Nguleeki weeyo : 2060, lajal kulɓiniingal

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So wonaani darnga ne, woɗɗataa ɗoon. Ko ɗum woni ko Banke Audunanke (Banque Mondiale) miijii ina jogori kewde. Ɗumɗoon noon ɓe tuugii ko e njeñtudi wiɗto, hollitngo wonde nguleeki so ɓeydiima degreeji nay (4°C), ko musibbaaji weeyo mawɗi njanata e winndere ndee : ile ɓurtuɗe, yoorooji bonɗi, ƴergol geecuuji …

Ko ɗum addani Banke Adunanke (BM) jeertinde, yo yimɓe ndeeno, hoto nguleeki weeyo ɓeydo ko ɓuri 4°C, sibu so ɗuum waɗii ɗoo e hitaande 2060, ko musibbaaji bonɗi njanata e leyɗe ɓurɗe waasde ɗee. E wiyde Jim Yong, gardiiɗo BM oo, « Winndere ndee maa waylo baylagol ngol hay gooto waawaa sifaade ». O haali ɗum ko e ciimtol bayyinangol ñalnde alet 25 noowammbar 2012.

Ɗum noon, ngeen darnge wonaa « leydi ina taggee ɓeeree, asamaan taggee, ɓaaree » ko ɓeydagol walla kuuɓtodingol geɗe ɗe puɗɗi-ɗen yiyde e dumunnaaji jawtuɗi ɗii : yerɓo leydi to Hayiti, ile to Pakistaan, wempeƴre Sunami to Japon, mobbooji hikka to Amerik ekn… Ɗum woni denndaangal musibaaji jotondirɗi e ɓeydagol nguleeki weeyo. E wiyde BM, winndere ndee waawaa ɗooftaade ko huninoo koo, so haɗde ɓeydagol nguleeki weeyo ɓurde 2°C sabu ɓeydagol gukkite CO2 (gaas karbonik). E wiyde ngool ciimtol, nguleeki kii maa ɓeydo ko ɓuri 4°C e nder teeminannde ngon-ɗen ndee, hedde 2060, so tawii dowlaaji ɗii mbaɗaani ko potnoo waɗde koo ko yaaccii.

Tee, ɓurata tinde ɗum fof, ko leyɗe ɓurɗe famɗude doole ɗee, hay so tawii noon ko ɗum huunde huɓtodinnde ɗum jogori wonoyde. Yoorooji janɗi hikka e Amerik walla e Orop fuɗnaange ina mbaawi waɗtude, haa teeŋti noon e leyɗe gonɗe e ŋori leydi (tropiques) ko wayi no Muritani.

Eɗen njaakorii tan batu Fedde Ngenndiije Dentuɗe jooɗotoongu tuggi 26 noowammbar haa 7 desaambar 2012,  ngam yuurnitaade hafeere baylagol weeyo maa sakku peeje. Hono ndee joɗnde ina jooɗoo hitaande kala e tawteregol terɗe 190 ciifɗe Piɓondiral Fedde Ngenndiije Dentuɗe paatungal e mbayliigaaji weeyo. Faayndaare ndeeɗoo joɗnde ko mumtude batte batu Copenhag ɗo nanondiral ronkunoo dañeede, njooɗinoongu tuggi 7 haa 18 desammbar 2009. En kaaliino njeñtudi nguun batu e Fooyre Ɓamtaare, nde mbiyaten “Batu Kopenhag : Alaa ɗo hawraa”. E nguun batu Fedde adunaare toppitiinde ngonka weeyo, alaa payndaale laaɓtuɗe, wonande ustugol gaasuuji gaddooji seer lelnaa. Obama e huunde e hooreeɓe leyɗe kawriino e piɓondiral ngal jaɓaaka haa laaɓti e batu hee, sabu nanondiral heɓaaka, so wonaa dey, batu nguu wiyi « yiyii » ko hollitaa ko. E ndeen eɓɓaande nde 26 leyɗe ƴellitiiɗe cakkiti, ina wiyaa heen wonde ɓe teeŋtinii fayndaare maɓɓe haaɗnude ɓeydagol nguleeki e degreeji 2; kono alaa lajal dottaa ngam yettaade ndeen fayndaare, wonaa 2020, wonaa 2050. Wonande pelle daraniiɗe kisal sato, ko waɗi e joɗnde Kopenhag koo, ko huunde yurminiinde, sibu ina wayi no «yimɓe nduttiima caggal » so ƴeewdaama e ko dañanoo e batu Kiyotoo koo.

