Cellingol ɗemngal Fulɓe : Kaɗooje e kuccam (2)

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Kartal pulfule fulɓe
Kartal pulfule fulɓe

Umar BAH, Vienne, Oktoobar 2012

Kelmeendi

Kelmeendi ina jeyaa he ko ɓuri rummbude e seertude. Yeru mum tan ko yuurnitaade mbaydi lelngo kelme nder pulfule ɗee : “ Yontere feƴƴunde, yontere ƴaɓɓiinde, yontere ɓennunde, yontere faltiinde, asawere saaliinde ”.

Yeru goɗɗo oo ko : hay sinno Fuɗnaange e Hirnaange, ko noon pulfule ɗee fof mbiyata (haa heddii pulfule Burkina mbiyata « Fuɗnaange » ko « Lettugal », hirnaange ko « Gorgal » ; Rewo e Worgo noon ina keewi inɗe ceerɗe : Rewo ina wiyee “ Saahal ”, “ Soɓɓiire ”, “ Woyla ”; Worgo wiyee “ Ɓaleeri ”, “ Horɗoore ”, “ Fommbina ”.

Eɗen tesko haa e kelmeendi ndaɗɗiindi, yeru inɗe terɗe ɓanndu neɗɗeo, ceerundal ina woodi hakkunde pulfule ɗe. He dow ɗuum, “feɗeendu” wiyatee to Fuuta Jaloŋ e to Burkina ko “honndu”, to pulfule fuɗnaange ko « hoondu » (ɗum ko he ceerundal baymaanaagal). Fuuta-Tooro kam wiyata tan ko “feɗeendu”. So en njerondirii ɗum he ɗemngal Seereer, ɗemngal to Senegaal ɓadtingal pulaar, maa en taw ɗoon ɗaɗol « kol » taweteengol he keewal « honndu » woni « kolli ». Ndeke “honndu” ɓuri ɓooyde, ɗoo ko Fuuta-Tooro jolni goɗɗum.

Tesko-ɗen to Fuuta-Jaloŋ ina woodi kelmeendi teddungal ndi jiydaa he kelmeendi ñalnde kala, jotondirndi he terɗe ɓanndu (ɓalndu) neɗɗo maa geɗe golle gaadoraaɗe ñalnde kala.

Yeruuji :
Kelmeendi
ñalnde kala      Kelmeendi teddungal
hoore   sala
hunnduko          karaho
koyngal                tunndawal
ñaama  nafoo
ɗaanoo                huyloo

So en mbaɗtii he ɗum tafngo kelme (néologismes) njibinaandi nder leyɗe tawa aldaa he kawral, ngonka kelmeendi ndii ɓeydoo saɗtude.

Mbaydiiji cellingol

He fawaade he ngonkaaji to bannge daartol, cellingol pulfule ina waawi jogaade jaɓɓe ceertuɗe. Ko ardii fof, eɗen poti siftorde gootiɗingol ina waawi jogaade jaɓɓe ɗiɗi : peewnitgol yuɓɓo kelmeendi e peewnitgol darngo ɗemngal ngal.

Peewnitgol yuɓɓo kelmeendi noddi ko ɗemngal ngal he hoore mum, joopoo yuɓɓo binndiin e cellingol binndi, laawɗinde gowlugol, celluka e kelmeendi, tonngude kaan celluka nder defte tuugneteeɗe, kesɗitingol kelmeendi e rewrude he sosngo kelmeendi kesiri ngam fulde miijanɗe ɗe ɗemɗe mawɗe kuutortoo, hono Engeleere e Farayseere e Aarabeere. He ko ɓuri heewde, baylugol yuɓɓo kelmeendi ko gollal ɗemɗiyankooɓe. Peewnitgol darngo ɗemngal noddi ko laabi ƴettaaɗi ngam kuutoragol ɗemngal ngal, yeru mum ko huutoraade ngal nder ceŋɗe laamu, ñaawirɗe e tippudi jaŋde. Ɗum ko gollal laamiiɓe kam e dawriyankooɓe.

