Muritani leydi am, oo ɓiɗɗo jilluɗo, baɗtaaɗo aarabe

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Eddaaji tati yimɓe ngoni e Muritani, ɗiin eddaaji yimɓe ko : 

Ɓaleeɓe, remooɓe, waañooɓe, waali wuro en hoɗnooɓe ɗoon gila e yonta kaaƴe kese, hedde duuɓi 6 000 ko adii Annabi Iisaa. Oon sahaa Saharaa ina leppi, wonaani tawo moraande. Ɓeen ko Sooninkooɓe, Seereraaɓe, Fulɓe, Jolfuɓe e Bammbara en. Ko e ɓeeɗoo hardaneeɓe njippii ; ko kamɓe ngoni wiyeteeɓe ɓaleeɓe Muritani. Nde yahnoo haa ɓooyi, yooro ari, nokku oo woni e olde, ɓeeɗoo ɓaleeɓe ngoni e tellaade faade worgo ina ngabboo keccol. Ɓee ɓaleeɓe, no firawna en nii, ina gasa tawa ummii ko e yimɓe laamaandi idiidaartol mbiyeteendi Sing. Laamaandi ɓaleeɓe mehɓe ngoodnoondi hakkunde 15 000 e 1 000 hitaande ko adii Iisaa. Wertallo mayri ko tuggude Muritani hannde oo, haa nokku Misra Ɓooyɗo, woni Maruk, Alaseri, Tuunus haa Misra.               Jokku hello 5

Ko ɓaleeɓe tan koɗnoo e oo nokku fof hade aarabeeɓe arde jiimde ɗum e waylude pinal mum. Ko ɓeen yimɓe oropnaaɓe naatnooɓe e duunde Afrik rewrude e maayo Mediteraane inniri « maure », inniri leydi mum en « Maurétanie », fotaani noon faaydeede e Muritani sibu helmere « maure » ndee firata ko « ɓalejum » e ɗemngal Gerek e Lateŋ.

Nde yahi haa Saharaa wonti moraande, hedde 380 ko adii Iisaa, nde leñol ɗiɗmol Muritani, hono Berbeer Sanhajaa en, wiyeteeɓe ummii ko Yemen, ngari e leydi hee. Ko ɓe tirbiiji keewɗi, nanngondirɗi. Ɓe ngoni doolal biyeteengal Lemtuuna.

Edda tataɓo yimɓe oo, cakkitiiɗo oo, ko aarabeeɓe arɓe hakkunde teeminannde 13ɓiire e 14ɓiire, wiyeteeɓe Bani Hasaan en.

Ɗee dente tati nguurdii e leydi hee teemedde hitaande. Ɗe kaɓɓondirii heen, ɗe ceertii heen, ɗe kaɓii heen, kono ɗe mbattini ko resondirde hakkunde majje haa jibini leydi njillundi nguur-ɗen hannde ndii.

Ɗum noon Muritani ko leydi arab-ɓaleeri-berbeer, wonaa leydi Arab-Afrik. Innde Arab-Afrik ndee ko ƴoƴre ngam ittude e leydi hee hettere mum Ɓaleere-Muritani ndee, sibu, denndaangal leyɗe Arab gonɗe e Afrik ɗee, tuggi ɓurndi heewde yimɓe ndii, hono Misra, haa yettii Libi e Sudaan e Tuunus e Alaseri e Maruk, Jibuti, Komoor e Soomali, kam en fof ko Arab-Afrikeeje.

Muritani ko leydi njillundi, baaba mayri ko nokku Aarabeeɓe, yumma mayri ko Afrik ɓaleejo. Ko ngalɗoo jillondiral waɗi, alaa capaato mo ƴiiƴam ɓaleejo Muritani dogaani e ɓalndu mum, alaa kadi ɓaleejo Muritani, Pullo mum, Sooninke mum, Jolfo mum, mo ƴiiƴam capaato dogaani e ɓalndu mum.

Maa mi limtu heen yeruuji garooji ɗii :

Yumma mum Seek Muhammed Faadel, e Seek el Ayniina ko pullo biyeteeɗo Kajjata Baal, taaniraagel ceerno pullo mawɗo, hono Ceerno Sileymaani Baal, compunooɗo laamu diineewu Fuuta.

Yumma mum Abdarhmaan Sheyn lollirɗo Deyba, mawɗo Talaba en, ko Sooninke jeyaaɗo e galle Sumaare en.

