Wullitaango hardaneeɓe

0
646

Ñalnde 2 mee 2013, batu pattamlamu jooɗiima e nder galle sukaaɓe Ɓooyɗo (Ancienne Maison des Jeunes). Yuɓɓini nguun batu ko denndaangal hardaneeɓe wonɓe e nder lanndaaji politigi ɗii kala, e nder pelle renndo ɗee walla nii tawa ko yontaaɓe hinnde ndee tan; gila e dipiteeji maɓɓe haa e annduɓe maɓɓe ekn… Faandaare maɓɓe ko bayyinde kaayit gullittooɗo “ɓittere e paltoor nde hardaneeɓe nguuri e nder leydi Moritani” gila e jamanuuji ganni haa e ñalaande hannde ndee.

Ñalnde 2 mee 2013, batu pattamlamu jooɗiima e nder galle sukaaɓe Ɓooyɗo (Ancienne Maison des Jeunes). Yuɓɓini nguun batu ko denndaangal hardaneeɓe wonɓe e nder lanndaaji politigi ɗii kala, e nder pelle renndo ɗee walla nii tawa ko yontaaɓe hinnde ndee tan; gila e dipiteeji maɓɓe haa e annduɓe maɓɓe ekn… Faandaare maɓɓe ko bayyinde kaayit gullittooɗo “ɓittere e paltoor nde hardaneeɓe nguuri e nder leydi Moritani” gila e jamanuuji ganni haa e ñalaande hannde ndee.

Mbele ɗum ko  aada e nder Muritani ?

Cifotoren

Dillere waande nii fuɗɗii e leydi hee ko e hitaande 1966. Ko ɓaleeɓe walla kam mbiyen jannguɓe mum mbayyinnoo wullitaango lollirngo “Manifeste des 19” (Wullitaango sappo e njeenayo), tawi faandaare maɓɓe wonnoo ko yiɗde hollitde wonde dawrugol “ƴellitgol ɗemngal arab” ngol laamu Muttaar wul Daddaa (yo Alla ɓuuɓan mo) ummanii e nder leydi Muritani faanditaa heen ko ɗawde ɓaleeɓe, ɓe yoga e mum en,  jogitiiɓe njuɓɓudi laamu ngu, njanngi ko ɗemngal e pinal Farayse. Ɗum addi fitina mawɗo e nder leydi he : pelɓondiral e liisee Nuwaasoot, geddooji golle e nder administaraasiyoŋ jaaɓtoraaɗi ndiiwgu e golle e dummbugol e kasooji.

Dillere ɗimmere ndee waɗi ko e hitaande 1986, caggal nde yoga e  pelle politigi ɓaleeɓe gonnooɗe e suuɗaare, ndenti, cosi fedde wiyeteende FLAM. Ko ndeen fedde bayyinnoo “Manifeste du négro-mauritanien opprimé” (Wullitaango ɓaleejo muritaninaajo kiiɗaaɗo). Bayyinaango ngoo ngoo holliraama haa to batu hooreeɓe leyɗeele Afrik renndunooɓe to Simmbaabuwee (Zimbabwé). Laamiiɗo leydi ndii e oon sahaa, hono Maawiya jaagi ɓe, lepti ndeen fedde lepte bonɗe, urɓi leñam-leñameeɓe aarabeeɓe, ɗum reɓi haa wonti sawru gumɗo, huccinaandu e ɓaleeɓe kala, teeŋti noon e haalpulaar en. Ina walliti ɗeen geɗe kadi pollugol laamu ngu won e sukaaɓe ɓaleeɓe etinoo waɗde e oktoobar 1987.  Ko ɗum saabii warngo etinooɓe follude laamu nguu, taccingol ɓaleeɓe e pefgol jawdi mum en, warngooji ɓaleeɓe daande  maayo e soldateeɓe maɓɓe e denndaangal bonanndeeji kuccinanooɗi e ɓaleeɓe, teeŋti noon e haalpulaar en. Ellee maa mbiyaa ko laamu nguu, e ballal leñam-leñameeɓe safalɓe ndañi ko hujja no mumtiri ɓaleeɓe e nder leydi hee.