Caɗeele jotondirɗe e kuutoragol karbon puɗɗii teskeede ko e feccere ɗiɗmere teeminannde 19ɓiire. Ɗum ardi ko mbaylaandi. Nguleeki leydi fuɗɗii ɓeydaade ko e kitaale 1920, ɗum deŋi hade mum fuɗɗitaade ɓeydaade e kitaale 1970.  Batu ngadanu njowitiingu e kilimaa (ngonka weeyo) jooɗii ko e 1985 to Wien (Vienne). Goomu karalleeɓe kalfinaangu reende ngonka weeyo (Giec) sosaa ko e hitaande 1988. Ngu woni ko e njiimaandi Fedde ngenndiije. Ngu jeertinii winndere ndee e hitaande 2007 e batte kuutoragol won ɗeen geɗe ɓeydooje nguleeki. Ɗum jeyi sabaabu ngu rokkaa njeenaari Nobel e ndeen hitaande.  E hitaande 1992, 131 hooreejo leydi ndennti to Rio de Janeiro to Beresiil ngam ɓamde tuugnorgal baɗngal 2 500 bagginooje wonande teeminannde 21ɓiire, ngam ustugol jeñtingol ɗeen geɗe ɓeydooje nguleeki.  E lewru desammbar 1997, 84 dowla ciifi ko anndiraa piɓondiral Kiyotoo. Leyɗeele mbaylaandi kunii ustude biimtagol gaasuuji 6 gaddooji « seer ». E noowammbar 2009, 187 leydi njaɓii nanondiral ngal.  Leyɗe bayɗe no Inndo e Siin njiɗaano nanndineede e leyɗe ɓooyɗe e mbaylaandi (ɓooyɗe posnude weeyo) haa njettii ɗo njettii hannde ɗoo. E oon sahaa, Amerik e Siin e Riisi e Inndo ɓuri fof heewde ko posnata weeyo. Ɗum haɗaani Siin e Inndo siifde nanondiral ngal. Riisi noon ɗeɓaani, sabu mum hulde hoto ɗum telɓinde ƴellitaare mum. Ndii wattini ko jaɓde siifde e hitaande 2004, nanondiral ngal waawi fuɗɗaade siyneede e febariyee 2005.  E hitaande 2007, batu Bali to Indonoosi, njooɗii dumunna seeɗa caggal caaktugol ciimtol nayaɓol Goomu haralleeɓe Giec ngoonɗinngu wonde saabii ɓeydagol nguleeki weeyo ko gaasuuji gaddooji seer. Fiɓaa e nguun batu ko ciifgol nanondiral adunankeewal potngal lomtaade nanondiral Kiyotoo, e batu Kopenhag.  Hannde o eɗen mbaawi wiyde wonde alaa heen ko laatii.

Batte baylagol ngonka weeyo

Batte baylagol ngonka weeyo ina keewi no feewi. Won heen nii en puɗɗiima teskaade ɗum en. Kono, e tonngol, ɗeeɗoo batte ko heen njeyaa, hay so tawii en mbaawaa huɓindaaɗe ɗe kañje kala.

