Wiɗtooji Licence, Master, e PhD ka ɗemngal fulfulde

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Kuɗol: Tafsir Balde (mo Misiide Ɓamtaare e www.teddungal.com)

Hiɗen ngaandi kadi Duɗal Wiɗtooji Afrik (Institut de recherches et d’études africaines),  ngal Jaaɓi-haɗtirde Keer (Misra) ndaartinii wiɗtooji Master e Doktoraa ko faati e Fulfulde ; ɗum ko wano Dr. Aadel Usmaan Imam Ayat, heɓuɗo meetelol PhD ngal ɗuɗal, maa Hiba Muhammad Ali, heɓuɗo meetelol Master fahin e ngal ɗuɗal, wonɗo hebilude fewndo ɗoo wiɗto mun fii Doktoraa ko faati e Fulfulde.

Sugu ɗiin wiɗtooji jaaɓi-haaɗtirɗe yowitiiɗi e Fulfulde hino woodi ko lannataa, e baŋnge ɗen fof, e duɗe mawɗe ɗen fof kadi. Ndee winndannde ɗoo, wanaa fii sugu ɗiin wiɗtooji woni e wowlude, sabu ko no mi holliniri non ka hunorde, ɗiin wiɗtooji hino woodi ɓaŋ-woo baŋ.

Yeewtere nden ɗoo ko fii wiɗtooji Licence, Master, PhD winndiraaɗi e ɗemngal Fulfulde, wanaa winndiraaɗi e ɗemɗe goo, hay si tawii non ko fii Fulfulde ɗi yeewtata. Ɗoo ko ɗemngal Fulfulde won-ɗen ɗaɓɓitude, annden fotde mbawdi (dabare) maggal e ronndagol gannde ɗen, tawde non ɗemɗe afriknaaje keewɗe meeɗii ngon ɗon humpito. Ko ɗum gaseten ƴellitaade e winndannde Don Osborn yowi ka blog mun, tiitoraande: «  dissertations written in African languages ». Himo etii e ndeer nden winndannde himmunde, weeɓitugol wiɗtooji jaaɓi-haaɗtirɗe winndiraaɗi ɗemɗe afriknaaje ɗen.

Ko nde mi hawrunoo e nden winndannde, mi rewi e mayre mi roŋki yi’ude ton wiɗto jaaɓi-haaɗtirde waɗaango e ɗemngal Fulfulde, wanani lam ŋalaw (kaawee) ! Mi fiɓi ka ɓernde am wonde fii Fulfulde jaŋtaaka e ndee winndannde wiɗtooji, ɗum hollaali waaseedee wiɗtooji Licence, Master, e PhD ka ɗemngal Fulfulde. Ko ɗum addi haa mi luggini wiɗto, mi wiɗii mi ɗaɓɓiti mi tefi (haa jooni miɗo tefude), haa no mi yaltiniri non winndannde huuɓunde ɗemɗe afriknaaje waɗiraaɗe wiɗtooji jaaɓi-haaɗtirɗe ɗiin, mi yaltini nde ka jaaynde aarabre « Qiraat African », yaltunde e yunaayiru / siilo 2018, tiitoraande : Wiɗtooji Jaaɓi-haaɗtirɗe ɗiin ka ɗemɗe Afriknaaje (University Academic Written in African languages).

E ndeer nden winndannde, mi ɓaŋnginno wonde wiɗtooji Licence e Master e ɗemngal Pular/Fulfulde heɓino leydi Gine fewndo laamu murtital / filñitaare (rewolisiyon) ka tippudi Institut Polytechnique, jaaɓi-haaɗtirde Gamal Abdel Nasser (IPGAN). Ko Moodi Umar Otris adii mi humpitude ɗu’um, ɓe holli non ɓe : « anndaa si ɗin memoirji no weli heɓude maa si ɗi bonaali ».

Fii ɓurtugol fellitude, mi ɓurtuno tefude lamndoo, wiɗtoo ɗaɓɓitira nano e ñaamo. E ndeer heen hawru-mi e wiɗtooji adinooɓe lam, wano wiɗto Mammadou Saliyu Jallo caakitiraango ka jaaynde ACALAN e ndee tiitoonde : « Langue et Education en Guinée », toŋngoode 2, yaltunde desaambur / bowte 2017. Moodi Mamadou ɓaŋnginno e ngon wiɗto makko wonde fewndo laamu murtital Seeku Tuuree, laamu Gine ngun etino fii ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗen  no ngonira « ɗemɗe gannde e karallaagal », ɗum woni sabu haa ɗemɗe suɓanooɗe ɗen jeeɗiɗi (pular na jeyaa e majje) naatude ka duɗe mawɗe, ɗe waɗtaa janngireede jannginiree e fannu kala. Ɓa waɗɗini e kala taalibaajo ndaartoowo, huutorgol kelme gannde e karallaagal ɗen ka wiɗto makko, o firta ɗum e ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗen. Ko e ndeer ɗum woni ko kippunooɓe fii ɗemngal pular ngal waawunoo tafude kelmeendi ɓaarordi (terminology) gannde. Ɗeen pehe laamu Gine ngun fewndo on tuma haaɗaano ɗon, sabu heɓino taaruɓe meetelli e innde ɗiin wiɗtooji Licence e Mater winndiraaɗi e ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗeen, ɓe innitiri ngol meetelol (piilkol) « Diplôme de Culture Révolutionnaire ».