Wullitaango hardaneeɓe

Ko ɓuri teeŋtude e loowdi kaayit oo, ko hollitde geɗe ɗiɗi : taariik macungaangu e batte mum e hardaneeɓe e wasiyaaji ɗi ɓe njogii ngam ñawndude oon saqqa, baawɗo tonngireede nii e nder haala maɓɓe : «E nder nguurndam ñalnde kala, joñgol hardaneeɓe ko huunde laaɓtunde, etee ko huuftodinnde. Ɗuum ina feeñi e ŋakkugol jaŋde e keɓgol ɓure juɓɓule renndo gorwore, e ɗawre yaajnde e nder ngaluuji ngenndi ndii. Ngonka kuftodinka renndo hardaneeɓe ina maantiniri kadi macungaagu e batte mum : ɗawre, humambinnaagu e baasal ina ndoolni e maɓɓe e dow yeebaare laamuuj.»  Ɓe ndokki dalilaaji keewɗi tawi ko ɓetooji tolno martaba maɓɓe e leydi hee. Ndokken heen yeruuji seeɗa : E nder qiima maɓɓe, keeweendi hardaneeɓe hannde ina tolnoo, e nder renndo hee, e 50% (feccere renndo ngoo), ɗum fof e wayde noon, ɓe teskii ko :

– e nder 1 400 000 neɗɗo hiisaaɓe ko waasɓe e nder leydi hee, heen 80% (1 120 000) ko hardaneeɓe;

– e nder 1 500 000 neɗɗo hiisaaɓe ko humambinneeɓe ɓee, heen 85% (1 275 000) ko hardaneeɓe;

– ko ina tolnoo e 90% remooɓe ɓee ngalaa leydi ko e maɓɓe;

– ko ɓuri 90% roondotooɓe saakuuji ko e maɓɓe;

– e nder teemedere 100 sanɗa  janngoowo e duuɗe jaaɓi haatirde ko  5 heen fat (5%) ngoni hardaneeɓe heɓooɓe bursiiji ;

– tuggi 1957 haa  2013, e nder 600 hilifaaɓe laamu (ministres) toɗɗaaɓe, ko 20 heen tan ngoni hardaneeɓe ;

– e nder 500 ofiseeji militeer, hardaneeɓe heen timmaani 40 ;

– e nder ko ina ɓura 1 000 almaami jamaa, ko woni heen hardaane ɓuraani 10, laawɗinaaɓe to bannge laamu;

E raɓɓinaade tan, sabu doggol ngol ɓurii ɗoo juutde, alaa ko ngol ɗali e ceŋɗe renndo hee kala, wullitaango hardaneeɓe ngoo holliti tan ko wonde ko ɓe ɗawaaɓe e geɗe leydi ndii, etee saabii ɗum ko iwdi maɓɓe macungaagu.

Ɓe teeŋtinii, e nder ndeen ɗawre, joñgol maɓɓe e nder konu sabu, ndiiɗoon njuɓɓudi hannde, so yimɓe mum ina ƴettee ko maa seɗee, e nder ɗuum feere fof ina sakkee mbele “ofiseeji hardaneeɓe ina mbaasa hoonaade e nder ardorde  konu nguu”, rewrude e kawgelaaji ɗi laaɓtaani. Ko ɓuri huutoreede e nder larme hannde ko ƴettugol heedi-heeda, tuugiingol e banndiraagu, leñam-leñaagu, mbele ardorde konu nguu ina ngona yimɓe jokkooɓe mbaadi laamu nguu no siforii hannde nii, ɓe “njoña leƴƴi goɗɗi ɗii teeŋti noon e hardaneeɓe”.

Ɓe kolliti kadi wonde so tawii yaakoranoo ko laawɗingol jeyi leydi e rewrude e sariya 83-127 mo hitaande 1983 maa newnan hardaneeɓe samba-remooru en dañde leydi ko nguurdi, ɗum ɓeydi ko faaɗtinande ɓe, sibu waaliiji (guverneeruuji) e ñaawooɓe fof keeranii ko jaannduuji e lawakooɓe, sabu banndiraagal walla jeydeede e hinnde wootere, tawi noon kuule ɗe ƴettata ɗee kala, mbiyata ko e innde dowla.

