Dawruɗi juumtuɗi Ɗemngal janngirgal

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Winndannde faatunde he yiyannde politik Banke Moñnjaal

« So sukaaɓe ngadoriima tawo jannginireede he nder ɗemngal ngal kaalata, paamata no moƴƴi, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata faamde, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata yaawde anndude ɗemɗe goɗɗe, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata ɓooyde he nder jaŋde, ko ndeen jaŋde maɓɓe ndee ɓurata yahdude e pinal maɓɓe e ngonka nder nokku maɓɓe ».   Hello 3 e 4

Haa dañee ! Banke moñnjaal tawtude ko heewɓe (haralleeɓe jangde, Unesco ekn) kaalata gila leyɗe men ndimɗaani tawo.

Banke Winndereejo (Banque Mondiale, BM) ine yaltini winndannde faatunde he ɗemngal potngal fuɗɗoreede jaŋde. To oon bannge, eɗen nganndi Unesco kañum taƴii haala kaa gila 1953 nde wagginta leyɗeele ɗee nde kuutortoo ɗemɗe mum en neeniije he (muuynangal) nder jangɗeele mum en. Duuɓi e kitaale kadi ko yimɓe heewɓe paami wonde ɓamtaare yaawataa tawi yimɓe kuutortoo ko ɗemɗe koɗe he nder jangde mum en. Jooni ko fedde toppitiinde ko faati he kaalis teeŋtini ko daraniiɓe ɗemɗe ngenndiije he nder Afrik, haa arti he Muritani, ngullata ko ine ɓura duuɓi 60 hannde !

Dokimaa mo banke moñnjaal (Banke winndere) sifotoo oo ko yiyannde mum hesere ko faati he ɗemngal jannginirngal, nde tawnoo ɗuum jeyaa ko e peeje ciynirɗe politik mum to bannge “literasi” mum (“littératie” : kattanɗe tarde e winndude e faamde kabaruuji, nder nguurndam ñalnde kala) ngam ƴaañde faandaare mum hesere to bannge jaŋde.

Faandaare ndee yiyannde hesere ko wallitde ɓamtaare politikaaji e golle baɗeteeɗe he nder ɗemɗe jannginirɗe, nde tawnoo politikaaji paatuɗi he ɗemngal jannginirgal pawii ko e ngonka leydi kala. E nder ndee yiyannde hesere, miijo Banke Winndereejo ine teeŋtini ɗeeɗoo piɓle garooje ngam ɓeydaade moƴƴinde jaŋde he nder leyɗe pamare ngalu (baasɗe walla kakindiiɗe).

Fiɓnde 1 : Jannginde sukaaɓe he nder ɗemngal mum en gadanal (Ɗ1), fuɗɗoraade Sarwisaaji Jaŋde e Jaɓɓo Cukaagu Tokoosu, ko famɗi fof duuɓi 6 gadani jaŋde leslesre ndee. Alaa e sago jaŋde ndee waɗee he nder ɗemngal ko ɓuri heewde e sukaaɓe ɓee ɓuri waawde haalde e faamde ;

Fiɓnde 2 : Huutoraade Ɗ1 he nder jaŋde fannuuji janngeteeɗi ɗii gaa-gaa taro e binndol. Janngooɓe ɓee ine katojini e marde no moƴƴi taro e binndol he nder fannuuji keewɗi kam e fannuuji janngeteeɗi ekkol ;

Fiɓnde 3 : Naatnude jaŋde Ɗ2 (ɗemngal ɗimmal) no ɗemngal tumarankeewal tawa ine teeŋtini heen kattanɗe haala. Waasde naatnude he jaŋde Ɗ2 ngal nder literasi e jaŋde fannuuji so wonaa nde janngooɓe ɓee keɓi kattanɗe jonɗe he nder Ɗ1 kam e kattanɗe haala nder Ɗ2. Janngooɓe ɓee ine mbaawi marde ɗemɗe ɗiɗi nder jaŋde lesre, so jaŋde ndee e deggondiral ngal moƴƴinaama.

