha min mbassiyo yon njokku golle mon taw noon ngollantodon ko lenol ngol

    mussiddomaa kan haamiidu bayla to muritani

  2. A salmitaama

    A jaaraama denɗi (mi rewataa e yettoode hee). Sibu anndude won yillotooɓe lowre ndee, ina ɓeyda en softeende jokkude. 

  3. Fulfulde-pulaar no lo’inaa Mali sanne

    A jaaraama Bookar e ndee winndannde ɓeyditoore ganndal men e baŋŋe ren-ɗemɗiyankaagal leyɗe men Afirik Hiirnaange. Miɗo waawi ɓeyditude hen piiji ɗiɗi: e reesiyon Kaay takkiiɗo Senegal, ko fuuta-toorankoore haaletee, e reesiyon Mopti ko fulfulde maasinankoore. Huunde ɗimmere ndee, ko ko teskii-mi nde ndaaru-mi telewisiyon Mali e galleeji musiɓɓe amen Wiyeen ɗoo jogiiɓe satelit: ko ɓuri heewde e emisiyonji ɗin ko e bammbarankoore, fulfulde e ɗemɗe luttuɗe ɗen heewaaka huutoreede.

    On njaaraama.

    Wassalaamu.

     

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