Daartol njiyaagu nder defte laawol Maalik (Taƴre II)

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Eɗen njokka haala ganndo gooto, lolluɗo, ko faati e diine, biyeteeɗo Muhammed el Muttaar Esingiti, puɗɗino-ɗen e tonngoode Fooyre Ɓamtaare tŋ99 (yah ɗoo ngam tarde fuɗɗoode ndee). En tonngiino huunde e haala ooɗoo ganndo, fuɗɗinoo haalde ko faati e « daartol njiyaagu » e nder defte annduɓe laawol Maalik. Eɗen njokka e taƴre ɗiɗmere winndannde makko ndee. Hay so tawii yimɓe fof mbaawaa hawrude e miijooji makko ɗii, ittataa ko ɗi miijooji jaambaraagal mawngal, tee maa ɗum ummin haala, walla yimɓe ɓeydaade ɓallaade goonga.

Eɗen njokka haala ganndo gooto, lolluɗo, ko faati e diine, biyeteeɗo Muhammed el Muttaar Esingiti, puɗɗino-ɗen e tonngoode Fooyre Ɓamtaare tŋ99. En tonngiino huunde e haala ooɗoo ganndo, fuɗɗinoo haalde ko faati e « daartol njiyaagu » e nder defte annduɓe laawol Maalik. Eɗen njokka e taƴre ɗiɗmere winndannde makko ndee. Hay so tawii yimɓe fof mbaawaa hawrude e miijooji makko ɗii, ittataa ko ɗi miijooji jaambaraagal mawngal, tee maa ɗum ummin haala, walla yimɓe ɓeydaade ɓallaade goonga.

El Moktaar wiyi

En njiyiino, e winndannde ɓennunde ndee, to bannge sariya, njiyaagu e nder renndo juulɓe hannde, alaa daliilu. En njiyiino hol peeje baawɗe tuugeede ngam dagnude mumtugol mum, so rokkude wiyeteeɓe jiyaaɓe coktirgal ndimaagu mum en (Mukaataba, walla « coodtagol »). En kaaliino kadi baasgol ulemaa en ɓee haalde ko laaɓti wonande hakke neɗɗo ɓurɗo himmude, so hakke nguurndam.

Winndannde ɓennunde ndee ko naatirde haala huɓtodinnde tan wonnoo. Sibu, so en ngartii e ngonka Muritani, huunde ndee ɓuri bonde e hulɓinaade, so ƴeewraama to bannge weeyo e sahaa. Njiyaagu e nder Muritani ko huunde haawniinde nde alanaaka hay hujja gooto to bannge ñaawooje Lislaam. Sibu woni ɗoo ko juulɓe ina njiyɗina juulɓe hono mum en, huunde nde nganndu-ɗaa ko harminaande haa laaɓti, sibu ƴiiƴam juulɗo, kam e jawdi mum, e ndimaagu mum, ko geɗe kanndaaɗe ɗe hay juulɗo gooto yamiraaka yettaade. Luural alaa, ko ɗuum woni maanaa hadiis Nulaaɗo Alla (JKWM) biyɗo « Alla wiyi : Ɓe kaɓotoo-mi ñalnde darnga ɓee, ko tato : penɗo caggal nde rewi e Innde am (janɗo woondoore), jeeyɗo neɗɗo dimo, ñaami jawdi nguun coodgu, e kasɗo neɗɗo salii yoɓde ɗum hakke mum » [1]. Ko ɗumɗoo woni ko etoto-ɗen faamninde e ndeeɗoo winndannde.

