Fulɓe e dogon en nder iiñcuru Mali : Daartol koɗdigal juutngal dummbungal

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Fulɓe e dogon en nder iiñcuru Mali : Daartol koɗdigal juutngal dummbungal

E nder nehaande leydi Mali, bannge fuɗnaange diiwaan (diiwal) Mooɓti, ɗo warhoore nde meeɗaa yiyeede waɗi, koɗdigal moƴƴal ina woodnoo nder teeminanɗe jappondirɗe e fawaade e kewkewe dawrugol e jolooje hakkunde ɓesnguuji koɗduɗi.

E ndaɓɓa, Dogon en ko remooɓe hoɗɓe e saraaji kaaƴe ɗe iletaake. Fulɓe ngaadorii ko durno jawɗeele, gila e nokkuuji joorɗi haa to Kofol maayo Niijeer. E nder oo nokku, ɗii ɓesnguuji ɗiɗi maantinɗi nguuri ko e gostondiral dañe mum en, mo woni fof wallandira e keddiiɗo oo. Fulɓe ngadda kosam e jaañte, Dogon en ngadda ñamateeri (gawri…) ɓe ngostondira. Taariindi wallita mo woni kala no wuurdi tawa ko e goɗɗo o yowitii.

Diiwaan nehaande Mali ( Wikimedia) : Fulɓe laamiiɓe, Dogon en laamaaɓe

Ɗum fof e wayde noon, jerondiral naamndii ko yo ɗii ɓesnguuji koɗdu e beldal, timmotiral maɓɓe fof e rummbude nder daartol maɓɓe. Kamɓe fof laaminoo ɓe ko kanankire mawɗe kuuriiɗe e ko wiyetee hannde Mali koo, hono Kaanankiri Sonngay hedde hakkunde teeminannde 15ɓiire e maayirɗe teeminannde 16ɓiire.

Cosgol laamaandi Fulɓe pawiindi e Diine e leñol, Diina Maasina e hitaande 1818, ko maande teeŋtunde nder jotondiral hakkunde Fulɓe e Dogon en.

Nde sabu tooñanngeeji hoɗdiiɓe – teeŋti e laamaandi Segu bannge Hirnaange-worgo e Tuwareg en to Rewo –, Fulɓe caltii, ngoni e ligganaade renndo heso fawiingo e diine Lislaam. Ɓe keertii nookuuji kesi, ɓe koɗi heen. Renndo maɓɓe fawii e laabi Lislaam. Lappi durnirɗi jawdi lelnaa. E fawaade e ɗuum, Fulɓe saliiɓe kiiɗal Lislaam nde hinnde Fulɓe Barinkooɓe (yetteteeɓe Bari) pawi e mum en, uuji njalti leydi. Leƴƴi ɗi ngonaa Fulɓe kam enne kiiɗaa, mbaɗtaa e caɗeele hoɗɓe ɓe teskaaka.

Hedde duuɓi sappo caggal ɗuum, Umar Taal, harbiyanke Jihaadi ummoriiɗo Hirnaange, Pullo kadi, luurdi e Maasina, o sosi njuɓɓudi kesiri. Ɓiyiiko cawndiiɗo e ɓiyɓe makko laamii, ceedtini laamaandi Fulɓe nder leydi hee, hay sinno jotondiral e Dogon en seɓorii nder desondiral hakkunde maɓɓe.

Nde koloñaal naati hedde capanɗe caggal ɗuum, ñoƴƴi leƴƴi fof, wayli jotondiral renndo, harmini macungaagu (hay sinno yuɓɓo kinɗe heddiima nder renndo ngoo haa e oo yonta), hono no Aamadu Hampaate Bah winndiri tigi e deftere mum seedtinnde «  Amkoullel, l’enfant peul » (Amkullel, Suka Pullo).

Nde Mali heɓi jeytaare mum e 1960, renndiyaagal (socialisme) leydi ndii fuɗɗii sompude potal renndo. Jaanduyaagal Fulɓe maayii pak.

Kitaale 1970-80, mbayliigu nduumiingu

Yoorooji duuɓi 1970 haa 1980 njerɓinii leƴƴi diiwaal ngal fof. Remooɓe e remooɓe-durnooɓe naatanii nguurndam caɗtuɗam. Kono kamɓe ceɓori durnooɓe mehɓe (ɓe nawdaani heen ndema). Nde jawdi maaynoo haa laaɓi, Fulɓe ndeestii to bannge renndo. Alaa-e-sago ɓe pawata nguurndam maɓɓe ko e hoɗdiiɓe maɓɓe. Nde wonnoo aɓe nganndiraa humpito to nehngo jawdi, ɓe mbaɗti halfineede nayi hoɗdiiɓe maɓɓe hono Dogon en, wonti njaatigaagal.

