Misra ɓooyɗo : leydi, renndo, ñaawoore, njulaagu

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    En ngardiino e daartol Misra Ɓooyɗo haa ɗoo : Diine kerecee en naati Aleksandiri tigi rigi ko hedde hitaande 50, tee teeɗanii ko lomtaade dewe tawaaɗe e nokku hee. 

    En ngardiino e daartol Misra Ɓooyɗo haa ɗoo : Diine kerecee en naati Aleksandiri tigi rigi ko hedde hitaande 50, tee teeɗanii ko lomtaade dewe tawaaɗe e nokku hee. 

    E hitaande 391, laamɗo kerecee biyeteeɗo Théodose ƴetti sariya kaɗoowo dewe gaadoraaɗe, uddi dewirɗe Aleksandiri. Yoga e majje natti toppiteede, huunde e majje mbaɗtaa juulirɗe kerecee en (Eglises).

    Jooni njokken ngam sifaade nokku Misra ɓooyɗo wonnoo  kam e njuɓɓuudi renndo mum e tippudi ñaawoore mum e jotondire mum njulaagu.  To bannge ganndal leydi e sato, Misra ɓooyɗo woɗɗondiraani e Misra hannde oo. Feccere e leydi Misra ko ko yoori : ko powle mayo Niil ɗiɗi ɗee tan, walla yupporde Niil, walla beeli seeɗa ndemotoo heen, ko ɗoon tan yimɓe mbaawi hoɗde e wuurde. Ko heddii koo fof ko moraaɗe : moraande Libi bannge hirnaange, moraande Misra bannge fuɗnaange, moraande Sinay bannge fuɗnaange rewo.

    Keeri Misra ɓooyɗo kadi ngoɗɗondiraani e keeri Misra hannde oo, sibu e oon sahaa keeri Misra Ɓooyɗo ko nii mbaynoo : bannge rewo mayri ko Maayo Mediteraane, bannge worgo ko timporɗe Niil (diƴƴe juppotooɗe e kaaƴe toowɗe) keedi toon, bannge hirnaange ko moraande Libi, bannge fuɗnaange ko maayo woɗeewo e moraande Sinay e nokku Gasa oo.

    To bannge njuɓɓudi politik, Misra ɓooyɗo ko laamu hoorameewu (laamu neɗɗo gooto). Firawna woni fof : kam woni gardiiɗo njuɓɓudi dowrowo, kañum ardii konu, kam woni ñaawoowo dowrowo, koohoowo dewe (diineeji) dowrowo. Omo jogii doŋngal, so siynude doosgal « Maât » e nder winndere, ɗuum woni waɗde feere mbele jam na laatoo hakkunde yimɓe e asamaan. Kanko gaddii neɗɗaagal yimɓe makko, tee ko o duumiiɗo. O tuugnii ko e njuɓɓudi laamu ngam tabitinde njiimaandi makko e leyɗe ndema e ngaluuji tago. Ardii ndiin njuɓɓudi ko neɗɗo mo o hoolii, biyeteeɗo wisiir (Wasiir = ministre), toppitiiɗo meetagol (ɓetgol) kolaaɗe, kaalis leydi, eɓɓaaɗe mahateeri, njuɓɓudi ñaawoore e duttorɗe.

    Tesko : E nder aadaa Misra, « Maât » ko geno debbo toppitiiɗo njuɓɓudi e nehdi, potal, deeƴre e jam, goonga nuunɗal. (Ko o beñtal « Isfet », woni (musiiba e fenaande e jiiɓru renndo)).