Fiɓnde 4 : Jokkude jaŋde he Ɗ1 caggal nde Ɗ2 wonti ɗemngal dowrowal jaŋde. Janngingol he Ɗ1 ine jokka moƴƴinde no feewi kattanɗe he nder Ɗ2, hay nde Ɗ2 wonti ɗemngal jannginirngal.

Fiɓnde 5 : Jokkude e sifaa duumiiɗo, yuɓɓinfde, ƴellitde, yahdinde e moƴƴinde ciynugol politikaaji Ɗemngal Jannginirgal, e dow tuugnaade he ngonka e paandaale leydi. Banke winndereejo ine foti gollodaade e leyɗe gollodiiɗe kam e gollodiiɓe ɓamtaare ngam sosde e feccondirde ngaluuji tawa kadi ine daranii wallitde kattanɗe janngingol potndowol, ngol faayiida dowrowo, ɗe politikaaji juɓɓuɗi Ɗemngal Jaŋde rokkata.

Banke winndereejo ine sakkita calɗi golle tati ngam yenaneede piɓle ɗee ine naattinee e kala sahaa nder golle Banke winndereejo oo, ngam ƴellitde e aaɓnude ciynugol ndee yiyannde. 

Senngo adano ngoo toppitii ko sunnaade e ɓetde ngonka PƊJ he nder kala leydi gollodteendi, kam e peeje politik goodɗe. Senngo ɗimmo ngoo ɗaɓɓi ko darnde ɓurnde tiiɗde geɗe PƊJ rewrude e kaaldigal.

Faandaare, yimɓe toɗɗaaɓe, faayiida e njuɓɓudi ndee winndannde ;

Faandaare ndee winndannde ko ngam yenaneede wonde Golle Banke winndereejo he Nehdi e Jaŋde he nder winndere ndee, ine mbaawi wallude leyɗe ɗaɓɓuɗe ɗum seertude e caɗeele bonɗe ɗe PƊJ ɗi moƴƴaani ngaddata e nder jaŋde sukaaɓe… Winndannde ndee haalaani denndanngal calɗi politik jaŋde. Nde haalaani ko faati he darnde PƊJ nder jaŋde toownde, jaŋde e heblo karallaagal e mecce, jaŋde mawɓe walla ekko nder nguurndam no diidorinoo. Winndannde ndee ina waggina GBM nde huutortoo yiyannde hesere ndee. Jaɓgol wasiyaaji mum ine ɗaɓɓi ummanagol golle ƴaañoyooje leyɗe gollodtooɗe e GBM, baaɗe no : wiɗtooji ɓurɗi luggiɗde, ƴellitgol e cargol ngaluuji winndere denndaaɗi, ɓeydugol ganndal e kattanɗe gollotooɓe he nder jaŋde rewrude he kaaldigal ɓurngal yuumtude haa teeŋti wonande jaŋde leslesre….

Winndannde ndee fuɗɗorii ko heɓtinnde, wonde « ko ɓuri teeŋtude اe ngalu aadeewu ummortoo ko e ɗemngal », ɗum firti ko « ɗemngal woni ngooroondi kala ngalu he nder renndooji kesi (renndooji hannde), tee ngu heɓortoo ko rewrude e nehdi e jaŋde ». Ɗum noon so leydi ine njiɗi ƴellitde ngalu mum, endi foti moƴƴinde jaŋde nder ekkol e ɓeydude keeweendi « Kitaale Jaŋde Yahdunde e Ekko » (Années de Scolarité Adaptées à l’Apprentissage (ASAA)). Politikaaji ballitooji heblude yimɓe hattanɓe (annduɓe, haralleeɓe, waawɓe ɓamtude leydi) poti tuugaade ko politikaaji ɗemngal jaŋde juumtungal ; tee « BM ine foti no feewi wallitde ɗiin politikaaji, ɗum jeyee e sarɗiiji ardinta so ine wallita leyɗeele ɗee ƴellitde kattanɗe mum en ». 