To eɓɓaaɗe ngenndiije ndema, ɓuri teskaade ko remooɓe, jogitiiɓe nokkuuji gonnooɗi e lappi jawɗeele Fulɓe. Hoɗdunooɓe mbaɗti luurdude nde sabu ɗuum. Ɗum jibini caɗeele ɗe meeɗaa hawreede e teeminanɗe jawtuɗe ɗe.

E oon tuma kadi, Dowla Mali fuɗɗii naatde heen. Ɓamtugol njilluuji kesi (tourisme) yaajnaa nder ko wiyatee « Pays Dogon » (Leydi Dogon en), mawnini wiyde ko Dogon en ngoni jeyɓe nokku oo, fuuynude nokku oo heewde leƴƴi. Hay sinno leƴƴi keddiiɗi ɗii naftoriima njilluuji « Leydi Dogon en », ko wayi njilluuji nder wuro hormaango Jenne, kam e laamorgo diiwal ngal, Mooɓti.

Gaa gaa luure hakkunde leƴƴi, pelɓondire meeɗaa jolde. Sahaa kala dowla Mali ina heeda hakkunde majji. Nde sabu deeƴere kitaale 1990 haa 2002 hollirii yiyannde wonde leƴƴi ɗii nguurdii nder yontaaji japppondirɗi dow jam e deeƴere. Luure daartol e ɓernde ndeƴƴi. Ɗum haɗaani Dogon en e Fulɓe hoɗdude ɗo gootel, e dow kisal e deeƴere.

E hitaande 2012, peeñgol luure kese

Nde pollugol laamu Mali waɗi e lewru Marsa 2012 to Bamako, laabi jamirooje konu Mali mboni. Yimɓe njedditii njuɓɓudi laamu. Ɓayri terɗe njuɓɓudi laamu ngalaa, pelɓondire puɗɗitii hakkunde Dogon en e Fulɓe durnooɓe, haa waɗi maayɓe. Pelɓondire kese ɗe ngalaa haɗde puɗɗii.

Ko ndeen dowla Mali yahri caggal nder diiwal Mooɓti, e yeeso MNLA (Mouvement national de libération de l’Azawad : Dillere Ngenndiire ngam Jeytaare Azawad), kam e maaldiiɓe mum Ansaar Ed-diin (Ansar Dine). Won e nokkuuji diiwal Mooɓti kedditii e njiimaandi ɗee dille ɗiɗi. Hoɗɓe Duwensa mbaɗaa geɗe keewɗe kaantare.

Fedde woɗnde jibinaa e oon saanga, Dillere ngam Ngootaagu e Jihaadi nder Afiriki Hirnaange (Mouvement pour l’Unicité et le Djihad en Afrique de l’Ouest –MUJAO-). Ndee dillere jihaadiyankoore huurii e wuro Duwensa e lewru Settaambur 2012. Duwensanaaɓe iwii e njiimaandi MNLA, naati e ndi MUJAO. Ɓe tabitini laabi maɓɓe nder wuro ngoo e fawaade miijanteendi maɓɓe (idéologie). Duwensanaaɓe keɓii won ndiin njuɓɓudi hay sinno wellitaare ndee ina waɗi keeri e kaɗle. Tuggude kuuragol e tunndu Duwensa haa nde « Serval » lomtii e Saawiyee 2013, Fulɓe heewɓe naatti e MUJAO. Ɓee Fulɓe ndalliniri naatgol mum en MUJAO ko ngam ɗomɗeede potal renndo, maande haɓɓiinde e huutoraade kesum, kono kadi woƴeede wuurtude e jeece hiiɗooɓe hesɓe hono MNLA. Oo dumunna daɓɓo kewnii ko iwataa e hakkillaaji, Fulɓe puɗɗiima waɗteede e Jihaadiyankooɓe.

E hitaande 2015, peeñgol maalde ndimaagu Maasina

Ina wayi no dowla woodaani e diiwaan hee hay sinno seɓɓitiiɓe ndeestiima. E hitaande 2015, kisal diiwal ngal dañaaka, pelɓondire ñawndaaka caggal nde Jihaadiyankooɓe kuurii e nokku oo.

Dillere jihaadi hesere jibinaama e 2015, “Maalde ngam ndimaagu Maasina”. Ardii nde ko Pullo biyeteeɗo Aamadu Kuufa. Teskaade Fulɓe fof ko maaldiiɓe jihaadiyankooɓe ngam siftorde daartol laamaandi Maasina nder teeminannde 19ɓiire (o jaggiri ɗum ko e ndonu maɓɓe), Aamadu Kuufa noddi yo juulɓe fof ngar ngam haɓde e laamu Mali. Kono noon, o siftinii nder « kutbaaji » makko wonde o haɓanaaki leñol gootol, o daranii ko potal renndo leƴƴi fof.

