Njulaagu (teret) ɓaleeɓe : Teret hirnaange (3)

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lappi njulaagu ɓaleeɓe : feewde hirnaange (Amerik) e fuɗnaange (leyɗe aarabeeɓe)
lappi njulaagu ɓaleeɓe : feewde hirnaange (Amerik) e fuɗnaange (leyɗe aarabeeɓe)

Njulaagu ɓaleeɓe (traites négrières) ko njeeygu miliyoŋaaji miliyoŋaaji ɓaleeɓe jeyanooɓe e Afrik hirnaange e Afrik hakkundeejo e Afrik fuɗnaange waɗtanooɓe jiyaaɓe, njulaagu nduumiingu fotde duuɓi teemedde keewɗe.

Ko ɗoo ngaccirno-ɗen winndannde men :

Nii woni e daawal feccere ɗiɗmere teeminannde 15 ɓiire ndee, Purtugeec en ɓeydii mammude. Laamɗo maɓɓe hiilnii waɗdude e Afrik worgo Saharaa njulaagu. E hitaande 1458 laamɗo biyeteeɗo Henri hollitii ɓurani ɗum ko yo yimɓe mum cood jiyaaɓe, ɓe mbaasa dahde. O halfini ɗum gooto e yimɓe makko. Oon artirani mo 650 yijaaɗo dahaaɗo. O felliti halfinde golle ɗee julaaɓe Purtugeec en.

Jooni njokken

Idii halfineede ɗeen golle coggu jiyaaɓe ɓe ndahaaka, ko biyeteeɗo Fernando Po e hitaande 1460. Kanko ne o hunii yoɓde kubbal 200 000 reis. Caggal ɗuum julaaɓe woɗɓe suɓtaaɓe keɓii ndeen yamiroore addude jiyaaɓe e yoɓde laamɗo oo kubbal. Noon ne doosɗe ɗee mbaylorii : kala jiyaaɗo gaddaaɗo, foti ƴeeŋtineede ko ɗo tufnde Lisbon ɗoo (1473), e kala laana tiindiika Afrik ina foti winnditaade ɗo Lisbon ɗoo (1481). Portugeec en puɗɗii ñiɓaade e nokkuuji keewɗi e daande geec Afrik. Ko e hitaande 1461 kontuwaar (nokku njulaagu) gadano e foor (tuddunde konu hidiinde) gasni maheede to Arguin (e Muritani). E hitaande 1462 ɓe ciiñti e duuɗe kap Weer (cap Vert) (nder geec tolnde Senegaal). Ɓe ndiidi mahngo foor El-Mina e hitaande 1481 (Ganaa), hay so tawii wonaa e weleede e laamɗo gonnooɗo ɗoon e oon sahaa hono Ansa de Casamance (Ansa de Kasamaas). E hitaande 1486 ɓe njettii duunde Sao Tome (to sorfundu Gine, tolnde Gabon e Gine Ekaatoriyaal).

Ɗee ciiñte njuumtii no feewi to bannge njulaagu, nde tawnoo Portugeec en ina mbaawi termo-termo, yanti heen laana maɓɓe mbiyeteeka karawel kaa alaa ɗo ronkunoo yettaade e tufɗe Afrik hee. Ɗo adan ɗoo, ɓe ɓurnoo huuñƴude ko e kaŋŋe, e ñiiƴe ñibi, e poobaar (« abbere Gine ») , kono nde ɓooynoo njulaagu jiyaaɓe ɓurtii fof. Noon, e hitaande 1475, Portugeec en kuuɓnani Akan en to El-Mina jiyaaɓe, caggal ɗuum ɓe mbaɗti nawde ɓe to Madeer (1452), to duuɗe Kanari (1484), caggal ɗuum to Sao Tome (1486) ; ɗum fof ngam gollinde ɓe e gese gawƴe suukara.

Ɓe ngostondirtunoo jiyaaɓe ɓee ko e laamɓe afrikanaaɓe, ɓe ngostoroo jiyaaɓe ɓee marsandiis ummoriiɗo Orop e Mediteraane (bagiiji, gemha, jawe, ñaaƴe weer, sanngara, jamɗe, paakaaji ekn…). Ko noon kadi, kamɓe portugeec en, ɓe keɓii waɗdude ɗoon e Afrik jotondire politik e njulaagu mawɗe e laamuuji ɗiɗi afrikeeji (laamɗo konngo e laamɗo Benen).