Haala ñaaƴata ko he hunuko joom mum : njaltinen tan huunde he tonngol winndannde ndee…

« Heewi saabaade pamɗugol njeñtudi jaŋde ko politikaaji jaŋde ɗi tuugaaki e ɗemɗe jaŋde potnooɗe suɓeede ɗee. Nder won e leyɗe, sukaaɓe ine njannga duuɓi tati (3) tawa mbaawaa heɓtinde hay helmere wootere winndannde, heen sahaaji tawa alaa ko ɓe nganndi so wonaa alkulal gootal ». Ɗum noon ɓe mbiyi, so neɗɗo reenaaki tan fawtata caɗeele ɗee fof ko he « baasgol jannginooɓe hattande » walla « janngooɓe ɓee waasde toppiteede », kono tawa ɓuri saabaade ɗee caɗeele fof ko « kuutoragol he jaŋde hee ɗemngal ngal almuɓɓe ɓee paamataa ». Alaa ko addani almuɓɓe leefde so wonaa waasde faamde ɗemngal njanngnirtee ngal.

Toɓɓere tataɓere winndannde ndee yaltini, ko hollude wonde « juumtugol jaŋde ine fawii e cuɓagol ɗemngal jaŋde moƴƴal ngal ». « So sukaaɓe ngidoriima tawo jannginireede he nder ɗemngal ngal kaalata, paamata no moƴƴi, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata faamde, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata yaawde anndude ɗemɗe goɗɗe, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata ɓooyde he nder jaŋde, ko ndeen jaŋde maɓɓe ndee ɓurata yahdude e pinal maɓɓe e ngonka nder nder nokku maɓɓe. Ko ɗuum woni ko wiɗtooji keewɗi, mawɗi, jangtaaɗi ɗoo e cili keewɗi, kolliti.  Politikaaji jaŋde moƴƴi ɗemngal jannginirgal ine mballita potal nder ekkol e nder ƴettugol gollotooɓe ; kañji kadi ɓuri famɗude fere, tee eɗi ñiɓa no moƴƴi janngooɓe he nder renndo mum en ».

« Politikaaji moƴƴi ɗemngal jaŋde keewaani ».

Ɓure mum fof e heewde, yoga e tippule nehdi e jaŋde tuugaaki he ɗemngal ɓurngal haande ngal. Alaa, yoga heen, mbaɗɗini e sukaaɓe ɓee ko janngirde ɗemɗe ɗe paamataa no moƴƴi, walla nii, ko ɓuri ɗuum bonde, janngirde ɗemɗe ɗe nganndaa. Ɓeen sukaaɓe tooñaaɓe he jaŋde ngoni kadi sukaaɓe tooñaaɓe he nder nokkuuji goɗɗi (ko wayi to bannge renndo e faggudu, e to bannge goɗɗugol nokkuuji teeru ekn.), huunde saɗtinoore jaŋde maɓɓe, haɗoore ɓe yahrude yeeso nder jaŋde. He nder yoga e leyɗe, jannginooɓe e janngooɓe ko waawneteeɓe jannginirde e janngirde ɗemɗe ɗe ɓe kaalataa (ɗe ngonaa ɗemɗe maɓɓe), tee ine anndaa wonde, he nder almuɓɓe sappo (10) fof, heen njeenayo (9) (ɗuum woni ko ɓuri 90%) ine mbaawi waasde dañde kattanɗe ɓurɗe famɗude katojinaaɗe ɗee, ko wayi no taro  e hiisa lesleso, nder ekkolaaji dewɗi oon politik jannginirgol ɗemɗe koɗe wonande janngooɓe e jannginooɓe.

