Njulaagu (teret) ɓaleeɓe : lappi tati mawɗi njulaagu ɓaleeɓe

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Njulaagu ɓaleeɓe (traites négrières) ko njeeygu miliyoŋaaji miliyoŋaaji ɓaleeɓe jeyanooɓe e Afrik hirnaange e Afrik hakkundeejo e Afrik fuɗnaange waɗtanooɓe jiyaaɓe, njulaagu nduumiingu fotde duuɓi teemedde keewɗe. Ngam faamde nguu njulaagu, alaa e sago teskodo-ɗen geɗe jeegom garooje ɗee : 1. Ko ɓaleeɓe njiyɗintenoo; 2. Njulaagu nguu ina waɗɗini goodgol juɓɓule jokkondirɗe, naatnaatondirɗe; 3. Yimɓe jiyɗintenooɓe ɓee mbaawaano dañde ronooɓe, sibu aɓe kaɗetenoo yeñtinde; 4. Nokku ɗo yimɓe ɓee nanngetee ɗoo, ɓe njiyɗinee ɗoo, ina deestondiri e nokku ɗo ɓe njeeyoytee ɗoo ; 5. Ina hasii njulaagu nguu tuugoo e gostondiral hakkunde addooɓe ina njeeya ɓee e soodooɓe ɓee; 6. Won e laamuuji gardinooɗi leyɗe Afrik ɗee ina njaɓnoo nguu njulaagu, tee ina njoginoo heen nafooje keewɗe.

Teret ina foti seerndee e njiyaagu, sibu njiyaagu ko « ko pawgol e neɗɗo denndaangal mbaawkaaji walla huunde e mbaawkaaji jotondirɗi e hakke jeyi ». Teret noon ina ɗaɓɓi goodgol njiyaagu, kono wonaa njiyaagu woodii tan, teret woodii : njiyaagu woodii gila teret woodaani, yeru e nder Worgo Dowlaaji Amerik dentuɗi e nder teeminannde 19ɓiire.

Teretaaji ɓaleeɓe ko kewu e nder daartol, kewu jaajɗo bonannde sabu keewgol loraaɓe heen ɓee, kam e keewgol peeje jiyɗingol e limtilimtingol yah-ngartaaji e nder jolɗe juutɗe. Eɗen mbaawi sifaade heen teretaaji tati : teret fuɗnaange, teret hirnaange e teret nder Afrik.

Njulaagu jom doole en

Teret ɓeleeɓe faade hirnaange ina ɗaɓɓunoo ndaɗɗudi ngalu keewngu sabu ina soomnoo tanaaji koninkaagu keewɗi : a tawataa e waɗatnooɓe ɗum ɓee fitiram golle en walla julaaɓe tokosɓe, kono ɓurnoo heewde e maɓɓe ko ofiseeji toowɗi, ina hasii kadi tawa ko ɓalliiɗi laamu no feewi, walla joom en jawdi anndaaɓe. Ko wayi no Henry Morgan mo nganndu-ɗaa ko neɗɗo gaadoraaɗo, so tawii heƴii e nguu njulaagu, ko sabu mum wonnoode mawɗo taƴooɓe to Karaybe e darorɗe kitaale 1670.

Ko ɓuri heewde e armateer en (toppitiiɓe laaɗe ndiyam) ko koyngal tan njoginoo e golle teret ɓaleeɓe ɗee, ngam ustude tanaaji (so wonaa ko wayi no galle ganndiraaɗo Montaudouin). Nii woni, e nder tufnde teret ɓaleeɓe ɓurnde mawnude e Farayse, hono Nantes, laaɗe teret ɗee ko hedde joyaɓal laaɗe tufnde ndee fat.

Julaaɓe aadee en ɓee ko yimɓe hulanooɓe, hormoraaɓe sabu mbaawka mum en ka alaa ɗo haaɗi. Hakkunde 1 665 e 1 750 (e nder duuɓi 85) ngalu maɓɓe ɓeydiima no feewi e sahaa mo kaalis heewaano tee mbaylaandi woodaano. Ko sabu ɗeen doole ngaddani Angalteer e Farayse waɗtude huuɓnande Espaañ soklaaji mum to bannge jiyaaɓe, Espaañ mo aadi (nanondiral) Tordesillas haɗnoo yettaade tufɗe Afrik (ɗum noon fagganoyaade hoore mum jiyaaɓe).

Terete (teretaaji) tati mawɗe ɓaleeɓe (lappi tati mawɗi njulaagu ɓaleeɓe)

Teret fuɗnaange oo rewratnoo e laabi njulaagu laamlaamuuji aarabeeɓe e Usmaaniiji (ottaman, Turki) rewrude e Saharaa e geec Mediteraane e maayo Ɓaleewo, e maayo Woɗeewo. Kañji ɗiiɗoo lappi kuuɓnantunoo gure mawɗe Afrik rewo e duungel arabiyeewel (péninsule arabique) e Turki, soklaaji mum en to bannge jiyaaɓe. E yonta hakkundeejo huunde e jiyaaɓe ɓee mbattinoytunoo ko haa Orop bannge worgo, gonnooɗo e njiimaandi juulɓe : ɗum woni Al-Anndaluus to duungel iberiyeewel haa teem 15ɓiire, Sisil haa teem 11ɓiire, Balkaan e yonta Usmaniijo (Ottoman) tuggi teem 14ɓiire. Caggal yonta hakkundeejo oo, huunde e jiyaaɓe ɓaleeɓe nawaama haa Riisi, rewrude e laamaandi Usmaniiri njiimnoondi saraaji maayo Ɓaleewo fof.

