Hol no paamru-ɗen “Sariya jeyi leydi 1983” ?

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Yonta peeñgol makko, ko saabii ɗum e piɓle ɗe o tuugii.
Ciftoren daartol sariyaaji jowitiiɗi e juɓɓitingol jeyi leydi e Moritani

  • Sariya jeyi ganni

Sariya mo wonaa binndaaɗo, kono ko nanondiraaɗo gila dawa-dawi : ko sifaaji ganni no leydi jeyretenoo, so yiɗii noon wona to safalɓe walla to leƴƴi ɓaleeɓe.

Yonta peeñgol makko, ko saabii ɗum e piɓle ɗe o tuugii.
Ciftoren daartol sariyaaji jowitiiɗi e juɓɓitingol jeyi leydi e Moritani

  • Sariya jeyi ganni

Sariya mo wonaa binndaaɗo, kono ko nanondiraaɗo gila dawa-dawi : ko sifaaji ganni no leydi jeyretenoo, so yiɗii noon wona to safalɓe walla to leƴƴi ɓaleeɓe.

Teskaa ko gadiiɗo e nokku fof, ko kam jeyi ɗum, walla lewɗo nokku fof, ko kam jeyi ɗum (jayngol e jammbere), walla noon keɓtirɗo ɗum doole mum. Ko ɗum waɗi jeyi leydi ɓurnoo fawaade ko e jeyi denndaaɗo (jeyal leƴƴi, jeyal galleeji e koyɗe e nder galleeji, jeyal gure ekn…). Jeyi oo heewi wonde tan ko «joowre», nde soklaa golleede kala, ko ardiiɓe galleeji maa leƴƴi peccittoo ɗum hakkunde terɗe mum.

  • Sariyaaji e jamaanu tuubakiri ( tiimaandi farayse).

Etii adaade yiɗde firtude tippudi jeyi leydi ganni ko tiimaandi Farayse e fuɗɗorde teeminaande 19, sabu e hitaande 1856, Federba, Guwerneer AOF (Afirik bannge hirnaange gonɗo e tiimaandi Farayse), lelnii sariya wonde « jeyi leydi fof foti wonde ko jeyi teelɗuɗo », ɗum noon kala jeeytiiɗo ko kañum jeyi leydi, foti ko huccude e laamu, ɗaɓɓa « rokkeede kaayit keɓtinoowo jeyi mum ». Kono oon sariya siyaani, sabu leƴƴi ɗii keɓtinaani mo.

Sariyaaji goɗɗi keewɗi ƴettaama caggal oon sariya : dekere ƴettaaɗo ñalnde 20 suliyee 1900 addii sarɗiiji kesi wonde « leyɗeele ɗe alaa ko tawaa e mum en, ngalaa jeyɓe ɗum en; leyɗeele keɓaaɗe caggal tiimgol Senegaal, ko jeyi laamu farayse… ». Ina laaɓi haa hannde tiimaandi Farayse heɓtinaani jeyi ganni oo tawo, kono leƴƴi ɗii ne, ɗum waylaani miijo mum en. Ko e hitaande 1904, dekere goɗɗo ƴettaa ñalnde 23 oktoobar, teeŋtinoowo dekere gadiiɗo oo, kono keɓtinoowo wonde leyɗeele goɗɗe ina ngoodi ko wonaa jeyi laamu tan, ɗum woni leyɗeele jeyi ganni. Dekere oo ɓeydi heen wonde hay so laamu fellitii heɓtude leyɗeele jeyaaɗe e jeyi ganni, yo a taw ko e « nafoore ndenndaandi e tee joom ɗeen leyɗeele teettaaɗe, maa wood ko lomtinana ».

Caggal ɗuum, tiimaandi Farayse ƴettii dekereeji keewɗi e kitaale dewɗe heen ɗee : 1904, 1906, 1925, 1932 e 1935. Kono ɗum fof ko yiɗde tabitinde sariyaaji maɓɓe ngam ɓeydaade tamde leydi ndii, kono ɗum yerɓinaani jeyi leydi ganni oo. Ɗiin dekereeji fof, ɓuri himmande heen leƴƴi Moritani ko dekere ƴettaaɗo ñalnde 20 mee 1955 sabu oon sariya holliti ko so laamu yeeytiima ko kam jeyi « leydi ndi alaa ko tawaa e mum e tee alaa joom mum » foti ko addande ɗum daliilu. Ndeen dallingol farlinoo ko e teetanaaɓe ɓee, jooni noon ngol fawtiima e laamu. Ɗum wonanii ɓesngu nguu poolgu mawngu sabu, e hakkillaaji maɓɓe, jeyi leydi ko jeyi denndaaɗo oo tan (woni jeyi leƴƴi maa galleeji). Ko oon sariya tan ɓe keɓtini, kono sariya tuubakooɓe « ɓe ngonaa hay juulɓe waawaa farlineede e maɓɓe ».