. Ilam ɓurtuɗam : Amooji mawɗi ina mbaawi kewde sabu ɓeydagol feto geecuuji ngol saabii caaygol galasuuji gulli leydi. En puɗɗiima nii teskaade ɗuum, sibu e kitaale jawtuɗe ɗee, ina teskaa toɓooli ina ɓeydoo fotde 7% hitaande kala. Sabaabu ɗee geɗe fof noon ko ɓeydagol nguleeki weeyo. Yanti e ɗuum, ina teskaa wonde musibbaaji mawɗi bayɗi no keneeli ɓurtuɗi (yeru duleendu wiyeteendu « Katerinaa »), ɓeydiima  fotde laabi nay e nder duuɓi 20 fat.

. Nguleeki ɓurtuki : ɗum ko batte ɓurɗe yiytinaade e yaawde. E duuɓi ɓennuɗi ɗii, nguleeki warii yimɓe to Orop. Batte majjum e cellal ina keewi : – eɗum waawi addude ñabbuuli, walla ɓeydude ɗum en, ko wayi no ñawubuuli poofaango (Aasma ekn …) walla warde ɗoon e ɗoon.

. Bonnugol dunli : Leɗɗe ko mooftirgel ko wiyetee karbon koo, sibu leɗɗe guurɗe ina njagga gaas karbonik, moofta ɗum. Tee oon gaas ina jeyaa e geɗe caabotooɗe ɓeydagol nguleeki weeyo. Ndeke leɗɗe ina laɓɓina henndu poofaten nduu. Teskaama noon, hitaande kala, fotde 13 miliyoŋ hektaar dunli ina maaya. Ko ɗum tagi ustagol leɗɗe ngol ina addana posone ɓeydaade heewde e weeyo, jiidaa e ko ɗum ɓeydata nguleeki koo. So tawii yimɓe ina njiɗi ɓeydo nguleeki waasa ɓurde 2°C (degreeji ɗiɗi Celsus), alaa e sago dunli kisnee.

Hannde oo, ina wiyee wonde tagofeere men ndee (leydi) jogii ko bumsuɗe ɗiɗi (foofirta ko nokkuuji ɗiɗi) : dunli Amasoni (to Amerik worgo) e dunli Afrik hakkundeejo. Ɗum jiidaa e ko ɗi moofti koo, so kullon keewkon e eddaaji puɗi keewɗi, ɗi nafoore mum en e kisal leydi ina mawni no feewi. En kaalaani kadi wonde ko ina wona miliyaar e 600 miliyoŋ aadee nguuri ko e geɗe ummotooɗe e ɗiin dunli.

. Ƴergol geecuuji : Eɗen mbaawi yiyrude ɗum e sifaaji ɗiɗi.

Sifaa gadano oo : 22 miliyoŋ ton gaas karbonik caayooji ñalawma kala e nder geecuuji ina ɓeyda « kaaɗeeki » ndiyam mum. Ɗum ina wara won ɗiin puɗi ɗi won ɗiin liɗɗi nguurnoo, walla kadi wara won koon kullon ndiyam, kon kullon ngoɗkon nguurnoo. Sikke alaa, ɗuum so rewii, batte mum ina njettoo nguurndam tagooje kala.

Sifaa ɗiɗmo oo ko ɓeydagol ƴerngo geecuuji e fawaade e sababuuji ɗiɗi. Sabaabu gadano oo, nguleeki ina ɓeyda feto kala ndeelam (ndiyam ina liroo sabu nguleeki). Yanti e ɗuum, nguleeki ki ina saayna galaasuuji gonɗi e gulli leydi. Ɗaam caayam yantata ko e geecuuji, ɓeyda feto mum en. Batte ɗumɗoo ko ɓeyadagol tooweeki geecuuji e kujjitgol duuɗe e gure gonɗe daande geec. Yeru, Nuwaasoot.