Ina wiyee wonde Teret fuɗnaange oo fof ɓuri duumaade e juutde (tuggi teeminannde 7ɓiire haa 1920) e terete tati ɗee. Ko ɗuum waɗi, e kuuɓal, ko kanngal ɓuri heewde ko jiyɗini (fotde 17 miliyoŋ ɓaleejo e wiyde won ɓeen daartooɓe). Tee, kanko teret fuɗnaange oo, o toɗɗanooki ɓaleeɓe tan, omo yettiinoo leƴƴi goɗɗi, ina heen nii oropnaaɓe seeɗa. O yettiima huunde e Asii hakkundeejo e Orop ɗo leƴƴi slaaw en koɗi (slaves), o saabiima ruggooji e dahngooji e nder renndooji kerecee en (worgo Orop, Laamlaamu bisantiin). Bannge goɗɗo oo, binndi Jawaneeji kam e binndanɗe aarabeeje ina kollita wonde Enndonoosi ina jogodinoo e nokku geec eñnjeejo oo kam e Afrik jotondire njulaagu haa teeminannde IXɓiire e Xɓiire. Ɗiin binndi ina kaala haala jiyaaɓe Jengi (zengi), gollotonooɓe to Jawa walla rokkaaɓe galle laamu Siin. E Arab, Zeng walla Ɗani joopinoo ndeen Afriknaaɓe jiimɓe e geec.

Faccirooji : ————————————-

Aadi (traité) Tordesillas (/tɔʁdɛsijas/) ko aadi hakkunde leyɗeele gaadondiranooɗe e les njiimaandi pap ñalnde suwee 1494. Faandaare makko wonnoo ko feccude « Leydi Kesiri » (Le Nouveau Monde) kisanooɗo ko sooyre (terra nullius), hakkunde doole koloñaal ƴuuñatnooɗe e oon sahaa ɗee, hono Castille (Kastiiy) e Portugaal. Aadi oo ina sifoo keerol ngol to jurol gonngol hedde 1 770 km bannge hirnaange duuɗe Kapweer (ngool jurol woni hannde ko e ngolɗoo kumol : 46° 37′ hirnaange.)

Duungel Iberiyeewel (péninsule ibérique) : Taarii Duungel Iberiyeewel ko Geec Mediteraane (bannge worgo) e Geec Atalantik (bannge hirnaange worgo haa hirnaange rewo) kaaƴe Pyrénées (kaaƴe Pirenee bannge rewo) hakkunde Farayse e Espaañ. Woni e duungel hee hannde ko Espaañ (80%), e Portigaal (15%) e huunde e soɓɓunde worgo Farayse (6%), dowla Anndoor (< 1%) e Gibraltaar (<1%) (wonnde e njiimaandi Angalteer). Yimɓe maggel ina milletenoo e 54 miliyoŋ neɗɗo e hitaande 2005.

Duungel arabiyeewel (péninsule arabique) : Arabi walla duungel arabiyeewel (shibh al-jazīra al-ʿarabīyah) walla kadi ɗeɓi-duunde aarabeeɓe (jazīratu Al-ʿArab) ko duungel jaajngel gonngel bannge hirnaange worgo Asi, ɗo jokkorgal hakkunde mum e Afrik ɗoo. Ngel hiisetee ko e diiwaan Fuɗnaange-ɓadiiɗo. Engel heewi faayiida to bannge ngonka politik (Seopolitik) sabu ngaluuji petroŋ e gaas ubbiiɗi toon.

Leydi Arabi Sawudit (Sawuud) : Sawuud ɓilii ko hakkunde corfuɗi Suyees e Agaba e maayo woɗeewo bannge hirnaange. Bannge hirnaange worgo ko sorfundu Aden. Bannge worgo ko geec ennjeejo. Bannge fuɗnaange worgo ko maayo Arabi. E bannge fuɗnaange ko sorfundu Oman e sorfundu persiiru. Keerol rewo ngol noon ina waawi wiyeede ko gewol Fuɗnaange (hirnaange rewo) e wertallo Mesopotaami, haa teeŋti e maayo Euphrate (Ofrat) (bannge fuɗnaange rewo).

Mesopotami, to bannge firo ko « Hakkunde maaje », ko diiwaan daartiyeejo e Fuɗnaange-Ɓadiiɗo gonɗo hakkunde Tigre e Ofrat. Ko ɓuri heewde e makko woni ko e Irak hannde oo. Leyɗe gonɗe e duungel aarabeewel ko Sawuud e Yemen e Oman e Kataar e Amiraaji arab dentuɗi e Kuwoyti e Bahreyn.

Java (Jawa e enndonoosiire) ko duunde wonnde to Enndonoosi.

Bookara Aamadu Bah
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