E hitaande 1479 Españool en ndartini lappi mum en feewde Afrik. Aɓe keɓtinnoo njiimaandi Putugeec, kono tan ɗum yuumtaani to bannge politik sibu e hitaande 1486 Purtugeec en mballii laamɗo Bemoin to Senegaal, kono oon liɓaa, waraa. Oba Beneŋ (laamɗo Beneŋ) wattini ko haɗde njeeygu jaggaaɓe (captifs, jiyaaɓe). Purtugeec en paggotonoo kiri ko to Konngo..

Espaañ, nde tawnoo waawaano huuɓnande koloniiji mum jiyaaɓe sabu Nanondiral Tordesillas hakkunde mum e Purtugeec, lelni feere woɗnde anndiraande asiento, woni yamiroore nde kala dokkaaɗo ɗum hunotoo addude limoore jiyaaɓe dotaande to koloniiji Espaañ. Kanko ne o gaddanee soodtaneede kala ko o addi e jiyaaɓe, tee Espaañ hunii alaa mo soodata jiyaaɓe so wonaa e rokkaaɓe asiento. Nii woni asiento rokkaa Purtugeec en, caggal ɗuum Genuwanaaɓe, Holanndee en, Kompaañi Farayseejo to Gine, e Engele en kadi. Ko caggal ɗuum Holanndee en e Engele en e Faraysenaaɓe ngari. Ɓe ngostondirtunoo e Afriknaaɓe ko ɗacce, kaŋŋe e poobaar e ñiiƴe ñiibi e jiyaaɓe.

Njulaagu jiyaaɓe ko seeɗa seeɗa sañorii e tufɗe Afrik. Hedde 1475, Purtugeec en coodatnoo jiyaaɓe ko e sorfundu (golf) Beneŋ. Leƴƴi ɗiɗi ina njulotonoo ɗoon jiyaaɓe, hono leñol Ijos en, e leñol Itsekiris en. Ko jiyaaɓe ɓe coodatnoo nder leydi too, walla warkoyeeɓe ñaawanooɓe. Huunde e jiyaaɓe ɓee coggeteno faade Elmina, ɗo Afrikanaaɓe woɗɓe coodtirtunoo ɓe kaŋŋe.

Tuggi 1486, Purtugeec en puɗɗii julondirde e laamu Beneŋ, kono, hedde 1530, Oba Beneŋ (Laamɗo Beneŋ) fuɗɗii jambitde njulaagu jiyaaɓe hade makko harminde ngu e hitaande 1550.

Ko hedde 1485 Purtugeec en idii soodde jiyaaɓe mum en adanɓe to Konngo. Hedde 1550, Konngo wonti nokku njulaagu jiyaaɓe ɓurɗo mawnude, kono, nde tawnoo ko Purtugeec en coklunoo heen koo ina heewi no feewi, ɗoon ɗoon laamɗo oo ronki huuɓnande ɓe oon sokla. Leƴƴi goɗɗi nanondiri ngam huuɓnande Purtugeec en oon sokla (Pangu en to Lungu, e Coo en). E hitaande 1500 ko hedde 1 000 jiyaaɗo taccinaa, kono e hitaande 1530, ɓe njettiima hakkunde 4 000 e 5 000 jiyaaɗo taccinaaɗo, walla jolnaaɓe faade Amerik, ummoraade Konngo ɗoo.

Anngolaa (walla Ndongo) kadi ina yeeyatnoo Purtugeec en jiyaaɓe. Tuggi 1550 laamɓe Konngo e Anngolaa mbaɗti waɗdude ɓuraa waawde yeeyde Purtugeec en jiyaaɓe. Hedde 1553, dowla goɗɗo keso Afrikanaajo naati e njiyaagu hee, hono laamaandi nganndiraandi Ode Itsekiri to Forcados (sara laamu Beneŋ.

E darorɗe teeminannde 17-ɓiire, gure subalɓe keewɗe gonɗe e yupporde maayo Niiseer, ngonti jehreeji mawɗi jiyaaɓe. Huunde e majje ngontoyi laamuuji cemmbolinɗi, ko wayi no Bonny, New Calabar, Warri, Bell Town, e Akwa Town to Kamaruun ; tee leyɗe mawɗe julaaje kadi peeñi, ko nanndi e Old Calabar e Brass.

Ina jokki

Bookara Aamadu Bah

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