Muritani : Caɗeele enternet e taƴgol ɓoggol giiɗal geec

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Ɓoggi giiɗal nder geec
Ɓoggi giiɗal nder geec

Artii-artaani, ɓoggol enternet, walla mbiyen ɓoggol giiɗal, ndokkowol Muritani enternet gila 2012, wiyaama kadi taƴii ! Ɗum noon waɗde, eɗen mbaawi wiyde wonde, muritaninaaɓe ngalaa enternet ko ina wona jooni lewru fawndu, sibu ko gila darorɗe mars 2020 wonnoo, e tuma nde yimɓe ɓuri hatojinde heen, sibu hawri ko curagol yimɓe e nder galleeji mum en sabu covid-19, huunde e gollotooɓe ine mbiyaa yo ngolloro enternet.

Ngolɗoo ma a taw woni tataɓol waɗde, ko muritaninaaɓe ina njooɗoo ko foti nii juutde ngalaa enternet, gadanol ngol ko caggal woote hooreleydaagu 2019 wonnoo. Ndeen, ko laamu tan welanoo uddi enternet. Ngolɗoo laawol noon, yimɓe mbiyaa ko ɓoggol nawowol kabaruuji gonngol nder geec taƴi ! Kono, e sikke huunde e yimɓe, « ɗuum woodaani, haa hannde ko laamu tan uddi enternet ». E miijo ɓeen, laamu uddiri ɗum ko ngam haɗde kabaruuji ngañantumaagu saraade e yimɓe caggal duko mawngo ardungo e haala Biraam Daah Abeydi to yahnoo heɓoyde ‘njeenaari’ kesiri mbiyeteendi «Njeenaari Cuusal» ndi « Joɗnde hakkeeji aadee e demokaraasi » rokkunoo ɗum.

Ñalnde o heɓata njeenaari ndii, e nder haala makko balɗe dewɗe heen ɗee, o suurtii heen « paltoor goodɗo hannde he Muritani », o wiyi ɗum wayi ko no njiimaandi « apartaayde nder hirnaange Afrik » nii. Kaan haala noon jibinii duko mawngo e haalaluuji mettuɗi, haalaluuji ngañgu e añamnguraagu, haa kalifu geɗe nder leydi reentini « haalooɓe haalaluuji bonnooji ngootaagu ngenndi » wonde laamu nguu ina anniyii dartinde joomum en… Ine wiyee ko ɗuum nii addani Ministeer geɗe nder leydi yamirde uddugol enternet ngam haɗde fitinaaji. Kono, kaan haala fof nii yejjitaama, sibu ko “ɓuri baagal yanii e woyndu” so “korona wiris” (corona virus), kono ɗuum ko ngoɗka.

So en ngartii e haala ɓoggol nder geec biyangol taƴii ngol, eɗen ciftora, e noowammar 2014 ɗum waɗiino, kono e oon sahaa, ko leyɗe hirnaange Afrik ɗee kala tini ɗum : Muritani, Senegaal, Mali, … haa koddiwaar e Niiseriyaa, tee ɓuraani balɗe 4. Ngannden tan, hannde, ko ina ɓura  95% kabaruuji dogooji he winndere ɗii (telefonaaji, enternet, woni jeewte mon e facebook e WhatsApp…) rewrata ko he ɓoggi jollaaɗi nder lugge geec (lappiiɗi he dow leydi nder ndiyam, walla ubbaaɗi toon), taccooji leyɗe keewɗe. Ko ceɗta kunal rewrata heen he satelitaaji walla weeyo (antenaaji rajo). Ɗiin ɓoggi woni nder mum en ko leeɓol giiɗal (fibre optique) ɗi yimɓe kumpitaaki tawo no feewi ko ngoni. Ine woodi kadi ɓoggi nawooji yiite, kono wonaa ɗiin ngoƴa-ɗen ɗoo. Ɗiiɗoo ɓoggi giiɗal, kuuɓnuɗi ko ina wona 99% jokkondire winndereeje, ndewi tan ko ɗo ɓoggi telegaraaf ndewnoo e teeminaande 19ɓiire, e ɗo ɓoggi telefoŋ ndewnoo e teeminannde 20siire (ɗiin noon ko ɓoggi kiri ngonnoo).

