Laamu Beneŋ

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Tuggi teeminannde XII-ɓiire haa nde koloñaal Engele en naati leydi ndii e hitaande 1897, laaminoo Benin ko leñol Edo en, hono leñol gootol Afrik hirnaange takko geec, ngol laamotonooɓe ɗum nguuri haa hannde. Laamu Benin nguu wonnoo ko to hirnaange worgo Niiseriyaa hannde oo. E nder kartal Holanndee en peewnunoo e hitaande 1705, kesɗitinangal e 1907 (Alfred Jones), ina winndaa heen Benin Mawɗo heednoo ko e huunde e Niiseriyaa keedɗo hirnaange worgo maayo Niiseer, e Benin hannde oo e huunde e Togo hannde oo.

Njuɓɓudi laamu nguu fawinoo ko e yontaaji hay so tawii, e wiyde duttorɗe tawaaɗe to Orop e teem 18ɓiire, heednoo laamu Benin nguu bannge hirnaange ko Laamu Ardra (laamorgo mum wiyetenoo ko Allada, nder Benin hannde oo), heednoo ndi bannge worgo ko geec kam e leyɗe Overry e Kalabaar.

Laamu nguu jiimnoo e weendu Benin e nokku caaɗli catiiɗo ɗum oo. Ko ɗoon njulaagu oropnaaɓe naatirtunoo, ngu ɓe mbaɗdatnoo e gure nay tiimɗe weendu nduu. Ɗeen ngoni Bododo (wiyeteengo hannde Bobi to Niiseriyaa), Guwato (Ughoton hannde) Arebo (Sapele walla Arogbo) kam e wuro Holanndenaaɓe mbiyatnoo Meiberg.

Wuro wiyeteengo Edo (walla Benin-city) wonnoo laamorgo ɗo Oba e watulaaɓe mum koɗnoo. Yillotooɓe oropnaaɓe cifiima ngo sifaaji keewɗi hade konu biritannaaɓe bonnude ngo e hitaande 1897.

Edo e Gwato fof ko gure kanndanooɗe : ko tata ka meeteruuji 3 tooweeki, layateeri ina huurii dow mum, ngaska na sawndii ɗum, heednoo e heen bannge, e banngeeji keddiiɗi ɗii, ko ngaska njaajka asaa heen, dunndu leɗɗe baɗɗe giye na heedtiri ɗum nder.

Hoɗorde Oba ko leegal no woorunoo, hono tata taariika wuro ngoo ina taarii ɗum. Ko ngo wuro yaynirtenoongo jamma lampaaji nebam leɗɗe. Yimɓe wuro ngoo kadi, so ina njaha jamma ko hono ɗiin lampaaji njooɓotonoo, huunde ɓeydatnoonde yaynaade wuro ngoo.

Benin ummii ko e helmere itsekiriire ‘UBINU’ firoore laamorgo, sifotoonde hoɗorde laamɗo, joopiinde laamorgo Benin City. Helmere ‘UBINU’ ndee e hoore mum ummii ko e helmere Yoruba ‘OBO’ firoore ‘guwerneer’, hono, e aada yoruba en, ceerno waliyyu.

Laamɓe Edo en mbiyatnoo laamu mum en ko Igodo Migodo. Njiimaandi wuro Benin ngo Edo en koɗnoo ngoo e dow 33 laamuuji kaalooji ɗemɗe edoweeje (hay heen gootal ɓuraani 500 000 haalooɓe hannde) addannoo yillotooɓe portugeec-naaɓe innirde nokku oo fof Benin. Kono ɗuum itaani laamuuji luulndiiɗi, dimɗuɗi ina ngoodnoo ɗoon, yeru nde Esan en (‘‘dogɓe’’) compi laamuuji ceegiiɗi. Ko e hitaande 1967 innde Benin huuɓtodinaa ngam joopaade leydi ndii…

Iwdi laamu nguu laaɓtanaani daartooɓe haa hannde, kono aɓe keewi feccitaade daartol maggu idiikoloñaal e muddaaji ɗiɗi, hono mudda mo biyeteeɗo Ogiso ardinoo leydi ndii e mudda mo Oba ardinoo oo.