Wonii jooni teeminanɗe nay, ganndo biyeteeɗo Ahmed Baaba Al Tumbukti (963-1032 caggal fergo nulaaɗo) suurtiino, ñiŋi njiyaagu mbaɗetenoongu e nder Saharaa Mawɗo, e tuuma nde dallinta leefgol ngooroondi mum e nder ñaawooje Lislaam (Fiqh) kono kadi to bannge daartol. Ahmed Baaba, wonande ɓe nganndaa, ummii ko e galle mawɗo dawɗo Waamata hoɗtoyi Tummbuktu e sahaa mo ngoon wuro wonnoo laamorgo laamaandi Sonngaay. Ko neɗɗo baawnooɗo winndude, gooto e faccirooɓe Kaliil (gooto e winndooɓe ɓe defte mum en nduppaa ɓee) ɓurɓe maantinde [2]. Ɗum noon, o haalata ko no geɗe ɗee mbayi e renndo ngo kollit-ɗen kuyfiɗgol tuugorɗe mum to bannge ñaawooje Lislaam. Ahmed Baaba ko neɗɗo gannduɗo daartol, tee kiisɗo wonande kala ko toɗɗii ɗee geɗe potal e ñuunɗal. Kanko e hoore makko omo humpitii caɗtaraagal njiyaagu, nde tawnoo o waɗtanooma jiyaaɗo nde konu Maruk saadeewu honata Tummbuktu, dahi yimɓe ndee.

Ko Ahmed Baaba winndi siftorde (mémoire) lollunde yowitiinde e « Somuya jiyaaɓe sudaannaaɓe » nde gayni winndude e hitaande 1024 (caggal Fergo), nde Duɗal Jaŋɗeele Afriknaaje Rabaa, deftere nde Faatimettu Harak e John Hunwick piri e ɗemngal Engele. E nder ndeen siftorde, Ahmed Baaba ina siftina wonde Sudaannaaɓe (nokku Afirik hirnaange hannde oo) naatii Lislaam ko ɓooyi, ko leeli fof gila e teeminannde 5ɓiire Fergo (teem 11ɓiire caggal Iisaa). Waɗtude ɓeen yimɓe jiyaaɓe alaa maanaa to bannge ñaawoore diine, sibu so tuugaama e hadiis kaalaaɗo dow oo, ɗum wayi ko no yeddude nii.

Rewi e makko e ngool laawol ko Faqih (ganndo sariya) biyeteeɗo Ibraahiim El Jarimi e nder siftorde mum nde tiitoonde addoore haala, foti wonde konngol njooɓaari kala yiɗɓe nuunɗande hardaneeɓe Muritani : « Nodditgol bonɓe e ndimaagu Sudaan ». Ellee ndee siftorde suwaa tawo bayyineede, kono tan biɗtoowo maruknaajo biyeteeɗo Abdel Kallagh Ahmeduun bayyinii heen taƴe mawɗe ɗe waañjitii e tumbitere deftere ndee winndiraande junngo, mooftanoonde nder defterdu Seek Abdalla Kennuun. E fuɗɗoode siftorde ndee, El Jarimi winndi : « Caggal nde njiy-mi no yimɓe heewɓe njanirta e sudaannaaɓe, tawi alaa fof hujja mo njogii so wonaa wiyde ko ɓe njiyaaɓe walla heeferɓe, mi fellitii, e nder ndeeɗoo siftorde, werlaade wulaango e jeertinde kala goongɗinɓe Alla hay so ko seeɗa ». O joofniri wonde njiyaagu ko « tooñannge, ko majjere » [3].

Kono ko daartoowo biyeteeɗo Ahmed Kaaled Mohammed Ennasiiri (caŋkiiɗo e hitaande 1315 Fergo) larñiti ɗum haa larñitii, e nder deftere winndi, tiitoriinde « Cunnagol geɗe dowlaaji Magreb ceɓɓitto » [4] ; o weejni ndee fenaande ɓuttere, hono njiyaagu e nder Afrik rewo e hirnaange. Winndannde Ennasiiri ndee noon ina juuti, ko ɗum tagi eɗen peccitoo nde e taƴe taƴe.

Go’o : Ɓesnguuji Sudaan (Ko Magrebnaaɓe mbiyata Afrik hirnaange koo) ko juulɓe no feewi gila ko ɓooyi. Ko ɓiɗɓe yummiraaɓe maɓɓe mbaɗti ɓe jiyaaɓe koo, ko jaasre mawnde. Ennasiiri winndi : « E hono no min njangtorino-maa e daartol Sudaan, yimɓe ndiiɗoo leydi ko juulɓe ko ɓooyi ; ɓe njeyaa ko e ɓurɓe goongɗinde e juulɗude e fortaade e nuunɗude, ɓurɓe anndude, ɓurɓe kadi jaggude enɗam diine mum en. Ɗii sifaaji moƴƴi ina carii e yoga e laamuuji maɓɓe, hono no nganndir-ɗaa ɗum nii. Ɗum noon, aɗa faama jaasre e yoorɓerndaagu golle ɓooyɗe waɗeede e Magreb, so jiyɗingol sudannaaɓe e comagol mum en hitaande kala, no jawdi nii, ngam yeeyde ɗum en gure e laddeeji, no jawdi yeeyirtee nii, walla nii ko ɓuri ɗoon bonde ».