Cuɓagol jaɓɓe e daawe teeŋtuɗe ngam laawɗingol Fulfulde :

Cellingol denndangol (standardisation unitaire)

Ngol ummortoo ko nehaande dawrugol, pinal maa faggudu, tawa laawol feraama, yimɓe huutortooɓe ngal ɓee fof ndewa heen. Ko hono noon ɗemngal Farayseere wayi (laawol Parinaaɓe), maa Italeere (laawol Florentiin). To bannge Fulfulde, ngal daawal ina waɗi nafooje, ina waɗi kadi ko naftataa (kaɗooje):

Nafoore : Gollal gootiɗingol ɓurata weeɓde ko so pulfulal gootal suɓaama, maa pulfule ɓadtondirɗe, he dow sarɗi tawa yuɓɓo coñce binndaaɗe maa jangtaaɗe ina ngoodi, defte tuugneteeɗe ina mbaawi ɗoon-e-ɗoon huwtoreede.

Kaɗooje : diiwe ɗe pulfule mum en toɗɗaaka ina mbaawi jaggirde ɗum ko jinngere, caloo ko hawraa koo. Dañde ɗoon kawraandi weeɓaani.

Kaɗooje goɗɗe : nde  tawnoo noon nehaande dawrugol, pinal e faggudu dente Fulɓe woodaani, ndeke holi fulfulde suɓeteende, holi jelooɗe tesketeeɗe (keewal haalooɓe, coftal mum en, goodal binndanɗe tuugneteeɗe, tolno jaŋde, tolno yuɓɓo mbinndiin, wonde hakkunde, ekn.) ? So en ƴettii jeloode keewal yimɓe, pulfule baawooje wootiɗinde ko pululal Fuuta Jaloŋ (aɓe millaa he miliyoŋaaji 5 haalooɓe pular), e Aadamaawa ɗo haalooɓe pulaar ceɓɓitii, ina keewi calti pulfule. Pulaar Fuuta-Tooro ɓuri alɗude to bannge defte coñce (mbaydiiji mum fof), ɓuri janngude pulaar e jogaade yuɓɓo mbinndiin. To bannge wonde hakkunde, pulfule Maasina e Haayre e Rewo Burkina ɓuri ɗoon teskinde. Ɗee diiwe gonɗe he nehaande wertaango Fulɓe ina mari jelooɗe teskinɗe wonande pulaar e fuldulde, pulfule Fuɗnaange e ɗe Hirnaange. Ndeke jaŋde majje weeɓanat ɗii ɓesnguuji e oo nokku.

Cellingol kuɓtidinngol tafaangol (Standardisation compositionnelle)

So yimɓe ndonkii sellinde he mbaydi ngootaagu, maslaha ronkaama dañeede, ngolɗoo laawol ina gasa huutoreede. Laawɗinal kuɓtodinngal firti ko renndinde doosɗe pulfule keewɗe tawa ina suɓtee heen geɗe ɓurɗe yaajde (keewal maa caragol pulfulal), ɓurngal tabitde, ɓurngal yuɓɓude, ɓurngal newaade e soomde miijanteendi, ekn.

Nder ngonka nguurndam ñalnde kala, so haalooɓe pulfule ceerɗe pottii, so ɓe ngalaa ɗemngal ngal ɓe mbaawata faamondirde (yeru ko wayi no Farayseere maa Engeleere), ɓe keewi ko fotondirde pulfule maɓɓe, mo-woni fof uddita pulfulal mum mbele aɓe mbaawa faamondirde. Ko hono ɗum jibinta ɗemɗe biyeteeɗe « koine », (doosgal ngal wiyatee ko « koineization » he Engeleere). Ɗum ittaa ko he ɗemngal Gereknaaɓe ɓooyngal (gilaa ko adii-daartol) biyeteengal Koine, ɗemngal denndangal, ummingal e ɗemɗe wertaango Gereknaaɓe fof e oon mudda.

Ɗemngal Alamaañeere ceningal biyeteengal Hochdeutsch (hoxdotsho) ko noon taforii. Paamen noon ɗuum kewata ko hee teeminanɗe jappondirɗi. So tawii noon yimɓe mbaawaa fadde ɗiin duuɓi fof, ɓe mbaɗa ko wiyatee koo « laawɗinal kuɓtodinngal tafangal ». Ɗo adan ɗoo, ngartam mum ina waawi jaggireede ko tafaaɗum, kono so ɓooyii maa nafoore mum yaltu tigi.