Gila e darorɗe kitaale 1980 ko ɗii ɓoggi giiɗal lomtii ɗoon, tammbii yah-ngartaa enternet. Tee hitaande kala eɗi ɓeydoo heewde. Ine wiyee ɗi tolniima hannde e 450 ɓoggol, ɗi njuuteendi mum en kam en fof tolnii e miliyoŋ e teemedde tati ujunere kiloomeeteer (1 300 000 km). Eɗen mbaawi limtude heen ɓoggi tacci-atalantik (hakkunde Orop/Afrik e Amerik) lolluɗi ɗii, jokkondirɗi Dental Dowlaaji Amerik, ɗo maamaaje geese ganndiraaɗe GAFAM ngoni ɗoo, e miliyoŋaaji-miliyoŋaaji oropnaaɓe seŋiiɓe no feewi e enternet.
Ɓoggi ɗii ina keewi eddaaji. Njuuteendi ɓurɗi famɗude ɗii ko hakkunde 50 e 100 km, njaru mum en ko hedde 13 miliyaar ugiyya men ɓooyɗo oo. Ɗi ngalaa piɓle (mawninooje siñaal). Ɓurɗi juutde ɗii ina ngona capanɗe ujunnaaje kiloomeeteer ; ko ɗi ɓoggi piɓaaɗi 100 km fof (baɗɗi ko ina ƴettita siñaal oo so leefii, mawnina ɗum, ɓennina ɗum). Ɗii ɓoggi mawɗi ina njara hedde 300 miliyaar ugiyya men ɓooyɗo oo. Ɓoggol heewaani gollaade ko ɓuri duuɓi 25. Ɓoggol kala ina waawi loowde puni 4 haa jeetati (funere = paire). Ɓoggol Google biyeteengol Dunant ngol, maa waɗoy puni 12 ; nii woni maa ngol hattanoy nawde ko ina tolnoo e 30 Tbit/lƴ (capanɗe tati teraabit leƴƴannde kala). Ñalnde kala batooje gawooje ina taƴa ɓoggi ɗii. Walla nii dowlaaji mbonna ɗi. Walla kadi dowlaaji ɗii ceŋoo e majji ngam heɗaade kaaruuji dewrooji e majji. … Google e Facebook fof (joom WhatsApp kadi) ɓuri waɗde heen kaalis ngam jokkondirde paaɓi-keɓe mum en (data center). Ko ina wona duuɓi 10 jooni, ko 5% ɓoggi ɗii ɓe njeynoo ; hannde, ko kamɓe njeyi heen feccere (50%) ; ɗoo e duuɓi tati paaɗi ko kamɓe njeyata heen fotde  95% ! Yiɗde wiyde tan ɓe ngoni ko e jiiraade ngam jeyande koye maɓɓe ɓoggi maɓɓe, ɓe keeroroo kabaruuji e keɓe dewrooje e kuutorɗe maɓɓe. Ɗuum noon firti ko maa njiimaandi Dental Dowlaaji Amerik (DDA) dow yah-ngartaa enternet ɓeydo. Hannde, fotde 80% e waraango enternet tiindii ko DDA, nde tawnoo ko toon paaɓi-keɓe GAFAM ɓuri heewde. Ɗumɗoon noon ina addana leyɗe winndere keddiiɗe ɗee ɓeydaade yowitaade. Ko ɗuum addani leydi Siin ne daraade hannde ngam ruppaade ndeen yowitaare e añde daɗeede. E hitaande 2021, maa ɓoggol Siin gadanol (12 000 km njuuteendi) yetto Farayse. Ngol rewri ko Pakistan e Jibuti e Kenyaa e Misra hade maggol joofde Marsey (Marseille).

Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft

Ɓoggol “Africa Coast to Europe (ACE)”

Ɓoggol Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) walla mbiyen ɓoggol Daande maayo Afrik feewde Orop, biyangol taƴii ngol, jokkondiri ko leyɗe 24 afriknaaje e Orop. Sosiyatee toppitiiɗo ngol oo ina waɗi 19 tergal. Fotde 400 miliyoŋ neɗɗo ina ceŋii e maggol beƴ (wonande leyɗe jiimɗe maayo ɗee), walla rewrude e jokkondire njoorndi wonande leyɗe jookiiɗe (ko wayi no Mali e Niiseer). Ɗeeɗoo leyɗe garooje ko e maggol puɗɗii seŋaade e ɓoggol giiɗal : Gine hakkundeejo, Gammbi, Liberiyaa, Muritani, Saawo Tome-e-Perensipe, Siyera Leyon.

ACE renndini ko gollooɓe telekom e leyɗe baɗɗe jawdi mum en heen ɗee. Nanondiral ACE siifaa ko ñalnde 5 suweŋ 2010. Ɓoggol ngol fuɗɗii gollaade ko ñalnde 15 desaambar 2012 ; ngol hurmbitaa ko ñalnde 19 desaambar to Bañnjul. Njuuteendi maggol ko 17 000 km. Ɓutteendi ɓoggol ngol ko hedde santimeeteruuji 5. A ngol waawi nawde 5,12 Tb/leƴ. Won e nokkuuji, luggeendi ɗo ngol lappii ɗoo ko hedde 6 km nder ndiyam. Yolli ngol ko laaɗe Alcatel Submarine Networks e Orange Marine.