Wiyetee « Ogisos » (Laamɗo asamaan e ɗemngal Edo) ko laamɓe ɓooyɓe leñol edo en, ɓurɓe anndeede e aada jangtaaɗo, nde tawnoo koloñaal tawaani ɓe ɗoon.

Yonta soñteende

Laamu Benin fuɗɗorii ko e laamɗo biyeteeɗo Oba Ewuare ganndiraaɗo Mawɗo, laamiiɗo tuggo 1440 haa 1473. Ko e ciltirɗi laamu makko, befotooɗo purtugeeco biyeteeɗo Ruy Sequeira jokkondirde e leydi hee. Ɓiy Ewuare biyeteeɗo Ozolua yaajtinii laamu nguu nde tawnoo ko kaɓeteeɗo mawɗo wonnoo. Ko ndeen Lagos wonti wuro tuddinirgo konuuji. E hitaande 1486 befetooɗo purtugeeco goɗɗo ine wiyee Joao Affonso d’Aviero yiyti leydi ndii, waɗti julondirde e mum. Benin ina yeeya ɓe ñamoko e guri cewɗi e ñiiƴe ñiibi, e comci gaadanteeji, e kuutorɗe leɗɗe e leydi cumaandi ; purtugeec en ngaddana ɓe koltu e lone e … petelaaji ballitɗi no feewi jaajtingol laamu nguu e teeminannde 16ɓiire. Portugeec en ina njiɗnoo naatnude Oba en e dewal katolik, kono ɓe ndonki, nde tawnoo ko laamɗo oo e hoore mum reeni dewal yimɓe laamu nguu.

Ko e laamu ɓiy Ozolua biyeteeɗo Oba Esigie (1504 haa 1550) laamu nguu heɓi kaatɗtudi mum, haa teeŋti noon to bannge ñeeñe e pinal. E wiyde wanngotooɓe engelenaaɓe, Esigie ina waawnoo renndinnde, e darnde, konu ngu 20 000 neɗɗo e ñalawma gooto, walla boom 100 000 neɗɗo so o welaama. Ko e laamu makko yumma mum laamɗo waɗti fiileede, rokkaa lefol ; ɗuum ko ngam mawninde yumma makko hono Ijiya. Ko e oon yonta ñeeñe mahngo e sehngo yimɓon kam e ‘’maskeeji’’ peewniraaɗi ñiiƴe ñiibi (ivoire) fuɗɗii to Benin. Koon njeeson e ‘maskeyon’ ina tawee hannde e yoga e cuuɗi ganni leyɗe hirnaange.

Esigie noon golliima ngam sarde e ɓesngu nguu dewal kerecee en, o yamiri mahngo dewirɗe mum (eglises) e nder won ɗeen gure mawɗe leydi makko. Ko ndeen egliis Aruosa mahaa nder Benin City.

Deestagol : Doole laamu Benin ustii ko e teeminannde 18ɓiire caggal ummannde Yoruba en e biritannaaɓe, heedɓe laamu nguu e naange no feewi e kitaale 1880 haa 1890. E hitaande 1897 lietnaa Phillips ɗaɓɓi jooɗodaade e Oba Owaramwen ngam siifde nanondiral dartingol « cakkagol yimɓe ». Oon ari Benin ina wondi e worɓe 9 jogitiiɓe gila heɓaani jaabtawol. Beninnaaɓe njaggiri ɗum no yawaare nii, ɓe mbari lietnaa Phillips e yimɓe mum njeeɗiɗo.

Biritaannaaɓe neldi toon konu ngu 1 200 neɗɗo e gardagol amiraal Harry Rawson, ɓe keɓti Benin City, ɓe mbonni yoga e jawdi laamu nguu, ɓe cari ko heddii koo. Oba en ndogi mooloyii to wuro Niijeriyaa wooto anndiraango Kalabaar. E hitaande 1 900 Benin naattinaa e laamlaamu biritaannaaɓe, nder ndeenaandi worgo Niiseriyaa.

E hitaande 1975 Dahomee ɓooyɗo oo waɗti wiyeede Ndenndaandi ɓesngu Benin.

Bookara Aamadu Bah
Ƴoogirde : Wikipedia

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