Alaa fof ɗemngal ko wonaa memtel no waawi fotde fof. Yeru ɗemngal tafingal e yeeso laawɗinal kuɓtodinngal ko ɗemngal biyeteengal “Rheto-romans”. Haalooɓe ngal ko seeɗa nder leydi Siwis, keewngal calti, ngal yimɓe mum ndonki dañde doosɗe denndinooje ɗum en. Ina heen kadi ɗemngal “Euskara Batua” walla “Baskoore hawritaande/renndaande”, ɗemngal doosɗangal e ndii mbaydi nder wertaango diiwaan leñol Baska en nder leydi Espaañ (seeɗa e leydi Farayse).

Nder doŋre Afiriki, ko ngol rewraa haa ɗemngal Union Shona (Sonaare hawritaande) waawi laataade, ngal renndini calti Sona fof. Ngal haaletee ko Zimbabwe. “Iboore hawritaande” nder Nijeriya etonooma waɗireede noon, kono yumtaani. Daliilu mum noon fawaaki he ɗemngal ngal, ko dawrugol haɗi ɗum yumtude, ngati ɓiyngu-baabaagu hakkunde seernaaɓe “Katolik en” e “Portestan en”, yanti he salaare jannguɓe Ibo en ɓurɓe horsinde ɗemngal Engeleere. Ndeke ngonka renndo e dawrugol ina mbaawi sabobinde ngartam moƴƴam maa mbonɗam.

So en ngartii he Fulfulde, eɗen mbaawi rewrude tawo daawal hakkundewal ngal mbiyaten “gootiɗingol pulfule”. Ɗum firti ko wootiɗinde doosɗe mbinndiin e kelmeendi, yuɓɓo lomto-innde, yuɓɓo baylagol alkule jogingol caɗe mawɗe wonande mbinndiin keso.

Ko he ngal daawal ɗemngal Fulfulde woni hannde oo so en njuurnitiima kaayitol ngol FULCOM sari ngol. Kaayitol ngol doosɗinaani baylagol alkule. Hono no Gottschligg (2009 : 319) wiyri ngol waɗɗaaki to bannge paamondiral pulfule kono angol jogii batte to renndo : haalooɓe pulfule ɗo baylagol alkule ngol woni, njaggiri ko kañum en taw ngoni he goonga, heddiiɓe ɓee haalooɓe pulfule jiɗɗe ƴellitaade njiɗi ko newnude ɗemngal ngal, etee ɓe keɓanaaki tawtude ɓeya. Sikke alaa aɗum wayla haala haa nih mbaydi binndol.

Ɓuri teeŋtude ko firande yimɓe heborɓe huwtoraade ɗum, jeyaaka he muuyaaɗe FSI yiɗde mumtude pulfule muynaaɗe, ko maa ɓe mbaawa he kala sahaa huutoraade ɗe to mbinndiin e to haala.

Nafoore : hay pulfulal gootal woppaaka yejjitaaka, ko ɗoon maasalahaa ɓurata weeɓde.

Kaɗooje : ɓayri ko doosɗe mahaaɗe, ɗum alaa tawo faggo binndanɗe maa defte  tuugneteeɗe (celluka e caggitorɗe) baawɗe huutoreede jooni-jooni. Ngal gollal teeŋtungal ko potngal golleede, huunde waawnde juutde, naamniinde kattanɗe to yimɓe e to ngalu ko weeɓaani.