    E oon sahaa leydi Misra ndii feccitaa ko e 42 diiwaan (nomes) tawi heen diiwaan fof ko laamɗo halfinaa ɗum, les njiimaandi firawna. Juulirɗe ɗee, e oon sahaa, ko nokkuuji juuleteeɗi, kono kadi ko kañji toppitii denndinngol e mooftugol ngaluuji leydi ndii…

    Njuɓɓudi renndo

    Renndo Misra Ɓoyɗo, ko renndo kinɗe. Neɗɗo kala won hinnde jeyaa. Remooɓe ɓurnoo keeweendi to woɗɗi, hay so tawii noon ɓe ngalaano jeyi ; ɓe njeyaa leyɗe ɓe ndemata ɗee, ɓe njeyaa coñal mum en. Ko laamu walla juulirde walla galle dimo jogiiɗo leydi tan mbaawi jeyde coñal. Ina waɗɗii remooɓe ɓee yoɓde kubbal (lempoo), ina waɗɗii ɓe kadi dawi (korwe) golle e nder eɓɓaaɗe ilnugol walla mahngo. Ñeeñɗuɓe (toppitiiɓe ñeeñe) e fitiram golle en ɓurnoo remooɓe ɓee toowde e nder renndo hee hay so tawii kamɓe fof ko e les njiimaandi laamu ɓe ngoni. Ɓe ngollotoo ko e jeeyirɗe (bitikaaji) takkiiɗe juulirɗe ɗee, tee ko booñ laamu (trésor public) yoɓata ɓe. Winndooɓe ɓee (scribes) kam e gollotooɓe e njuɓɓudi laamu (foksineeruuji) ngoni lannda ɓurɗo toowde e nder renndo Misra Ɓooyɗo ; ɓe mbiyetenoo ko “lannda wudere reneere” sibu ɓe ɓoornotonoo ko comci daneeji ngam hollitde tolno maɓɓe e renndo hee. Ooɗoo lannda toowɗo ina hollittenoo e nder coñce e ñeeñe. Rewi e ooɗoo lannda rimɓe ko ardiiɓe njuuluuji e safrooɓe e aasiñoor en heblaaɓe e fannuuji mum en. Alaa geɗe ngoodi kollitooje wonde njiyaagu ina woodnoo e oon sahaa.

    Misra Ɓooyɗo ina heptini potal hakkunde rewɓe e worɓe yeeso laawol (sariya), hinnde maɓɓe ko waawi wonde fof. Demoowo ɓurɗo waasde ina waawi wullitaade to wisiir (kalifu) ngam heɓde hakke mum. Rewɓe e worɓe ina njogii hakke jeyde e yeeyde jawdi, hakke fiɓondireede, reseede walla resde e seerde, ronde e wullitaade to ñaawirɗe so luural jolii. Resondirɓe ina mbaawi renndude jawdi, e fiɓondireede nder dewgal hee geɗe baɗɗiiɗe gorko oo to bannge kuuɓnugol soklaaji debbo oo e sukaaɓe ɓee to bannge kaalis, so tawii ceergal jolii. Ɗum firti ko so a yerondirii misranaaɓe ndeen e yontannde  mum en to Geres ɓooyɗo walla Roomnaaɓe ndeen, ma a taw misranaaɓe ɓuri ɓe wellitaade. Rewɓe laamiima toon e oon sahaa, ko wayi no Hatsepsut e Keleopaatre (Cléopâtre), rewɓe woɗɓe kadi njogiima toon darnde sabu wonde suddiiɓe geno biyeteeɗo Amon. Kono tan rewɓe mbaawaano halfineede golle nder  njuɓɓudi laamu, ɓe keddii tan ko e geɗe dewrewe nder juulirɗe, nde tawnoo rewɓe e worɓe potaano hakkeeji to bannge jaŋde.

    Njuɓɓudi ñaawoore Misra ɓooyɗo

    Jiimi njuɓɓudi ndii ko firawna, sibu ko kanko saaktata laabi sariya, kanko ñaawata, kanko reeni deeƴre nder renndo (ko misranaaɓe mbiyatnoo Maât).

    Binndaaɗe ñaawoore oon yonta ine kolla njuɓɓudi ñaawoore maɓɓe ndeen tuuginoo ko e ceerungal hakkunde ko moƴƴi e ko moƴƴaani ngam ñawndude luure e piɓondire.