Ko fawaade e ɗee geɗe kala, addani kaayit wullitaango dental hardaneeɓe oo, caggal ñiŋooje mum e sifaa renndo Muritani ngoo, gila dawa dawi, sakkitde miijooji e peeje no nuunɗal e potal foti ndaartireede, ngam ñawndude ɗeen caɗeele.

Kaayit oo hollitii wonde, ko lolliri e yonta jooni oo “heedi-heedaagu naftoowu” (discrimination positive), ina foti huutoreede e kala dawrugol baawngol lelneede ngam ñawndude “gagga hardaneeɓe”. E nder ɗuum, miijooji keewɗi (ko ina tolnoo e capanɗe tati toɓɓere) cakkitaama, ko ɓuri teeŋtude e majji  ko :

– Ko adii fof ko yuɓɓinde yeewtere yaajnde hakkunde ceŋɗe leydi ndi kala ngam lelnude dabi dowla dentuɗo, gaddaniiɗo ɓesngu mum kala potal e nuunɗal; caggal ɗum ƴetta kuule maantinɗe potɗe naftude miskineeɓe e ɗawaaɓe e nder renndo, ngam rokkitde ɓe hakkeeji maɓɓe to bannge politigi, faggudu e pinal….

– E ɓe teeŋtini jaŋde e nehdi e yeeso sompude nokkuuji keeriiɗi kuufɗi teheeɗe hardaneeɓe, tawa jaŋde ndee ina rokkee himme tigi rigi (gila e mahngo duɗe, addude jannginooɓe waawɓe, geɗe janngirɗe e peeje juumtuɗe janngingol e oon nokku); hare mumtugol humambinnaagu ko laawol potngol teeŋtineede e nder renndo hardaneeɓe.

– Addude waylo-waylo e ndema e sifaa jeyi leydi e nder Muritani, tawa ina feccitoo ndi, “labbo fof e tunnde mum” teeŋtina miijo wonde “foti jeyde leydi ko demoowo ɗum”. Ɗu fof noon, waawata jaalɗude ko tawa peeje remru ina mbaylee, remooɓe ƴaañee, mballitee kaɓirɗe e jawdi ko liggorii.

– Tabitingol sariya karminɗo njiyaagu oo; sakkude peeje mbele renndo ngoo ina hiñee, ko yiytaa heen joomum en ina ngoni e ɓoggol tawo, ndimɗinee, lohnooɓe heen ɓee ndokkee  ndaamordi.

– Ƴeewtaade sarɗiiji peccitagol laamu, sabu ɓe njiɗi e ko fayi arde, e nder juɓɓule doosɗe leydi ndii  (gowornama, postooji toowɗi administrasiyoŋ oo, guwernooruuji e perefeeji …)  tawa heen teemedere palaas fof, heen capanɗe nay ndokketee ko hardaneeɓe (40%), so tawii ɗum winndete walla kam nanondiree e tabitino hay so winndaaka.

– Newnande hardaneeɓe, rewrude e feere “heedi-hedaagu naftoowu” mbele eɓe mbaawa fiileede e  juɓɓule woote ɗee (asaammbele, meeriiji, ekn…) haa ɗum ɓeyda keewal maɓɓe e nder heen, waasa wayde no waanoo addan nii (hakkunde 1% et 2%).

E raɓɓinaade tan, kaayit maɓɓe oo alaa fannu mo woppi, gila to bannge jaŋde, golle e sifaa kuuftidinɗo, koɗorɗe, kuutoragol jaayɗe, gardagol jumaaji e jamaaji ekn… E nder ɗiin fannuuji kala, ɓe ɗaɓɓi ko yo potal naatne heen, hardaneeɓe keɓa geɗal mum en.