O ɓeydi heen : « Sudaannaaɓe ko juulɓe. Eɗen poti jaggirde ɓe no njaggir-ɗen koye men nii. Hay so tawii aɓe mbaɗi heeferɓe walla rewɓe diineeji goɗɗi, ɓeen ngonaa keeweendi. Ndaa ko keeweendi ndii ɓuri himmude. Hay sinno en mbaɗii wonde juulɓe maɓɓe e heeferɓe maɓɓe poti keeweendi, hol no mbaawirten yenaneede ko heeferɓe tan ngoni e « jawdi comaandi ndii », juulɓe ngalaa heen ? » [5].

Ɗiɗi : E nder Afrik hirnaange, hafeere njiyaagu waɗtaa ko hafeere goobu nguru ɓalndu. Ɗum ko huunde bonnde no feewi, ko fenaande nde hono mum woodaani. Ennasiri jokki : « yimɓe ɓee ko ɗuum tan njaggi e koye mum en, yontaaji keewɗi jooni. Yimɓe ɓee fof miijotoo jiyaaɗo ko ɓaleejo tan, walla ummiiɗo e nokkuuji ɗo ɓe njuletenoo ɗoo. Ndaa ɗuum ko bakkaat moolanaaɗo, ɗe alaa ko poti bonde to bannge diine » [6]. Ennasiiri faamiino tigi geɗe ɗee, haa teeŋti noon so en ƴeewii jillondiral leƴƴi mawngal kewngal e nder pinal diine Lislaam, ceerndungal ɗum e diineeji keddiiɗi ɗii. Sibu, e sahaa nde won ɗeen pine kollittunoo ngañgu mum en e won ɓeen yimɓe sabu tan goobu guri ɓalli mum en walla mbaadi mum en, annduɓe e yimiyankooɓe aarabeeɓe kam en ngonnoo ko e yimde e jarfude ŋari Ɓaleeɓe. Yeru mum ko El Jehed, e nder siftorde tiitoriinde « Sudaannaaɓe ɓuri Biidaan en » ina jarfa ɓure Ɓaleeɓe kam e juulɓe leƴƴi goɗɗi. El Jahed joofniri : « Alaa tagaaɗo ko ɓuri ɓaleeɓe moƴƴude … Aɓe cemmbolini, cuusi… Ɓaleejo ina nehii, ina laaɓi ɓernde, ina weli, alaa miijo bonngo ». [7].

El Jahed haaɗaani ɗoon. O jarfi nguru ɓaleewu e sifaa kuɓtodinɗo : « Alaa fof ko ɓuri ɓalewol rimɗude e yooɗde … » [8]. Caggal ɗum, biyeteeɗo El Jowsi, e nder deftere mum haaloore ko faati e Ɓaleeɓe e Abisinaaɓe, nde tiitoonde mum waawi firdeede « Faamninde fuuyɓe hol ko woni Ɓaleeɓe e Abisinaaɓe » [9], hollitii wonde sikkeeji ɓurondiral leƴƴi woodaani e pinal aarabeeɓe. O holliti heen ɓure gonɗe e ɓaleejo ɗe neɗɗo waawaa miijaade. O udditiri deftere ndee ɓatakeeji Nulaaɗo (JKWM) winndondirtunoo e Negus (Laamɗo Ecopi) kam e hol no juulɓe puɗɗorii yahde Abisi (Ecopi). O sifiima e annduɓe ɓaleeɓe ko heewi, haa arti noon e hakilantaagal mum en, e ƴoƴre mum en, e moƴƴere mum en. O jaari, o jarfi suufiyankooɓe ɓaleeɓe, rewɓe e worɓe, o waɗani ɓe tumbutere no woorunoo.