Polikaaji bonɗi paatuɗi he ɗemngal jannginirgal ine mbonna jaŋde, ine haɗa heɓde, ine kaɗa nuunɗal, ine kaɗa juumtugol e keƴgol he nder renndo. Wiɗtooji keewɗi kollitii wonde « cukalel ɓuri waawde ekkaade ko he ɗemngal mum gadanal (Ɗ1)… So tawii ngel fuɗɗoriima jaŋde maggel he ɗemngal maggel gadanal ngal (Ɗ1), ko ndeen ngel ɓuroyta waawde ɗemngal ɗimmal ngal (Ɗ2) e waawde marde gannde. Ko ndeen kadi ngel ɓuroyta duumaade he ekkol. Ko ndeen sukaaɓe jeyaaɓe e 40% galleeji ɓuri famɗude doole to bannge renndo e faggudu, ɓuroyta waawde janngirde ɗemngal ngal paamataa, tee galleeji maɓɓe ngalaa ngalu mbaawngu ustude baɗte politikaaji ɗemngal jaŋde ɗi moƴƴaani he nder ekkollaaji ɗo njanngata ɗoo. Leyɗeele dewɗe politikaaji jaŋde kuutorteeɗi ɗemɗe ɗe jannginooɓe e janngooɓe kaalataa, paamataa, ine teskoo ko pirlitta heen e ngalu koo alaa nafoore » (wayi ko no bonnude jawdi e huunde nde heewaani nafoore e mum). « Ɗiin politikaaji ngaddanta sukaaɓe heewɓe woppude jaŋde, heewɓe ndonka ɓennude, e sifaa kuuɓtodinɗo tolno jaŋde wona e lesɗitde ». Ko ɗuum tagi, « nafoore leyɗeele ɗee to bannge kaalis ko huutoraade politikaaji ɗemɗe jaŋde moƴƴi, sibu maa ɗe ustu njaru heblo almuudo haa heɓa seedantaagal (dipoloom) , ko jiidaa e ɓeydaare wonande kala ɗemngal jannginirangal e nder ekkol laamu dañata heen ». 

 « Ɓamtaare mawnde no feewi ina waawi dañeede so ɗemɗe seeɗa goɗɗe mbaɗtii jannginireede ». Wiyde ine jannginira he nder 7 000 ɗemɗe winndere ndee fof, ko goonga ine hulɓina, kono ngool kulol haanaani. Luural ngal ko sikkude wonde jaŋde Ɗemɗe Keewɗe Tuugiinde e Ɗemngal Neeniwal (ƊK-TƊN) ine ɗaɓɓi ngalu ɓurtungu ngu tolnondiraani e nafoore mum. Tawi noon, goonga-goonga, ƊK-TƊN ine heewi ngartam, tee ɓuri to woɗɗi no heewi sikkireede nii, weeɓde yuɓɓinde. Waɗi noon, ko ɓuri heewde e jannginirteeɓe hannde e Ɗ2 ko seeɗa ɓeydortee e ɗemɗe kuutorteeɗe he jaŋde, he tolno winndere ndee fof. Nayaɓe tati (75%) caɗeele ɗee maa usto so 220 ɗemɗe goɗɗe ɓeydaama e nder winndere ndee (wonata ko hedde ɗemngal gootal nder leydi kala). Ngam heɓde 84% wonande denndaangal janngooɓe ɗemɗe ɓurɗe famɗude ɗee he nder leyɗe ɗee fof, ko 559 ɗemngal fat (ko jaasi ɗemɗe tati goɗɗe wonande leydi kala) poti ɓeydeede e ɗemɗe janngnirteeɗe ɗee. He sifaaji ɗiɗi ɗii fof, ɗemɗe potɗe ɓeydeede ɗee ko ɗemɗe binndaaɗe. Ko ɗe juɓɓinaaɗe, tee heen gootal kala, ko famɗi fof, 1,5 miliyoŋ ine kaala ɗum. 6 200 ɗemɗe keddiiɗe he winndere ɗee, haalooɓe ɗum en njettaaki 10% he keeweendi yimɓe aduna oo fof. Jeegoɓe joy (5/6) saɗeende ndee ine waawi safrireede tiiɗnaare yuɓɓinaande, toɓɓaande. Ñawndugol jeegoɓal saɗeende keddingal ngal ine waawi ɗaɓɓude mudda juutɗo kam e ngalu keewngu.