Bookara Aamadu Bah

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Gaasuuji ɓeydooji nguleeki weeyo (gaasuuji seer)

Mbiimtam ndiyam (so a fasnii ndiyam, aɗa yiya ko wayi no cuurki nii ina wiimtoo, ko ndiyam wonti ɗoon cuurki). Gaasuuji gaddoojii seer ɗii kala so ndenndinaama, mbiitam ndiyam wonata heen ko 70%. Kono, nde tawnoo ɗam ɓooyataa e weeyo (balɗe 10 so heewii), batte majjam e ɓeydagol nguleeki ina pamɗi (ɗam wontata ko duule walla lay). Yanti heen, wonaa golle aadee ngaddata ɗam, sibu ɗum jeyaa ko e baylagol diƴƴe gaadorangol.

Gaas karbonik (CO2) e gaas biyeteeɗo metaan, walla won ɗiin gasuuji ummotooɗi e « filtoks », walla ɓuuɓnooji (gaasuuji filsideer ekn …) walla kadi ko wiyetee Oson koo, ko gaasuuji gaddooji « seer » ɓooyooji no feewi e nder weeyo (hakkunde duuɓi 20 e duuɓi 50 000), tawi yoga heen ko aadee saabii ɗum en. Gaas karbonik ina waawi wonnde 100 hitaande e nder weeyo. Omo jogii iwdiiji ɗiɗi :

kuɓɓugol geɗe ummiiɗe e ɓarakke nguurndam (petroŋ, ƴulɓe, ekn …) walla ustagol leɗɗe (maaygol dunli, walla cumu ladde …). Ko neɗɗo woni sabaabu ko ɓuri heewde e makko.

Gaas biyeteeɗo metaan oo ne ina waawi wonde e weeyo fotde duuɓi 14. Omo waawi ummoraade e sato (alaa ko neɗɗo woni heen) e nokkuuji leppuɗi e ñolgol puɗi … walla o ummoroo e ndema (gese ilneteeɗe) ekn…

Gaas biyeteeɗo porotoksid asot (N2O) heewi ummoraade ko e ndema (engere) walla kuɓɓugol batte nguurndam, walla e golle mbaylaandi (isinaaji).

Gaasuuji kuutorteeɗi e « filitoks» walla e « filsideeruuji » maa kilimatiseeruuji ekn … ko neɗɗo woni sabaabu mum en. Eɗi mboni e weeyo no feewi.

Gaas biyeteeɗo oson oo, maa rennda e on ɗiin gaasuuji goɗɗi nde jogoo batte ɗe moƴƴaani e weeyo. Bonannde makko kadi fawii ko e nokku ɗo o tawetee ɗoo: won e nokkuuji (tooweeki hakkunde 12 e 50 kiloomeeteer) o ɓuuɓtintu weeyo (ɗoo, omo moƴƴi e men).

Ñalnde 20 noowammbar 2012, Fedde adunaare ngonka weeyo (Organisation météorologique mondiale (OMM)) habrii wonde gaasuuji ɓeydooji nguleeki weeyo ɓeydiima, hakkunde 1990 e 2011 fotde 30%. Ɓuri heewde e ɗiin gaasuuji ko gaas karbonik. E wiyde fedde ndee, baylirɗe (isinaaji) winndere ngukkitii e weeyo men ngoo, 375 miliyaar ton, tuggi nde ɗi puɗɗii maheede faade hannde. Tee ma ɗi kaggu heen fotde duuɓi teemedde keewɗe, ɗi ɓeyda nguleeki.

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Ko firti « seer » ?

Ko ɓuri heewde e cereeli naange taccat weeyo, njana e leydi, ngulna ɗum. Leydi ne, « rokkita » (wukkita) huunde e kiin nguleeki feewde e weeyo. Mbiimtam ndiyam e gaas karbonik e gaasuuji goɗɗi (woni gaasuuji gaddooji seer) moɗa kiin nguleeki, kaɗa ɗum ŋabbude, nii woni ɓeyda nguleeki weeyo. Ko ɗum woni ko wiyetee «seer».

BAB