Tati : Iwdi fof ko ndimaagu. En mbaawaa abada yeeɓde julaaɓe jiyaaɓe, tee en coklaani sowtude inɗe maɓɓe. Ko ɓe fenooɓe, yiilyiiltooɓe, fefooɓe, waklitooɓe binndi diine. Haa hannde kadi ko Ennasiri wiyi kadi « Neɗɗo jibintee ko ina rimɗi, ina wellitii, jibintaake jiyaaɗo. Kala caliiɗo wellitaare ko jedduɗo iwdi. Hol baawɗo goongɗinde haala jula ? Ko huunde anndaande, jula heewi ko haalde ko woodaani ngam yeeyde marsandiis mum, haa teeŋti noon so tawii oon marsandiis ko jiyaaɓe. Julaaɓe jiyaaɓe kaandaani e hoolaare sibu ɓe ngalaa faayiida, ɓe ngalaa diine » [10].

Nay : Fuɗɗi nguu njeeygu njiyaaɓe ngu rewaani laawol, ko jiiɓru ardundu e kareeli hakkunde laamɓe ɓaleeɓe juulɓe kaɓatnoo e koye mum en, kam e kareeli hakkunde leƴƴi aarabeeji walla gontunooɗi aarabeeji (juulɓe kam en kadi), e nder Saharaa : « ina anndaa wonde e nder Sudaan, peewnitinooɗo e goɗɗo oo fof yanatno e mum, rugga jawdi mum, daha ɓesngu mum, walla ndeen wujjoya ɗum en e gure goɗɗuɗe koɗki mum en. Ɗumɗoo noon ko huunde woowtaande haa e nder Aarabeeɓe Magreb ruggondirtunooɓe e koye mum en, wujjondirtunooɓe jawdi, gila e ndariindi haa e jawɗeele goɗɗe. Addatnooɓe waɗde ɗee geɗe bonɗe ko waasde ɓe hulde Alla e famɗude ko goongɗini kam e waasde ɓe jogaade ndimaagu e gacce e faayiida. Hol fof no neɗɗo kulɗo Alla, hay so ko seeɗa, waawirta soodde oo marsandiis, e ittude rewɓe e mbalndi mum en, huunde nde alaa ko seerti e jinaa ? … Ko jaasi ɗum, hannde, yimɓe bidaa kam e yimɓe ɓe kulaani Alla hay seeɗa, ina ndaha sukaaɓe rimɓe leƴƴi Magreb, ina njeeyoya ɗum en, naange e hoore kellew, e nder jehreeji, tawi alaa fof ñiŋoowo ɗum en e innde diine. Hannde, ko kerecee en, e Yahuud en mbaɗti ɓeen sukaaɓe jiyaaɓe, aduna fof ina hucciti heen. Ɗumɗoo ma a taw ko kuɗdi Alla huɗi en ; ko kanko jeyi en, ko e makko nduttitto-ɗen … » [11].

Joy : nawdude njiyaagu kewnoongu e daawal hakkundeewal yonta lislaam e njiyaagu mbaɗeteengu e Afrik rewo, ko nawdude ko jiidaa, alaa ko firti, sibu : « iwdi njiyaagu carɗanoongu e yonta Nulaaɗo (JKM) e sahabaaɓe mum ko nanngugol yimɓe e nder wolde diine (Jihaadi). Ko diine Nulaaɗo (JKM) men yamirnoo en. Waɗde ko luulndii ɗum, ko luulndaade diine. Ko yaltude laawol sariya. Kono ko Alla tan waawi ɗowde pele men. Ehey maa Alla, min pagganiima koye amen bakkaat. So a yaafaaki min, min njeyaa ko e tilfiiɓe”. [12]. Ko Ennasiri haalnoo heen koo fof, ko goonga. Ina laaɓti wonde, alaa fof ɗo laamuyon e tirbiiji juulɓe warondirtunooɓe e koye mum en sabu yiɗde tineede e heɓde taƴre jawdi, mbaawi walla poti nawdeede e konu sahodinɓe sabu yiɗde sarde konngol moƴƴol e jamirooje Alla Toowɗo oo, tawi alaa ko ɗowi ɗum en so wonaa njeenaari tawoyta laakara, kam e goongɗinde. Yimiyanke biyeteeɗo Mohammed Ighbal hollitii tigi ko seerndi ɗii ngonkaaji ɗiɗi [13] e nder deftere mum tiitoriinde “Jenaa Jibriil“ :