Yumma mum laamɗo Tagant, hono Bakkaar wul Suwoyd Ahmed wiyetee ko Tileyla, ko debbo ɓaleejo Muritaninaajo ;

Muhammed wul Habiib, laamɗo Tararsa resii ɓiy laamɗo jolfo mo Waalo biyeteeɗo Jommbot Mbooc, mo o dañdi ɓiɗɗo biyeteeɗo Eli Jommbot.

Muhammed el Bammbaari, kaalif nayaɓo Lemtuuna en, resii ɓiy laamɗo pullo Tooranke ina wiyee Faatimata Sal. Ɓe ndañdi ɓiɗɗo gorko ina wiyee Ahmed gontoyɗo Laamɗo Waalo mo jolfuɓe mbiyata Njaajaan Njaay.

Taanum debbo Laamɗo Barakna, hono Siidi Eli to bannge gorol, ko banndum debbo taanum gorko Jeŋ Buubu Farba, gonnooɗo Hooreejo Senaa.

Ehel Hayba en ina njiidi e ɓaleeɓe Muritani.

Yumma mum Seek El Aafiya wul Muhammed Khuuna jeyaaɗo e Talaba en, yumma mum ummii ko e fulɓe ;

Muhammed Khule, njaatum tirbii Laglaal en, yumma mum ko Sooninke biyeteeɗo Kunndaa Siisee jeyaaɗo e wuro Shinngiti. Shingiti e hoore mum ko helmere Sooninke « si ngede » firoore « woyndu puccu ». Jumaa Shingiti mo Muritaninaaɓe fof paarnortoo hannde oo, mahi ɗum ko Sooninke biyeteeɗo Seek Namu Kamara, gonnooɗo Almaami mum. Nde o sankii ko e jumaa hee o wirnaa, so aɗa naata e jumaa hee, bannge maa nano.

Yumma mum biyeteeɗo El Gaasem, njaatum galle sirifaaɓe Wul Mulaay Seyn ko ɓaleejo (bamaranke) ina wiyee Mayram.

Leñol Wulaad Biri en ina njogii taƴre, hono Takaariir nde nganndu-ɗaa ko ɓaleeɓe, huunde e maɓɓe kadi njippii ko e Sooninke gooto ina wiyee Biri Kaaba Jakitee ;

Yuusuf Keytaa, meeɗnooɗo ardaade suudu sarɗi (asaambele ngenndi) resii biyeteeɗo Khoya mintu El Baan jeyaaɗo e leñol Ehel Siidi Mahmuud en to Kiifa. Yumma mum Khoyya, sooninke biyeteeɗo Suusu Sillaa resondirii e siriif gooto leñol Ehel Siidi Mahmuud en ina wiyee El Baan Haydara.

Tijjaan Jagana ganndiraaɗo Tete resii debbo Rigeybaat ina wiyee Kadjettu mintu Bulemsak.

Mbekku Bah resii Idawaali mo o dañdi Alasan Ba meeɗnooɗo wonde Gardo Kuuɓtodinɗo Kees ngenndi Kisal Renndo.

Yumma mum Daa wul Teys, meeɗnooɗo ardaade Suudu sarɗi Muritani ko pullo ina wiyee Takko Kan.

Yumma mum Sidel Muttaar Njaay, meeɗnooɗo ardaade Suudu sarɗi ngenndi Muritani, hono Sukeyna mintu Hashi, jeyaa ko e Buu Esbaa en;

Iwdi Buddaa wul Buseyri e Ahmed Saalem wul Adduud njalti ko e Fulɓe ;

Leñol Deg-molli en fof ko fulɓe wontuɓe safalɓe.

Kanhanɓe Moodi Nalla en kadi ummii ko e safalɓe Lemtuuna en.

Yumma mum Seek Hamahullah ko pullo ina wiyee Asa Jallo.

Muhammed Lemiin Tañnjaa resii pullo kalajjo ina wiyee Hawwaa Sih, mo o dañdi Tañjaa Seek Sidiyya hooreejo Fedde Ɓamtaare Sooninke. Oon Muhammed Lemin Tañnjaa kadi resii debbo Rigeybaat ina wiyee Boytir mintu Herbal.

Buu el Mogdaad Sek resii debbo capaato leñol Wulaad Ahmed Daamaan en.