Ko e hitaande 2010 Muritani felliti jeyeede e eɓɓaande ACE mbele ina seŋoo e ɓoggol ACE ngol, ngam waɗtude heɓde enternet no haanirta nii. Ɓoggol ngol tuggi ko Gabon haa Farayse, rewri Kamaruun, Niiseriyaa, Beneŋ, Togo, Gana, Koddiwaar, Liberiya, Siraa Leyoon, Gine Konaakiri, Gine Bisaawo, Senegaal, Gammbi, Kapweer, Muritani, Espaañ, Purtugeec, Farayse.

Njaru maggol ko 680 miliyoŋ dolaar Amerik. Ƴeeŋrude (Point d’atterissement) Nuwaasoot ndee ko 25 miliyoŋ dolaar jari. Gila nde ngol fuɗɗii gollaade e hitaande 2012, kattanɗe waraango ƴeeŋrude Nuwaasoot ndee ko 40 Gb/leƴ (ko idii ɗuum ko 1 Gb/lƴ fat wonnoo).

Laamu Muritani, rewrude e Mauripost, kam e pelle 3 telekom Muritani ɗee (Mattel, Mauritel e Chinguitel) e golloowo keeriiɗo goɗɗo ndenti cosi dental golle ine wiyee IMT (International Muritania Telecom). Ko ngalɗoo dental golle naatir-ɗen ACE. Ko kanngal yiilita ƴeeŋirde Nuwaasoot ndee. Sosɓe IMT ɓee ndenndini 25 miliyoŋ ngam feewnude ƴeeŋrude Nuwaasoot ndee. Mauripost addi 35%, Mauritel 25% ; Mattel 20% ; Chinguitel 15% ; e golloowo keeriiɗo goɗɗo 10%.

Ɓoggol giiɗal

Jokkorgol ɓoggol giiɗal waɗi ko neldowel giiɗal e keɓɓotoongel giiɗal, leeɓol giiɗal ina jokkondiri hakkunde mum en.

Leeɓol giiɗal waɗi ko korwe ɗiɗi weer ummiiɗo e oogaande wiyeteende silis : korwal ɓurngal famɗude ngal ina lommbii e ɓurngal mawnude ngal. Ɓurngal famɗude ngal woni ɓernde ndee ; ko e maggal caafal annoore loowngal kabaruuji ɗii rewrata. Korwal mawngal ngal, ko coomgal kuuringal e tokosal ngal ; ko kanngal ɗowata annoore ndee (so annoore ndee saytii e maggal ruttoo refta bolol, woni ɓernde ndee).

Korwe ɗiɗi ɗee ina mbaɗanee kadi kuurngal goɗngal dalli ngam hisnude fof : « ɓernde + coomgal ». Kuurngal ngal nafata tan ko soomde, alaa golle e nawgol annoore ndee.

Leeɓol giiɗal goƴngol en ngol, tekkeendi mum (hakkundol mum) ko 9 µm (mikoro meeteruuji 9). Hakkundol coomgal ngal ko 125 µm. Tekkeendi leeɓol sukundu ko hakkunde 50 haa 100 µm. Ɗum firti ko leeɓol giiɗal e coomgal ngal e kuurngal ngal fof so ndenndii, tekkeendi mum en ɗeɓata yerondirde ko e tekkeendi leeɓol sukundu. Ɓernde leeɓol giiɗal ndee, leeɓol sukundu ɓuri ɗum tekkude laabi 5 haa 10, ndeke ina famɗi no feewi !

Mbeelu (spectre) njuuteele wempeƴƴo (longueurs d’ondes) ina feccoo e pecce tati : heen feccere ko mbeelu ngu yiyotaako tolnondirnde e caafal dow-wiyolee, (Ultra-violet) heen feccere ko mbeelu njiyotoongu tolnondirngu e noorɗe/goobuuji timtimol, feccere heddiinde ndee ko mbeelu ngu yiyotaako tolnondirngu e les-boɗewol (infra rouge). Ko nguuɗoo mbeelu ngu yiyotaako (lesboɗewol) toɗɗii laylayti giiɗal. Keɓe ɗee ndewrata ko e njuuteele bempeƴƴe 1310 nm (tellagol) kam e 1490 nm (ŋabbugol) nguuɗoo mbeelu lesboɗewol.

So meeteer feccaama :
– laabi milyaar rokka :     1 nm (nanomeeteer)
– laabi miliyoŋ rokka :     1 µm (mikroomeeteer)
– laabi ujunere rokka :   1 mm (milimeeteer)

Giiɗawal (Optique)

Ko ganndal ɓalliwal toppitiingal ko faati he annoore e yiyngo kam e geɗe toɗɗiiɗe caafe jogiiɗe huunde nannduɗe e annoore (caafe les-boɗewol, dow-wiyolee, bempeƴƴe daɓɓe, dow-hitooji, ustoron ekn…). So artii e yiyngo, ɗum ɓuri toɗɗaade ko peewnugol e njeeygu kuutorɗe giiɗal (lone peewnitooje, mawninorɗe, lonngorɗe, mikoroskopaaji ekn).

Bookara Aamadu Bah

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