Ko seerndi wullitaango hardaneeɓe ngo e gullitaali ɓaleeɓe ɓennuɗi ɗi

Gullitaali ɗii kala ɗaɗol ngol ko gootol : “ko ɗawre ɓurɓe jogitaade hannde  ginol laamu tawi njeya ko e leñol safalɓe woɗeeɓe feewde e leƴƴi ɓaleeɓe ɗii e hinnde hardaneeɓe (safalɓe ɓaleeɓe)”, ko ɗum waɗi yoga e yimɓe hiisoraade ɗum no “ɗawre añam-leñaagu huccinaande e nguru ɓaleewu”. Ko laaɓti koo tan, ɓaleeɓe afiriknaaɓe ɓee ko yawatnooɓe ngonka mum en e nder leydi hee, kono maa mbiya ko hannde ɗum ɓuri bonde kadi. To bannge hardaneeɓe too, ɓeen, gila e maayirɗe kitaale 70, jannguɓe mum en  ko yuurnitiiɓe fiyakuuji leydi ndii, ko ɓe ɗaɓɓuɓe geɗal maɓɓe keeringal sabu won e maɓɓe nii mbiyata “laamu Muritani ko moojobere leƴƴi ɓaleeɓe afiriknaaɓe ɓee e safalɓe woɗeeɓe”.

Kono, ina moƴƴi won e geɗe laɓɓitinee, hol e leƴƴi hee ɗi hardaneeɓe limtetee? Mbele ko e leñol safalɓe walla ko e leñol ɓaleeɓe? Won e ɓaleeɓe njiɗi ko rentitinde ɓaleeɓe fof e nder leydi hee (ma a taw ko yiɗde fooɗanaade keewal) e moɓɓolde wootere, moɓɓolde heddiinde ndee safalɓe wooɗeeɓe ɓee keedta toon, mbaɗa hakkeeji ɓaleeɓe fof ko gootum etee, “ko safalɓe woɗeeɓe njaɓɓi hakkeeji maɓɓe”. Kono won e hardaneeɓe kadi njiɗi waɗtude hinnde hardaneeɓe ndee ko no leñol nii, ngol alaa ko jotondiri ɗum e safalɓe woɗeeɓe hay dara, so wonaa ko ɓeen kalfunoo ɓe, jooni ɓe njiɗi ko taƴde ɓoggi maɓɓe.

Ko selli koo tan, so tawii leñol sifortee ko ɗemngal, pinal e aadaaji mum, hardanaaɓe kiisetee ko safalɓe tan hay so tawii noon ina gasa tawa to iwdi, ko ɓe ɓaleeɓe afriknaaɓe ɓe ngonnoo, hannde ko ɓe safalɓe sabu ɓe caaytii e nder maɓɓe (ɗum ko huunde waawnde jolde e nder renndo aadeewo kala), walla nii, so en teyii mbiyen ko ɓe “aarabeeɓe ɓaleeɓe”, ɓe njuɓɓi ko e renndo safalɓe, ɓe peccitii e nder leƴƴi maa galleeji mum en (tirbiiji), ɓe ngoongɗini ko ndiin njuɓɓudi etee ko e noddaango mayri tan ɓe nootittoo (ko ɓuri heewde e maɓɓe kam). Yeru mo njogani-ɗen ɗum tan ko kala nde ngarmi-ngara feeñi e nder Muritani hakkunde leƴƴi, ɓe njantondirata ko e safalɓe (hitaande 1966 e 1989). So tawii ko wayi noon ne kay jolii hakkunde safalɓe e koye mum en, gooto e maɓɓe fof reftotoo ko leñol mum (tiribii mum); Ɓaleeɓe ɓee ne ko leƴƴi tati ceertuɗi sabu ɗemɗe mum e won e aadaaji mum en, kono kamɓe fof lasli iwdi geñgol maɓɓe ko gootol, eɓe njogii kadi ko ɓe ndenndi to bannge ngonka maɓɓe e leydi Muritani kamɓe fof ko ɓe ɗawaaɓe e njuɓɓudi dowla ndii, hay so won e maɓɓe ina njooɗtorii kañum en fof ɓuri kadi ɗaweede (ko wayi no wolofaaɓe)

Ko seerndi gullitaali ɗi (ɗi ɓaleeɓe ɗii e ɗi hardaneeɓe ɓee) ko arde ɗi e yontaaji ceertuɗi to bannge weeyo politigi :