  • Sariyaaji caggal jeytaare Moritani (caggal 1960)

Sariya gadiiɗo ƴetteede e oon yonta, ko sariya mo toŋ 60 139 ƴettaaɗo ñalnde 2 ut 1960 mo nganndu-ɗaa, alaa ko seerndi ɗum e sariya koloñaal Farayse ƴettanooɗo e hitaande 1904 tuugiiɗo e wiyde « leyɗeele ɗe alaa tawaaɗo e mum en, ɗe ngalaa joom mum en, ko laamu jeyi ɗum en ». Kono ooɗo sariya rewi tan ko ɗo sariyaaji koloñaal en ndewnoo ɗoo.

Sariya ɗiɗmo battindiiɗo ƴetteede oo, ko mo toŋ  83 127 ƴettaaɗo ñalnde 5 suwee 1983. Ko saabii ƴettugol makko ? eɗen mbaawi janngirde ɗum e nder konngol Hooreejo leydi ndii e oon mudda, Muhammed Kuuna wul Haydalla wiyiino : « Ooɗoo sariya memtotooɗo sifaa jeyi leydi mo laawɗin-ɗen hannde, maa wallit ɓeen liggotonooɓe leydi tawi ko woɗɓe naftortoo, dañde kañum enne jeyi, e heɓde ndimaagu mum en to bannge faggudu tawi ko ɗum tan gaddantooɓe ndimaagu timmungu ». Kaa haala holliti ko wonde, caggal nde sariya 81 234 mo hitaande 1981 ƴettaa ngam mumtude macungaagu, ina moƴƴa nde sariya ƴettetee ballitoowo jiyaaɓe e hardaneeɓe dañde jeyi leydi ɗo ngollii.

Kono noon kadi sariya oo feeñi ko e yonta yooro mawngo, e caɗeele nguura, murtooji remooɓe (hardaneeɓe) keewɗi poɗantooɗi jeyi leydi teskaama e nder leydi hee, jibinɗi fitinaaji mawɗi, yeru to Qabra (diiwaan Barkewol, 1980) e Mabruuk (diiwaan Tamsaket, 1981), jiidaani noon laamu, sabu mum yiɗde ummanaade eɓɓooji keewɗi to baŋnge ndema, ina hawra e caɗeele keewɗe palotooɗe ɗum, (ɗum woni jeyi ganni oo). Yanti heen, jom jawɗeele ummortooɓe caggal leydi njogaaki hoolaare ñamlirde jawɗeele mum en ko yowitii e golle ndema, sabu, e miijo maɓɓe, jeyal leydi e Moritani laaɓtaani tawo.

  • Piɓle mawɗe ɗo sariya oo tuugii

So tawii en ndeftiima piɓle mawɗe peeñɗe e nder sariya hee, eɗen mbaawi tonngude heen ɗee geɗe garooje :

1. Pellital dowla oo waɗde leydi no jeyal denndangal e dow tiimaandi laamu, ɗum firti ko leyɗeele kala, gaagaa jogiiɗe seedantaagal won jeyɓe ɗum en (jogiiɓe kaayitaaji) walla leyɗeele ɗe sariya mo 60 139 ñalnde 2 ut 1960 heɓtinnoo wonde ko jeyaaɗe, keddiiɗe ɗee fof ko laamu tiimi ɗum en. Laamu noon ina rokki kala jiɗɗo jeyde leydi fartaŋŋe  rokkeede ɗum so rewii laawol.

Ndeeɗo fiɓnde, so tawii hawri ko e laamu nuunɗungu, tabitinoowu potal, ina waawi faameede so tawii kadi faanditaa heen ko rokkude ɗawanooɓe, joñanooɓe, kaɗaa jogaade leydi no nguurdi ko wayi no jiyaaɓe, sammba-remooru en ekn… no hooreejo leydi ndii wiirunoo nii, kono ɗuum maa en ndutto heen.

2. Dowla ina gaddii reende jeyi keeriiɗo no wiyraa e nder kuulal 2, sariya 83 127 ñalnde 5 suwee 1983 « Dowla ina heɓtini, etee ina gaddii jeyi telɗuɗo tuugiiɗo e sariya lislaam, potɗo wallitde ƴellitgol faggudu e renndo leydi ndii ». Ɗum ɗoon noon firti ko kala jogiiɗo jeyi keeriiɗo keɓaaɗo e yonta sariya 60 139, hay so liggaaka e oon sahaa, kono « tawa batte golle jiytiniiɗe ina tawaa heen » oon jeyi ina heɓtinaa.

Kono ɗoo kadi heddii, ko so ngalɗoo kuulal ina deeƴna ɓernde, yo a taw sifaa e peeje ƴetteteeɗe ngam loskude haa tabitina « batte jiytiniiɗe » ɗee, ina ndewa laawol.