Seek Turaad Kamara resii debbo leñol Dew El Haaj en;

Ngalɗoo jillondiral ina yettii Haradaneeɓe :

Huunde e maɓɓe ko seereraaɓe jeyaaɓe e idiiɓe hoɗde e Muritani taƴondirɓe e iwdi mum en, ngonti hardaneeɓe. Huunde e maɓɓe kadi iwdi mum en ko ɓaleeɓe hoɗnooɓe daande maayo, ɓe safalɓe dahanoo. Njantinen heen kadi yimɓe ɓe laamuuji ɓaleeɓe njiyɗintunoo caggal golwole, njeeya ɗum en. Feccere sakkitiinde ndee ko ɓaleeɓe jeyanooɓe e konuuji ɓaleeɓe kaɓɓondirnooɗi e Bakkaar wul Suwoyd Ahmed. Ɓeen ngarnoo ko wallude Bakkar heɓtude Taagant, nde wolde joofi, ɓe keddii nder safalɓe, ɓeen njaggiri ɓe hardaneeɓe.

Hardaneeɓe ina njillondiri kadi e berbeer Sanhajaa en kam e ɓaleeɓe Muritani.

Ko wonaa ɗuum, kaɓirɗe gaaci safalɓe biyeteeɗe ardiin e tidinit ummii ko e ɓaleeɓe. Ambasadeeruuji Muritani nder leyɗe goɗɗe, so  ina njettini nulal mum en feewde e laamu leydi njooɗanii Muritani, ɓoornotoo ko wutte e jahdiije mum, turki, mukke, kaala (hawli). Ndii ɓoorneteeri laawɗiniraandi dekere ko ɓoorneteeri ɓaleeɓe Muritani. Peccitagol renndo safalɓe e haɓeteeɓe, seernaaɓe, awluɓe, jiyaaɓe ummii ko e ɓaleeɓe, sibu wonaa ko safalɓe walla aarabeeɓe. Ɗum noon, ɗii leƴƴi jiiduɗi leydi, ƴiiƴam e diine ina poti haɓanaade ngootaagu ngenndi mum en.

Wiyde ina muumta oo goonga puŋŋiniiɗo ko waasde nuunɗude.

Nde Muritani sosaa ndee, baaba mum (leyɗe Aarabeeɓe) keɓtinaani ɗum (so wonaa Tuunus mo Burgibaa). Baaba oo alaa ko waɗaani mbele ɓiɗɗo oo ina waasa yiyde aduna (yeru hujjaaji Maruk), kono, e ballal kaawmiraaɓe (Afrik ɓaleeɓe, haa teeŋti e Senegaal) e ballal njaatige (Farayse) ɓiyngel ngel waawi yiyde aduna. Refti heen, kesindagol e ɗoftal haa leydi ndii jaɓaa nder Fedde Ngenndiije Dentuɗe ñalnde 21 oktoobar 1961.

Refti heen, ɓiɗɗo oo ƴeestii, mawni, lolli nder winndere hee. Gondugol mayri e kareeli goonga, e cosangol hoore mayre kaalis mayri (Ugiyya) ñalnde 30 suweŋ 1973, baɗtugol Miferma e jeyi leydi ndii, baylugol nanondire e Farayse, ngaddani ndi hormeede e teddineede e nder winndere ndee. Ko e nder ɗuum, nde baaba teskii ɓiɗɗo faayodinii, suppitii ngam hankadi heɓtinde ɗum (1973).

Yumma oo weltii sibu meeɗaa seerde e duwaade ngol keɓtingol, kono ɓernde mum darii, hulde hoto ɓiɗɗo ɓoccitaade ɗum, sibu hulde hoto baaba teettude ɗum. Caggal jiytondiral daɓɓal jiknaaɓe, ɗo cukalel ngel dañi ɓamtaade, luural fuɗɗii sabu pooɗondiral hakkunde jiknaaɓe ngam tamde ɓiɗɗo oo. Cukalel kooɗanongel no feewi baaba, teeɗanii bannge baaba ngam ittude hooɗeende mum e baaba, tawi noon meeɗaa yejjitde yumma mum.

Ndeen baaba heɓtinii ɓiyum, kaamiraaɓe (aarabeeɓe-berbeer en) puɗɗii wiyde ina mbaɗta ɗum Aarabe, e duñde ɗum e yedditaade yumma mum (ɓaleeɓe Muritani).