– ngo hardaneeɓe ngoo ari ko e yonta demokarasii, wellitaare to bannge konngol e jaaynde, goodal partiiji politigi e pelle renndo daraniiɗe jojjanɗe aadee e sahaa kadi julyultondiral aduna oo kala, won ko dowla baawɗo wonde fof hulata walla hersa waɗde;  Ko ɗum waɗi laamu nguu faalkisaade kaayit maɓɓe oo, ɗum ina seerti e darnde laamu ndeen (1980) feewde e fedde hardaneeɓe lollirnoonde “EL HOR” sabu ɓeen, e nder filñitere mum en ndummbanooma e kasooji. Kaayit maɓɓe oo, kañum fof e waasde mumde hay dara e no ɓe njiyri gardagol leydi ndii, ɓe njooɓtaaki heen safalɓe walla “laamu safalɓe” hay so tawii nii e ɗum faamee heen, kadi ɓe njoofniri tan ko rokkude peeje maɓɓe e noddude yimɓe e ngootaagu.

– ɗi ɓaleeɓe ɗii ngari ko e yontaaji laamuuji kiiɗal : demokarasii woodaani, wellitaare alaa, ko yonta  “ko weli laamɗo fof ko ɗum woni ko dagii”, hay so tawii darnde laamu e hitaande 1966 ina seerti e darnde maggu tuggi tan 1986 haa 1991, sabu e oon yonta kala, ɓaleeɓe Muritani, teeŋti noon e haapulaar en, nguuri ko e kataa bonɗo (kasooji, warngooji, joñeede e golle, yedditaneede jeyeede e leydi, ɓoleede jawdi mum ekn…), tawi ɗum fof woni woytoraandu mum ko “FLAM” (fedde ɓaleeɓe tawi keewal mum en ko haalpulaar en) bayyini kaayit caggal leydi, ina joopi heen paltoor “laamu beydaan en”, ina nanndidina ɗum e laamu paltoor (Apartheid) Afrik bannge worgo, etee, sanɗaaji ɓaleeɓe ceppii e wuro Nuwaasoot, nduppii otooji; yanti e ɗuum kala, soldateeɓe ɓaleeɓe (haalpulaar en) etiima follude laamu  e  hitaande 1987. Ñaawoore laamu e oon sahaa, ko ko wuuranoo e daawal ngal leƴƴi ɓaleeɓe nguurnoo e oon yonta, motaani ko eɗen ndeftoo ɗum sabu ina anndaa. E miijo laamu nguu, woni “anniya ɓaleeɓe ko firtude tippudi no dowla Muritani mahorii nii”. Paamen ɗoon, wonde ko ɓaleeɓe njiɗi ko heɓtude dowla oo mbele ina ɓura hoonaade e safalɓe e nder leydi hee, tawi kayri ndi mahorii ko yo ”safalɓe” ɓur hoonaade e dowla oo. Ngoon miijo ko miijo pelle añam-leñeeɓe safalɓe (baasist en e naserist en) waɗde “henndu walliti besoowo” sabu e oon sahaa, laamu nguu gollorii ko kala ɓaleejo jeyaa ko e fedde “FLAM”.

Ngool ɗowgol laamuuji gila keɓ-ɗen jeytaare leydi men feewde jooni (teeŋti noon e laamuuji militeer en) ɓeydi e leydi ndii tan ko kulondiral e ceerundal leƴƴi haa ko e ñalawma hannde oo, ngenndiyaŋke kala ina jogii kulhuli e kapanɗe Muritani. Tanndalle gardiiɗe laamuuji ɗii kala ɓuri wuuranaade ko leñol gootol, ngol safalɓe woɗeeɓe, kono ɗum addantaa en wiyde ko laamu safalɓe, sabu hay e nder leñol safalɓe hee won e leƴƴi e nder maɓɓe ko ɗawaaɗi, hay so ɗum yerondirtaake e ɗawgol ɓaleeɓe e hardaneeɓe. Yo annde noon dawrugol heedi-heeda e nder dowla wonaa e nafoore heedanaaɓe ɓee e koye mum en, sabu ɗum wonaa huunde duumotoonde haa bada, Afrik bannge worgo ko seede ko kaal-ɗen koo.