3. Sariya jeyi leydi mo 83 127 ina holliri wonde “kala jeyi leydi mo wonaa jeyi neɗɗo teelɗuɗo walla jeyi njuɓɓudi, hiisaa ko woodaani” ; ɗum firti ko jeyi leydi ganni tuuginooɗo e jeyi denndal (leƴƴi maa galleeji) heɓtinaaka e leydi hee. Miijo laawɗinɓe sariya oo, ko oon jeyi ina heewi soomde ɓurondiral hakkunde yimɓe walla soomde njiyaagu. Dowla oo fellitii ummanaade jeyi ganni mo tuubakiri ronkannoo oo. Heddii ko hol to ɗum joofoyta ?

Ko laaɓti tan, ngalɗoo kuulal ɓuri joopaade ko leyɗeele waalo (daande maayo senegaal) sabu ko ɗeen ɓuri jogaade faayiida e waawde yeñtinde, leyɗeele rewo leydi ndii ko ɓuri heewde e mum en wonaa baawɗe naftoreede. E fawaade kadi e daliilu « ko ɗum waawi sukkude yolnde jogaande to bannge ŋakkere nguura e nder leydi hee ». Heedi heeda kam feeñii e tabitingol ooɗoo sariya, sabu o siynaa tan ko daande maayo, nokkuuji keddiiɗi ɗii kam tinaani mo no feewi.

4. Ɓiy leydi kala, ko aldaa e paltoor nguru ɓalndu, njogoram, diine walla miijo politigi, ina jogii hakke dañde leydi, maa wonii e nder gure walla to dowri. Leyɗeele dokkiranooɗe, ina mbinnditaa e inɗe mawɓe gure, hoohooɓe leƴƴi ekn… kiisetee ko gure ɗee kala maa leƴƴi ɗii fof ndenndi ɗum en, kadi ɗe poti ko fecciteede e potal e denndaangal yimɓe jeytoranooɓe e gollugol leydi ndii kam e duumagol golle ɗee.

Ɗum kam so tabitii, firti ko yimɓe fof maa keɓ hakkeeji mum en e nder jeyi ganni oo. Heddii ko feere wiyaande wonde joom mum en ina mbaawi darnude koppe, ndennda leydi ndii, mbaasa feccitaade ɗum, mbar ɗum feeñninoytaa ɓurondiral e kake goɗɗe dogetenooɗe ɗee ?

E « Kasdi leydi no waawi siforaade kala, ina haɗaa so tuugaaki e sariya lislaam. Alaa waawɓe nanondirde hakkunde mum en luulndaade ngalɗoo kuulal parlingal e yimɓe fof » ; Kasdi leydi, ɗum woni ko anndiranoo « rem-peccen, njoldi, asakal ekn.. » so wonaa ko sariya lislam tuugniiɗo e laawol Maalik yamiri heen koo.

5. Daɗndugol hurum gure ko huunde nde sariya oo teskii sabu ko huunde nde laawol Maalik yamiri hay so tawii toɗɗaaki njaajeendi mum hol to haaɗata, faanditaa e ɗum ko mbele e ɗum daɗnda wurankooɓe ɓee e caɗeele ɗe eggiyankooɓe arooɓe ina compa koɗorɗe mum en saraaji ɗeen gure, ngam renndude e mum en durnirɗe ustiiɗe e tee kuuɓnaani soklaaji waali wuro en.

6. Waɗtude boyli e foorasuuji no kuutorɗe denndaaɗe nii, ndee feere kadi ƴoogaa ko sariya lislam e nder laawol Maalik sabu ngool laawol yamiri ko kala ko yowitii e diƴƴe, leɗɗe joorɗe e durnirɗe ko huunde fotnde renndeede.

Ko e ɗeeɗoo piɓle jeeɗiɗi ɗe cumti-ɗen sariya ƴettaaɗo o ƴaañii, ɗum ina addi pelɓondiral miijooji ɗiɗi e nder leydi hee : ɓe wiyɓe wonde sariya alaa ko addiraa so wonaa yiɗde loppitde jeyi ɓaleeɓe hoɗɓe daande maayo ngam rokkude ɗum safalɓe e ɓe wiyɓe wonde sariya oo ko sariya jahruɗo yeeso to bannge addude potal e nder leydi he e rokkude dowla kuutorgal no ƴellitiri faggudu ndema e ngaynaaka e nder leydi, heddii noon ko e miijo maɓɓe, sariya oo siyniraaka no fotiri nii walla nii o selii bolol, ko ɗum addi mo feeñnirde no tooñannge huccinaande e leƴƴi daande maayo ɗii.

Tabitingol sariya 83 127 mo 5 suwee 2003 e nder leydi hee : (ina jokki…)

Maamuudu Haaruuna Joob

Natal Praktikum bei ENDA-Pronat, Senegal