    E nder nokku kala, ko diiso mawɓe (jom duuɓi en) halfinaa ñaawde luure ñamaale walla luuron tokoson. So yettiima warhoore walla luure jeyi mawɗo walla ruggo gaññeeje (ndeen maayɓe ubbidtenoo ko e ngaluuji keewɗi) hollitoyee Goomu mawngu ngu Wasiir walla firawna ardotoo. Wullitiiɓe ɓee e heedooɓe ɓee fof maa ngoonda haalde goonga oo fof. Tuumaaɓe ina keewi fiyeede mbele ina kaalta, cuurta inɗe waɗdiiɓe bone. Winndooɓe ɓee ina mbinnda wullitaango ngoo, seedanteeje ɗee kam e ñaawoore ndee kala, tuumamuyaaji ɗii mawnude walla famɗude fof.

    Kuuge ɗee ina mbaawi wonde pawe (wonande bone tokoose) walla aanoode e yeeso walla piygal maa daayo wonande bone mawɗe. Waɗbone en mawɓe, ko wayi no warkoyeeɓe walla ruggooɓe (wuyɓe) genaale (keeweendi yenaande), keewi ko ñaaweede warngo, daaɗe mum en codditee walla loƴee walla njulee (joom mum joɗɗinee e cettal mbele angal yulira ɗum les faade dow). Won no bonannde ndee in mawnira, kuugal ngal ina waawi naworde ɓesngu maa galle baɗbone oo.

    Njulaagu

    Ko laamu jogii, tami ko ɓuri heewde e njulaagu nguu. Misranaaɓe tafataano kaalis e oon sahaa, ko ɗum tagi njulaagu nguu ɓurde fawaade e ngostiigu saakuuji gabbe walla deben kaalis maa kaŋŋe (deben woni ɓetirgal ñiso : hedde 91 garaam), hay gollotooɓe ko gawri njoɓetenoo : ubriyee ina heɓatnoo hedde saakuuji 5 e feccere lewru kala (200 kg), mawɗo ubriyeeji hedde saakuuji 7 gawri. Ko laamu nguu dottatnoo coodguuli ɗii kala, waɗa doggi mum, ngam newnude njulaagu nguu e leydi ndii kala. Yeru forok (simbis) ina jara debene 5 kiri, nagge ina jaratnoo 140 deben. Kaalis gostorɗo fuɗɗii naatde Misra ko hedde teem V.

    Misranaaɓe mbaɗdii e heediiɓe mum nanondire njulaagu ngam faggaade geɗe ɗe ngalaa e leydi mum en. E yonta iidii laamgalle (prédynastique) ɓe ndarni laawol njulaagu feewde Nubi ngam heɓde toon kaŋŋe e cuuraay. Ko noon ɓe mbaɗdiri e Palestiin njulaagu, hono no seedtortoo ɗum looɗe petroŋ palestiinnaɓe taweteeɗe e genaale firawna en, e yonta laamsuudu adanngu.

    Bookara Aamadu Bah
    Ƴoogirde : Wikipedia

    Ruggo genaale

    Gila Yonta ɓooyɗo haa e yonta cakkitto, tuggi gerek en haa e ottomaan en, mastadaaji e tibooje e gaññeeje (aññeere heewi wonde ko ngaska, mastada e tibooje ko dow leydi) ceeraani e ruggeede. E teeminannde 19ɓiire (XIXe) nde tuubakooɓe njiyti ɗe ndee, nguykaaji ɗii ɓeydii : faraysenaaɓe e engele en e almaañaaɓe njiirondiri ngaluuji Misra ɓooyɗo.

    Yoga e ɗeen geɗe ɓe ngujjunoo, nana kollitaa haa hannde e cuuɗi ganni maɓɓe, ko wayi no Louvre (Pari, Farayse), British Museum (Londres, Angalteer), cuuɗi ganni Turin (Itaali) walla Berlin (Almaañ). Ko konsilaaji maɓɓe jooɗaninooɗi ɓe to Misra ndenndintunoo (ngujjatnoo) nguun ngalu e ciltirɗi njiimaandi Mamluuk en. Ɓurɓe lollude e ɗeen golle coofɗe mbiyetee ko Bernardino DROVETTI (1776-1852) wonande Farayse e Itaali, kam e Henry SALT (1780-1827) wonande Angalteer, kam e Giovanni ANASTASI wonande Suyed. Ɓe ndus fof, ɓe ngoppaani toon so wonaa ko ɓuri famɗude faayiida walla ko maantini haa ɓurti…