E joofnirde, miɗo yiɗi siftinde wonde Tuunus ko Dowla juulɗo, dewbo laawol Maalik. Ko ɓuri heewde e tuugorɗe men Maalikiyankooje ko toon ƴoogaten ɗum en, e rewrude e defte Abi Zaayd El Kayrawani. Ko ina wona jooni duuɓi 160, Tuunusnaaɓe ina kiisii wonde golle jiyɗingol ɓesnguuji Sudaan rewo e Afrik hirnaange, njahdaani e ñaawooje laawol Maalik kam e daartol. Ɗum addannoo Guwerneer wuro Tuunus, hono biyeteeɗo Ahmed Pasha, harminde njeeygu jiyaaɓe e nder jehreeji wuro ngoo, o heli jehre ɗo jiyaaɓe njeeyetenoo e wuro hee e hitaande 1841 (caggal Iisaa), ɗum woni duuɓi 140 ko adii kaɗgol njiyaagu e Muritani, ko adii nde huunde e leyɗe Orop ƴettata ngaal kuulal.

E hitaande 1846, Ahmed Bey yaltini yamiroore ngam waawnude Ulemaa en e annduɓe sariya haɓaade njiyaagu e nder laamu mum. Ko nii ndeen yamiroore lelorinoo :

« Ulemaa en, Seernaaɓe e Muftiiji Tuunus, ina nganndinee njiyaagu ittaama. Alla yettaama. Yo Alla hisnu on, reena on, uddita gite mon. Onon hoohooɓe juulɓe, onon annduɓe, onon ardiiɓe ngenndi, maantooɗe mawneeki mum. Feewde e Sheex Sih Muhammed Biraam, Sheex lislaam, Sheex Sih Ibraahiim Errayahi Pasha, Mufti laawol Maalik. Feewde e Muftiiji ɗiɗi hono Sheex Sih Muhammed Ibn Kawja e Sheex Sih Muhammed Ibn Salaama, feewde e Sheex Sih Ahmed Ellabi, Sheex Sih Muhammed Amjuub, Sheex Sih Muhammed el Kaddaar, feewde e Qaadiiji : Sheex Sih Muhammed Ibn Bakiir, Sheex Sih Muhammed ibn Elbinaa, Sheex Sih Muhammed Eniwer Bibardo, Sheex Sih Wari Ettemimi. Yo Alla duwano ɓe, teddina ɓe, yo jam e kisal won e mon. So ɗum yawtii, hannde min njenanaama yoga e yimɓe men ɗooftaaki doosɗe jeyi jowitiiɗe e miskineeɓe Sudaannaaɓe, paatuɗe e luural gonngal hakkunde annduɓe, jowitiingal e dagagol oon jeyi, sibu Lislaam reende ɓe ko ɓooyi, sabu kadi anndude kala « jeyɗo » ɓiy yumma mum, Nulaaɗo (YJKM) ina wasiyii nde rimɗinta ɗum. Ko ɗum addani min sikkude ina jojji no feewi harminande ɓesngu nguu ɗee baɗe ɗe dagagol mum en waɗi luural, kono goodɗe e renndo men, ngam sakkaade ndee tagoore yurminiinde e nder nguurndam mum e Aduna hee, e hisnude jeyɓe ɓe ɓee e nguurndam mum en to laakara, hisna ɗum en e bakkaat bonɗo, itta kadi fenaande fawaande e ɓiɗɓe yummiraaɓe men ɓe Alla halfini en. Yanti heen eɗum waɗani en nafoore nde alaa luural to bannge politik, sibu maa ɗuum haɗ ɓe yedditaade jowitagol maɓɓe e meeɗen. Min toɗɗiima Mawɓe hellifaaɓe to Siidi Mohrez, to Siidi Mansuur e to Zaawiya El Bekriya fotɓe hokkude kala garɗo wullitaade seedewol coodtiigu.