Tippude e ɗum, hiɗen felliŋtina wonde wiɗtooji Licence e Master heɓike e Pular/Fulfulde immorde ka jaaɓi-haaɗtirde Gamal Abdel Nasser Gine Konaakiri. Heddike si tawii hiɗi heɓoo fewndo hannde, sabu –wano Moodi Umar holliri non : « iniwersitee Gine on anndiraaka marugol binndanɗe moƴƴol wano waylitugol ɗe e noone elektoronik ».

Hawnaaki hara leyɗe goo kadi waɗii sugu ko Gine kon, ndaartingol wiɗtooji Licence e Master ka ɗemngal Fulfulde. Fow e mun, men humpitaaki taho yawti ko heɓinoo kon Gine. Lutta non fii wiɗtooji Doktoraa ɗin ka Fulfulde. Ɗon non men heɓaali ko laaɓi ; sabu woɗɓe humpitii lam wonde « ɗum no heɓora Najeeria », mi tefii ko juuti, kono mi heɓaali ko laaɓi. Miɗo ɓuri e tamƴinaade hara ɗiin wiɗtooji PhD e Fulfulde na woodi ton to Najeeria, sabu Najeeria –tippude e wiɗto am ngon ka jaaynde Qiraat African – hino jeyaa e adiiɓe ndaartinnde wiɗtooji jaaɓi-haaɗtirɗe e ɗemɗe afrik ɗen ; ɗum non ka jaaɓi-haaɗtirde Obafewmi Awolowo, nokku ka wiɗto Master ndaartinaa e Yoruba gila hitaande 1980, Doktoraa on ndaartinaa duuɓi sappo ɓaawo mun (1990) e jaaɓi-haaɗtirde wootere nden. Haawnaaki hara sugu ɗiin wiɗtooji na woodi ka Hawsankoore maa ka Fulfulde. Kono hino hatonjini e tefugol lamndoo haa fellita.

Ko mi fottuno e yumma Salamatou Sow Rabat hitaande 2017, mi lamndino ɓe si ɓe humpitii fii wiɗtooji PhD e Fulfulde ka duɗe mawɗe Najeeriya ? Ɓe wi’anno, tuma kala ɓe nodditay ɓe fii tawtoreede e ndaarto sugu ɗiin wiɗtooji Najeeriya ton, kono Geno On Newnaali ɓe tawdee taho. Heddike non si tawii ko fii wiɗtooji yowitiiɗi e Fulfulde ? walla ko wiɗtooji winndiraaɗi e Fulfulde ? Fow e mun, haa fewndo ka mi walliŋta ɗon ngol binndol, mi heɓaali huunde laaɓunde ko faati e wiɗtooji Doktoraa e ɗemngal Fulfulde.

Bote (faa’ida) ɗum ?

Bela (gasa) goɗɗo lamndoo fii bote / nafa himmirgol wiɗtooji jaaɓi-haaɗtirɗe e ɗemngal Fulfulde ? Ka jaabagol, hiɗen wi’a ko tawde ɗemngal Fulfulde ngal ko jeyaangal e ɗemɗe wuurɗe ɗen ndeer ndee winndere. Ɗum holli wonde hino gasa ka yeewten fii maggal e baŋnge akademi.  So ɗum ɓennii / yawtii, en anndiŋtinay kadi wonde ɗemngal woo ɗemngal si ɓamtoto, ko maa ngal heɓa geɓal e baŋnge ɗen fof ; teŋtinii non ɓaŋngal binndol e jaŋnde. Ko ɗum waɗi so tawii ɗemɗe ɓamtiiɗe ɗen fof etoto heɓude ko ɗuuɗi e ngal baŋngal binndol e jaŋnde ndeer fannuuji ɗiin fof, woɗɓe etoo firtude gannde goo ka ɗemngal maɓɓe fii no ngal heɓira geɓal e ɗen gannde.. Ko ɗum so tawii hiɗen etoo finndingol jamaa on e ndee toɓɓere himmunde, humondirnde e ɓamtal ɗemngal Fulfulde ngal telemma (hedde) ka jaŋnde toowunde.