Kaawmiraaɓe jogitiiɓe wonde foti wonde e Muritani tan ko ɗemngal e pinal Arab, ɗo leñol Fulɓe e Sooninkooɓe e Jolfuɓe tawaaka, ko tamanngel miijiyankooɓe siwil en e koninkooɓe leñol Aarabeeɓe-berbeer en waawnuɓe koye mum en dow ɓesngu Muritani no woorunoo rewrude e doole njogitaari, ina lomlomtondira e laamu gila 1978. Ɗii miijooji cosi njuɓɓudi mbiyeteendi fedde baafal siwil e militeer yuɓɓinoore kala ko kewata e leydi hee. Ɓe njogii ko miijo jiggaango to Irak mo Saddaam Huseyn ngo alaa ko goongɗini so wonaa Aarabaagal tan.

Ngoon miijo Aarabaagal tan, ko waawnude leƴƴi ɗi ngonaa Arab gonɗi e wertallo (nokku) leyɗe biyeteeɗe ko leyɗe Arab, yeru nder Muritani, leƴƴi Sooninke, Fulɓe, Jolfuɓe, e Wambarankooɓe wontude alaa e sago Arab, walla ɗi mumtee no ardiiɓe Irak momtirnoo ɓaleeɓe e Kurde en iraknaaɓe. Ndee fedde baafal siwil e militeer fuɗɗii siynude e Muritani miijo Aarabaagal tan ko e 1978 e sifaa tippudi. Hankadi wonata e juɓɓule gardorɗe leydi ndii ko jaɓɓe miijo Aarabaagal tan.

Ɓee miijiyankooɓe puɗɗii mumtude denndaangal jagge ɓaleeɓe Muritani rewrude e diiwgol ɓurtungol, jaawnugol nawgol mum en alateret rewrude e baylugol laabi sariya e baɗgol nanondire golle kese. Woɗɓe ɓee ndiiwaa, walla konu e doole kisal mbari ɗum en (kewkewe kitaale 1989, 1990 e 1991). Muritaninaaɓe moolinooɓe artuɓe e leydi hee haa hannde keɓtaani kaayitaaji mum en etaasiwil e nder binnditagol ngol. Hannde ko ɓe tumarankooɓe nder leydi maɓɓe. Ko ɓe Siidi wul Seek Abdallaahi idinoo artirde e saawiye 2008 ɓee tan keɓi winnditaade. Ɗee jagge ɓaleeɓe mbaasii guurdugal mum en bajjal, hono njoɓdi mum en.

Caggal nde ɓe ndiiwi ɓaleeɓe Muritani, ɓee miijiyankooɓe ndartini ƴettugol gollotooɓe gila e nder njuɓɓudi laamu haa yettii konu e doole kisal. Ɗum addani yoga e sukaaɓe ɓaleeɓe jom en seedanteeje jaŋde ronkunooɓe dañde golle e leydi mum en, uujde faade caggal leydi ngam wuurde e wuurnude galleeji mum en.

Duuɓi jooni ko eɗen njiya yimɓe woɗɓe ummoriiɓe e diiwanuuji Muritani goɗɗi ina koɗtinee e gure daande maayo ɗo ɓaleeɓe Muritani ɓurnoo heewde, leyɗe maɓɓe ndema ina keɓtee e ballal jooɗaniiɓe laamu e nokkuuji hee. Ɗum fof ko ngam waɗtude ɓaleeɓe Muritani ɗeen gure waasɓe, e ɓurteede keeweendi e nokkuuji mum en.

Ɓeydi bone kadi, ko alaa tawo meeɗɗo suurtude ndee fedde (Fedde baafal siwil e milteer), wonaa fedde politik, wonaa fiilaaɓe, wonaa gollooɓe e renndo siwil, wonaa hoohooɓe jaambureeɓe. Deƴƴere maɓɓe ndee ina addana en tuumde ɓe wondude e ɓee miijiyankooɓe, jogiiɓe laamu nguu.

Oo politik mumtugol leƴƴi Muritani ɓaleeji mo ɓee miijiyankooɓe ciynata, saabii ɗum ko yiɗde maɓɓe ɓurtunde wonde aarabeeɓe e famɗinɓe ɓe koye maɓɓe e yeeso ɓeen, ummoriinde ɓe e piggal Beni Hasaan en piynoo ɓe e wolde Shaar Bubba (1640-1666), ɓe kaɗtaa ɓoornaade tuuba (Serwaal) so wonaa ɓe ngonta Aarabeeɓe, ɓe kaɗtaa haalde berbeer, ɓe mbaawnaa haalde Hasaniya, caltol ɗemngal Beni Hasaan en.

(…) Ina moƴƴi gooto e men kala faama ko haalaa koo, faama ngoo noddaango, daroo mbele leƴƴi men ina mbaawaa wuurdude e deeƴre.

Abdullaay Aali Wayga

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