Kaa haala nanaama nder leƴƴi Fulɓe waasɓe (caggal yoorooji), saliiɓe kiiɗe ɗe konu laamu Mali fawi e dow mum en.

Maalde ngam ndimaagu Maasina tuubani dillere Ansaar E-Diin mo Iyad ag Ghaali ardii, ɓe cosi dillere woɗnde hesere : Dental Wallitde Lislaam e Juulɓe (Groupe de soutien à l’islam et aux musulmans –GSIM- ). Ngal dental kesal ummanii kareeli keewɗi nder nokku oo, ɓe kulɓini heen hoɗɓe e gure, jeyaaɓe e leƴƴi fof. Ko ndeen kadi ndenton tokoson puɗɗii yaltude, ko wayi no Ansar ul-Islam jooɗinooɗo rewo Burkina Faso, janatnooɗo sahaa fof e diiwal Mooɓti. Ardinoo Ansar ul-Islam ko Fulɓe kadi, ko e maɓɓe terɗe konu ummotonoo.

Sawru gumɗo bonanndeeji puɗɗiima

Mettere leƴƴi ɗi ngonaa Fulɓe puɗɗii. Fulɓe wurankooɓe takkaa ko habrooɓe Jihaadiyankooɓe. Dente haɓtotooɓe cosaa. Bonandeeji ngontii sawru-gumɗo, Fulɓe ne mbaɗti yoɓtaade. Fulɓe e Dogon en mbaɗti sahaa fof nanngondirde nder kareeli ƴiiƴiiji. Luure goodnooɗe cuppitiima, ɗum yaajni ngañgu.

Gila e hitaane 2016, duɗal biyeteengal « United States Holocaust Memorial Museum » (Mooftirdu Ɓooyndu Maantinorde Holockost mo Dowlaaji Dentuɗi) hollitii haala mbonka leƴƴi ɗiɗi ɗii fof. Won Fulɓe mbaɗi Dogon en ko « laddiyankooɓe » ɓe « pinaani ». To oya bannge, Dogon en ina mbiya aɓe ngondi e « jikku yiɗde laamaade » e jaɓande jihaadi.

Haala mbonka sarii e jeewte e Internet. Ko ɗoon miijo leydi Dogon en jokkondirndi ina woodi. Fulɓe njaggiraa ko aranɓe e nder nokku oo. E won e nokkuuji ɓe puɗɗaa riiweede gila 2016. Golle kantare jihadiyankooɓe teeŋtini ɗii miijooji, hay sinno ko ɓuri heewde e Fulɓe ko saliiɓe ɗee dille jogitiiɗe kaɓtorɗe.

Jibinegol miijanteendi mumtugol leñol

 Ko e kaa ngonka fedde harbiyankooɓe Dogon en wiyeteende Dan Na Ambasagu (Waañooɓe Mbakkiliima e Allah) jibinaa e lewru Deesambar 2016. Nde fedde nde jibinaa tan, ardiiɓe nde kolliri pellital mum en haɓde e kala gaño Dogon en. Ɓe kolliti hare maɓɓe ko waɗɗiinde, wallitoore « hare feewde e seɓɓitiiɓe ». Ɗum addi dowla Mali waɗti hakkille e maɓɓe e wallidiiɓe maɓɓe. Njanguuju e gure Fulɓe ɓeydii yaajde e heewde.

Ngam dartaade ɗum, Fulɓe ne ndenti, ndaranii njoftiigu feewde e gure Dogon en. Wurankooɓe heewɓe ngoni ɗo hakkunde ɗoo, ɓeya too e ɓeya gaa njana e mum en. Ko ɗum tagi Dogon en sikkude Fulɓe fof ngondi ko e Jihaadiyankooɓe.

Kono noon, Dan Na Ambasagu e wallidiiɓe mum kolli mbaawka mum en e kuutoragol kaɓirɗe bonɗe, « bombooje » mawɗe, wutteeji-njamndi. Iwdi ɗee kaɓirɗe haa hannde anndaaka to ummii. Harbiyankooɓe ɓe njeyaaka e leydi hee njiyaa ina ngondi e harbiyankooɓe Dan Na Ambasagu. Tawaama ɓee harbiyankooɓe ko « mercenaires » (yoɓaaɓe ina kaɓee) kono hay gooto anndaa muyaaɗe maɓɓe e holi gardiiɗo ɓe.

E sawndo ɗuum, haala ngañgu feewde e Fulɓe fuɗɗii saraade nder Internet. Ɓe koolita heen Fulɓe njiɗi ko halfude Dogon en. Dogon en hollirɓe ngañgu Fulɓe ko seeɗa kono aɓe ndoolna goomuuji haɓeteeɓe mbele aɓe njaltina Fulɓe nokku oo walla ɓe mbara ɓe, ɓe mbonna pinal maɓɓe. Miijanteendi mumtugol leƴƴiwol fuɗɗiima.