Miijooji e jiyle politik ine mbattina e politikaaji ɗemngal jaŋde (PƊJ). Ɗiiɗoo dalillaaji jangtaaɗi no mbayi heewde nii fof, hol ko saabii leyɗe keewɗe haa hannde ine cuɓoo PƊJ ɗi njeñtudi mum en jaŋde moƴƴaani, etee njoñoori yimɓe heewɓe ? Gooto e sababuuji hee ine waawi wonde ŋakkere anndude nafoore janngingol he ɗemngal janngooɓe ɓee ɓuri waawde haalde, e faamde no moƴƴi. Sababuuji goɗɗi ɗii ɓuri, sikke alaa heen, mettude yiyde e faamde. Dalillaaji cuɓagol ɗemngal jannginirgal ine hasii pawoo e jiyle politik diwtuɗe senngo jaŋde. Ɗemngal ine jotondiri no feewi e neɗɗaagu ngenndi e politik. Heen sahaaji, mahngo ngenndi ine waawi jotondirde e ɓamtugol ɗemngal leñol gootol dow ɗemɗe leƴƴi keddiiɗi ɗii. Ɗiggingol ɗemngal ine jogii darnde nder gollingol. E ko ɓuri heewde, jiknaaɓe sukaaɓe ɓee kiisii ko so cukalel waawaani ɗemɗe mawɗe ɗee (iwdi koloñaal), dañataa golle moƴƴinooje janngo mum en. Ɗiggingol ɗemngal ine waawi wonde sabaabu cuɓagol Ɗ2 winnderewal, hay so tawii noon ine anndaa ɗuum yuumtaani, haa teeŋti noon so tawii fannuuji ɗii fof njanngirtee ko Ɗ2, ɗo kattanɗe jannginooɓe walla janngooɓe ɓee waawi tolnaade fof noon. Teskagol ngonka kuuɓtodinka to bannge politik ine himmi no feewi wonande daranagol politik juumtuɗo wonande geɗe jowitiiɗe e Ɗemngal Gadanal Jaŋde.

Safaruuji politik ine ngoodi kono ciynetaake no haanirta nii.

Capanɗe hitaande jooni ko dallinannde ngam politikaaji moƴƴi PƊJ (polotik ɗemngal jaŋde) ine mbaɗee, kono, ine famɗi ɗo jogiiɓe laamu walla gollodiiɓe ɓamtaare mbaɗti heen hakkille. Kono eɗen mbeltii, jooni won ummannde sooynaa he nder won ɗiin nokkuuji winndere ndee, ngam waɗde wiɗtooji keewɗi, ɓurɗi moƴƴude. Kadi, won humpito woodaa, miijooji juumtuɗi lelni wasiyaaji moƴƴi, dowrowi wonande fannu oo e sifaa kuuɓtodinɗo, wonande kadi, ma a taw, denndaangal gaggaaji tokoosi laaɓtuɗi. Wasiyaaji moƴƴi ine ngoodaa, cifotooɗi ngonka leyɗe ɗee, wonande kadi peeje e kuutoragol ɗemɗe ɗee nder nehdi e jaŋde. Laabi ɗowooji kam e yeruuji jiyle moƴƴe kuuɓtodinɗe nder taƴe jaŋde he nder Ɗ1 ine keewi hannde. Peeje peewnugol kaɓirɗe jaŋde e ekko, kam e topirɗe (logiciels) peewnirɗe defte janngirɗe e defte daari wonande sukaaɓe, ine ngoodi tee njoɓetaake, tee ine ɓeydoo ñalnde kala huutoreede. Peeje politik wonande caɗeele keewɗe paatuɗe he jannginooɓe, kam e jaŋde e heblo, ine ɓeydoo limtilimtinde. Gannde e ngoƴaaji paatuɗi e gagga ɗemngal ɓetirgal ine ɓeydoo heewde. Dalillaaji laaɓtuɗi teskaama wonande keelɗugol « leelgol yaltinde » kam e peeje goɗɗe jannginirɗe juumtuɗe ine ngoodi. Kono tan jahral heen yeeso ngal ine leeli no feewi, kadi kaɓirɗe goodaaɗe ɗee nganndaaka no feewi walla paamaaka.

Fulo e tonngol : Bookara Aamadu Bah

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