Oɗon poti moolde e rimɗinde kala dogɗo kalfaandi, ari moolaade e mon, sibu njiyaagu ko huunde nde dagaaki no feewi, haa arti noon e sahaa hannde oo. So tawii sikke ina woodi e huunde, laawol e nehdi njamiri ko hoto ndeen huunde waɗe, haa teeŋti noon so tawii ko waasde waɗde ɗum ndee ko nafoore yimɓe fof.

Yo Alla wuurtu en e ko moƴƴi, waɗta en e malaaɓe waɗooɓe golle moƴƴe. Jam Alla rewii on, ummoraade e Ahmed Pasha, katojinɗo e yurmeede Alla, e nde Alla ɗowata pele mum. Winndaa ko ñalnde 23 saawiyee 1746 ».

Alaa fof ɗo defte daartol kolliti calagol walla diiwtugol yamiroore Ahmed Pasha ndee, tawi ko ummoriinde e annduɓe laawol Maalik Tuunusnaaɓe ; ɗum ko seede kamɓe fof aɓe keɓtini njiyaagu e nder ooɗoo diiwaan ko fenaande.

Yimiyanke Faraysenaajo biyeteeɗo Bartelemi (1796-1867) hettaniino Guwerneer Tuunus oo yimre, ina jarfa ɗum, ina waggina heen laamɓe Orop nde tiimtotoo e makko ko fayti e ittugol njiyaagu.

Ko arata koo taƴre e ndeen yimre :

Sultaan Tuunus ittii njiyaagu
Pele ɓaleejo ndimɗii, nde njortii e tufnde,
Yo Joomiraaɗo Jom  kala baawɗe oo ɗuh mo e wibjo mum,
Yo Orop waɗ mo yeru wonande laamɓe mum

E tonngol, eɗen mbaawi wiyde « alaa fof daliilu dagiiɗo walla to bannge daartol » woodi, tawi ko dagnoowo njiyaagu e Afrik Rewo e Hirnaange, ɗum noon e Muritani. Ko ɗum fenaande ɓaleere kurum fawaande e ɓeen yimɓe duuɓi teemedde jooni, tawi wuurni ɗum ko kareeli e laamuuji fenaande ɗi ñaawooje gaadoraaɗe ƴettiti. Yontii tuubanen Alla, ñaago-ɗen mo yaafuya sabu bonanndeeji majjum to bannge hakilantaagal e ngalu jokkuɗi leeptude ɓiɗɓe yummiraaɓe men ɓe ndenndu-ɗen diine e leydi e daartol.

E joofinirde, ina yooɗa mi ñemmbude Ennasiri nde ñiŋata njiyaagu ndee : «Joomam, min tooñii koye amen. So a yaafaaki min, a yurmaaki min, min njeyaama e boniraaɓe”

Hannde, eɗen cokli tuubuubuya kuɓtodinɗo, tawa jiyɗinnooɓe ɓee ina ñaagoo Alla yaafuya sabu tooñannge ɓe tooñi ɓiɗɓe yummiraaɓe maɓɓe e nder teemedde kitaale, ɓe ñaagoo yo Alla daɗndu maamiraaɓe maɓɓe, ɓe kunoo waasde waɗtude bakkatuuji mum en ; duppuɓe defte ñaawoore diine ɓee ne ñaagoo nde Alla yaafotoo ɗum en. Ko mbaaw-ɗen yooɓtoraade defte e fatwaaji ɗi alaa fof ɗo ɓaarii e Lislaam koo fof, ɗeen defte ina mbaɗi e nder kelle mum en Innde Alla kam e cimooje e hadisaaji.

Fulo : Bookara Aamadu Bah

  • Kelmeendi

Sanamaagu : Hérésie 
Pacciroowo : Exégète
Diisneteeɗo to bannge ñaawooje sariya : Jurisconsulte 
Fennde caggal nde inni Allah, yande woondoore : Parjure 
Siftorde (deftere) : Mémoires