Kappanɗe Muritani e ko fayi arde

Ina laaɓti tan e yonta mo ngonɗen oo, eɗen ngondi e saqqaaji ɗiɗi maantinɗi e nder renndo Muritani ɗiin ngoni koɗdigal moƴƴal hakkunde leƴƴi ɗii, e peccitgol e nuunɗal ngaluuji leydi ndii hakkunde ceŋɗe renndo ngoo kala, tawa ko haɓaade ɗawgol won e ɓiɓɓe leydi ndii. Ina gasa tawa wonaa ɗum tan woni caɗeele leydi ndii, kono ɗe cifi-ɗen addan ɗee, ko ñawndugol mum en ngaddotoo deeƴre leydi e ngootaagu ɓesngu nguu. Ina laaɓani yimɓe fof hannde, so wonaa mo yiɗaa yiyide, leydi ndii ardoraaka peewal, laamuuji ɓennuɗi ɗii (so wonaa ngu Siidi wul Seek Abdallaahi nguu) ndaranii ko fawde leñol safalɓe woɗeeɓe ɓee e dow leƴƴi keddiiɗi ɗii kala, walla e won e kinɗe (yeru hardaneeɓe, teeŋti noon laamu jooni nguu, walla tuggi ko gila e ngu Maawiyya). Ɗum ko huunde fotnde heɓɓiteede gila e law, kaaldigal waɗee hol no yimɓe mahtortoo leydi ndii.

Mahtaade ndi ɗo tiiɗi ko sompude demokarasii googanteejo e nder leydi hee, ɗum woni dowla baɗoowoo nuunɗal hakkunde ɓiɗɓe leydi kala. Waɗi en wiyde noon ko sabu humpito jogaango e aduna hee, hollitii tan ko feere ɓurnde yumtude e yonta hannde oo e nder winndere ndee kala to bannge ɗowgol leƴƴi ko tippudi lollirndi demokarasii, ko ndiin njuɓɓudi tan addanta gooto fof yiytaade heen hoore mum, annda ko heɓaani fof ko katanɗe mum kaɗi ɗum, kono wonaa hakke mum yaɓɓaa. Ndiin tippudi noon eɗen ngoɗɗi ɗum tawo ɗoo e Muritani, hay so tawi eɗen keɓtini won ko fuɗɗa dooɓeede heen seeɗa.

Kono ɗum firtaani, ko ngonka hannde kaa foti fadtireede ko haa demokarasii tabita, alaa! Ɓurondiral hannde ngal, ɗo tolnii ɗoo, e ɗawre won e ceŋɗe renndo ɗo njettii ɗoo, ina moti kuule keeriiɗe ƴettee ngam mumtugol walla ustugol ngeen tooñannge. Ko ɗum waɗi eɗen cikki feere wullitaango hardaneeɓe hono “discrimination positive” (heedi heeda naftoowo) ko huunde fotnde huutoreede, tawa kala daɗaaɓe e renndo hee wooda ko keedanaa haa keɓtoo heddiiɓe ɓee, walla kam ngabboo ɗum en (tawde wonii ɓe ndaɗiranoo ko tooñannge e jinngere). Kala ɓiyɗo-leydi ina haani hokkee fartaŋŋe no heɓiri e nafooje ɗe leydi rokkata ɓiɓɓe mum : golle, palasuuji nder njuɓɓudi laamu, ñamaale kaalisaaji ndenndaandi, anngisaade e larme, ɓamtoo heen so katanɗe mum ndokkii ɗum, janngude jaŋde toownde ekn… Soklaani ko eɗen limta, ɗumɗoo kala aaɓnotoo ko maa kaaldigal waɗa, ɗeen geɗe fof ndottee, ko ɓuri tiiɗde koo, ko laamu yo faam, laawol ngol loowi ngol ko laawol boomaare sabu battane mum fof ko pelɓondiral leƴƴi, ko nganndu-ɗaa, alaa ɗo yiyaa ina ɓamti leydi.

Laamu fotaani tufde tiinde mum tan, falkisoo goytaali ɓesngu, weddo yimɓe e nder gaw, laamiiɓe poti ko heɗtaade goytaali ɓiɓɓe leydi, ndenndina ɓesngu, haaltida e mum, kañum en fof njiiloo peeje juumtuɗe mbele gooto fof ina yiytoo hoore mum e kuule ƴetteteeɗe.

Gelaajo

Natal dow : 1934: Tam tam haratines à Atar (Crédit photo : M.S HEMODY)
iwdi natal ngal