Hol ko tonngi ɗemngal Fulfulde ngal?

Hino jeyaa e ko tonngi ɗemngal Fulfulde ngal e ngal baŋngal, piiji ɗiɗi, ɗiin ngoni :

  1. Tawde haa hannde jaŋngingol ɗemngal ngal ko ka duɗe arane woni ko haaɗi, ngal yawtaali ɗon haa ngal hewta duɗe mawɗe ɗeen, sakko ngal waɗtee winndireede e wiɗtooji. Ɗum ɗon ko ella! Ko maa Fulfulde nden yawta keerol jaŋnde duɗe arane ɗeen, ngal naata ka duɗe mawɗe, almuuɓe ɓeen suusa winndirgol wiɗtooji maɓɓe ɗiin e maggal.
  2. Tawde kadi Fulfulde ko wonaa e ligaaneede kon fof, golle ɗeen tuugaaki e njuɓɓuɗi wootiri; mi yiɗu wiide Fulfulde na ŋakkiri akademi ko yuɓɓindira ɗemngal ngal. Ɗum ɗon laƴinay kala golle ko jokkaa e ɗemngal ngal, sabu ɗemngal waawaa ɓamtaade e ɓaawo njuɓɓudi sugu akademi. Ñalnde kala akademi heɓii e innde Fulfulde, jamaaji ɗiin ɓurtay suusude ligganagol ɗemngal ngal. Si ɗum gaalii / tultii, haray nokku fokkitaaka!

Timmoode. Miɗo timminira ndee winndannde nodditugol kala yarlitaniiɓe ɗemngal Fulfulde ngal nokku kala, etagol gelondira fahmondira, wona e huunde wootere fii ɓamtugol ɗemngal ngal, woɗtitoo golle feere-feere, gera no golle ɗeen fof fewtira seŋngo wooto. Ɗum non eto-ɗen ɗaɓɓitugol ɗiin wiɗtooji jaaɓi-haaɗtirɗe waɗaaɗi e Fulfulde fewndo Seeku Tuuree ndeer lesdi Gine, etoo kadi humpitoo so tawii sugu majji na woodi e jaaɓi-haaɗtirɗe goo, ngam mofta-ɗi denndaangal / kala, ndaara feere no suutira kelmeendi huutoraandi e ɗiin wiɗtooji, waɗta ɗum kelmeendi ɓaarordi (terminolooji) wallitorndi e baŋnge wiɗto.

Fahin hino haani rerɗingol semmbina sugu ɗeen eɓɓooje ka duɗe mawɗe, suusina almuuɓe ɓeen winndugol wiɗtooji maɓɓe ɗiin ka ɗemɗe ngenndiije, ɗowtita-ɓe wallitoo-ɓe no ɗum laatora e hoore neweende. Etagol kadi rerɗina jaaɓi-haatirɗe ɗiin ka dunnde me’en Afrik no ɓe newinira jaɓugol wiɗtooji almuuɓe ɓeen ka ɗemɗe ngenndiije so tawii ɗi timminii shartiiji wiɗto ɗiin. En shikkitaaki wonde Fulfulde hino jeyaa e ɗeen ɗemɗe Afriknaaje timmiraaɗe sharti wiɗto, tawde ko ngal ɗemngal wuurgal, townayngal gannde ɗeen gila ka tawi Fulfulde ko ɗemngal ngal pelle-inɗe, jooporɗe kala huunde.

E ngoya senngo, ngannden wonde miijo waylugol wiɗtooji ka ɗemɗe men afriknaaje, ko e men kippuɓe fii ɓamtal majje ngal woni ko iwrata. Heewaa ka jaaɓi-haaɗitirde afrik ɗoo rerɗiŋta sugu ɗin miijooji ; ko woni tun hiɓe jaɓa eɓɓoore mu’m si iwrii e daraniiɓe ɗemɗe afriknaaje ɗen.

Mi yettii.

Mammadu Tafsiir Balde

Ruttorɗe :
– Balde, Mamadou Tafsir. (2018). University Academic Papers in African Languages: an observation and follow-up: Qiraat African Magazine, issue #35 (pp. 86 – 95).
– Jallo, Mamadou Saliou. Langue et Education en Guinée. ACALAN, numéro: 2, Decembre 2017.
– Don, Osbor (2017). Dissertations written in African languages (blog), avaible online at: http://niamey.blogspot.com/2017/04/dissertations-written-in-african.html

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