Tuggude 2016, ujune Fulɓe wurankooɓe puɗɗiima dogde kantare harbiyankooɓe, Dogon en mbaɗti uujde (no Fulɓe nii), ɓe tiindii nder gure teeru diiwal ngal, woɗɓe ɓura woɗɗoyde haa Bamako ɗo ɓe nguuri nder baasal mawngal.

Ɗoon e nehaande Mali (Maasina), harbiyankooɓe Dan Na Ambasagu mbaɗti hollirde weltaare mum en jokkondirde konu dowla Mali e halfinaaɓe njuɓɓudi. Sahaa kala aɓe njiyee aɓe njahda e soofaaji konu Mali aɓe njiyloo “jihaadiyankooɓe”, woni Fulɓe. Ɗum jibini kulol mawngol to Fulɓe, ngati ko ɗum hare feewde e maɓɓe tawa ɓe ngalaa ɗo ɓe ngullitii, dowla woodaani – sofaaji konu Mali mbaɗtii nii jaggude Fulɓe wurankooɓe faaydaaɓe e seɓɓitiiɓe. Ko goonga Laamu Mali to Bamako etiima lelnude peeje ngam kisal, kono alaa ko ɗum nafti. Ɗum fof e wayde noon, woodii ɗo Dogon en cuuɗi Fulɓe nder galleeji mum en, ɓe cowi Fulɓe heewɓe haa ndaɗi ɗo maayatnoo.

Ogosagu, kaaɗtudi bonannde

Nde kareeli ɗii ɓeydii yaajde, woodi Fulɓe njuɓɓi ngam haɓtaade tawa mbiyata ko ngonaa jihaadiyankooɓe. Yiɗde maɓɓe ko haɓtaade e reende kisal maɓɓe, ɓe ummanii kamɓe ne njoftiigu, ɗum ɓeydi kulol to Dogon en. Uujooji Dogon en tawtii ɗi Fulɓe.

Ɗum e wayde noon, ko Fulɓe ɓuri bonireede e ɗii kareeli baŋ-yoo-baŋ. Dan Na Ambasagu e maaldiiɓe mum ɓuri ɓe doole ngati kaɓirɗe mum en. Tuggude 2018, « wideyooji » e seedeeji kollitii aɓe leɓta Fulɓe, ɓe mbara ɗum en walla ɓe ngoppa e mum en siyuuji.Ɗee kantare e jeeyngal bonngal ngal Dan Na Ambasagu waɗata, Fulɓe ngoni e kataa mo jangtotaako. Ko ndeen hankadi warngooji mooɓe Fulɓe puɗɗitii. Gure Fulɓe nduppaa, yimɓe mum en mbaraa.

Ko ndee kantare ƴiiƴiije Ogosagu ngari. E ngoo wuro, ñalnde 23 Marsa 2019, bone heɓii kaaɗtudi mum : cukalon e rewɓe horiiɓe, nayeeɓe – kala mo battam-boniiɓe nanngi – mbaɗaa yarga. Won heen nduppaa ko ina nguuri. Woɗɓe kirsaa. Nate ngoo warngo ina njaaji, ango anndina Malinaaɓe e kala neɗɗo, wonde ngoo diwtii hankadi luure hakkunde leƴƴi. Ina laaɓi hannde ngo wontii miijanteendi mumtugol leƴƴiwol ngo ruggiyankooɓe ngardii.

Ɗee dille ƴiiƴiije ɗe kumpaani hay gooto njoli ko e daartol juutngol koɗdigal heen sahaaji caɗtungal hakkunde Fulɓe e Dogon en. Ko waɗɗii hannde, so deeƴere dañaama, ko welditinde ɗii leƴƴi ɗiɗi, e mahtaade renndo miijanoongo e kitaale 1990 e 2000.

Ko ɓuri teeŋtude e ɗee luure jibini ɗum en ko naatgol heen terɗe ɗe njeyaaka heen, kam e sarde kumpite fenaande bonnitooje faamamuya baŋ-yoo-baŋ : jihaadiyankooɓe ruggiyankooɓe jananɓe ɓeydi ko caru. Mo woni fof ina wondi e kulol. Ɗoon ɗo dowla woodaani mbele ina ɓiloo hakkunde luurduɓe, reena doofolɓe, riiwa ruggiyankooɓe jananɓe, kantare ɗee ɓeydoto, njahra yeeso, ɓeydoo bonde.

Dugukolo Alfaa Umar Bah-Konaare
Fulo : Aamadu Malal Gey
https://www.lepoint.fr/afrique/mali-peuls-et-dogons-histoire-d-une-longue-relation-ambivalente-29-03-2019-2304664_3826.php

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