Cellingol keewital (standardisation plurielle)

Kaa ngonka arata ko he sahaa mo calti ɗemngal gootal ƴellitii to dawrugol haa caltol heen fof wonti ɗemngal laawɗinaangal kaaleteengal nder leyɗe ceertuɗe. Ko hono ɗemɗe Iskanndinawiyanke, ɗemɗe Turkinke (Turkiya e doŋre nehaande Asia). To bannge ɗemɗiyaagal, gootal he ɗee ɗemɗe fof ko caltol ɗemngal gootal, ɗe ƴellitii gootal fof bannge mum.  Ɗee ɗemɗe njiidaa nih hay abajada. He darorɗe kitaale 90, nde “Dental Sowiet” fusi ndee e nde denndanndi Turkiiji ɗi Asia keɓi jeytaare mum en, abajada Turk pawiiɗo he “Latin” ɓadtiiɗo abajada leydi Turkiya hawranooma. Kono o suwaa tawo laataade ngati keewal e leyɗe ɗee kuutortoo tawo ko abajada “Kirilik” mo Riis fawnoo he dow maɓɓe. Fulfulde ina jogii ndii mbaaydi hay so seeɗa bannge cellingol keewital.

Cellingol  ngol keewal-nehaaɗe (standardisation polycentrique/polynomique)

Ngal daawal toɗɗii ko ɗemɗe laawɗinaaɗe e fawaade he mbaydi cellingol denndaangol, ko adii nde ɗe carotoo to weertaango haa ɗe mbaawi huutoreede nder leyɗe ceertuɗe, haa nih ɗe njibini calti goɗɗi. To bannge mbinndiin, ceerundal kelmeendi e celluka majje ina famɗi. Ceerundal majje heewi wonde ko to “ firo ” kono ɗuum haɗataa paamondiral hakkunde majje. Hay ngoon “ firo ” heewaano toɗɗaade firo gorworo, walla tawa ina anndaa ngati goodal defte e jaayɗe. Ina hasii ɗee leyɗe ina njokkondiri tigi to dawrugol, to faggudu maa to pinal. Yeruuji mum ko Farayseere e Almañeere, e Engeleere, e Aarabeere, e Españoleere e Portugeere. Ko yowitii he Fulfulde, ina gasa ɗoo he mudda daɓɓo, cellingol kuɓtodinngol yahda e cellingol keewal-nehaaɗe. Addata ɗum ko caragol ɗemngal ngal.

Tonngol

He gasnirde ndee yiyannde raɓɓininaande, eɗen mbiya tan wonde FSI ina waawi wonde, nder mudda kakindiiɗo maa juutɗo, so tawii kay dente e yuɓɓooji bayɗi no FULCOM maa Tabital Pulaaku (Pulaagu) e pelle pine Pulaar/Fulfulde naatii heen. Kono, eɗen ndeeƴna he hakkillaaji men wonde ngal ɗemngal cellinaangal coñcewal fotaani waɗteede ɓellere-gajjal, wonaa huunde diƴnde, ko ko memtatee ñalnde kala wonande calti ɗemngal. So FSI ina wooda ko sara calti ɗemngal ɗii fof, kuccam mum wonaa lomtaade calti ɗemngal (ɗum reerɗaaka kadi wonataa), kono ko timminde ɗi e weeɓtinde gostondiral pine nder wertaango Fulɓe. Kadi, ɗemngal lawɗinaangal wootiɗinaa ko njogitaari naat-naattondiral diiwe Afiriki, ko jukunnde nguurndam ɗemngal Pulaar/Fulfulde. So ɗemngal men fecciima hono no hannde nii, ngal waawataa fompondirde he Faraseere, Engeleere, e Aarbeere, kam he ɗemɗe Afiriknaaje ɗe ngal sippirta, hono Hawsaare, Bammbarankoore, jolfeere, Jermaare (Soŋayre), ekn.

Winndaannde Umar Bah
Fulo : Aamadu Malal Gey

Defte e binndanɗe kuutoraaɗe

– Castellanos, Carles (1997) El Procés d’Estandardització de les Llengües These.

– Gottschligg, Peter (2009) Dialectal variance, standardization and the development of awritten language: the case of Fula.

– Gleich, Utta von & Ekkehard Wolff (1991) Standardization of National Languages.

– Ka, Fary Silate & Issa Diallo (2010) Commission du Fulfulde/Langue Transfrontalière VéhiculaireLes règles d’orthographie du Fulfulde, version française facile pour lesnéoalphabètes.

– Gnalibouly, Boureima (2010) Rapport Groupe Fulfulde.

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