Añamleñaaagu, añam-nguraagu, rasisma… : Puɗdi ngañgu

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Añamleñaaagu, añam-nguraagu, rasisma... : Puɗdi ngañgu

Hollitde wonde añam-nguraagu nder polis wonaa huunde heɓtiinde, ko huunde sabbinnde heen, ine newii. Hannde, Alla e laylayti renndo ɗii (resoo sosiyooji ɗii ), ñalnde kala yimɓe ine ceedoroo ɗum gite mum en rewrude he wideyooji caakteteeɗi heen, walla seedamfaaguuji jaltinteeɗi. Kadi, ine anndaa, he daartol winndere ndee, ɗum yahdi ko e dagnugol njiimaandi e ciiɓagol doole janane. Ndutto-ɗen seeɗa he daartol ngam etaade faamde ɗum…    

So a naamndiima yimɓe ɓalliiɓe ma “ no foti eddaaji yimɓe ngoni he winndere hee” ine hasii keɓaa jaabawol gootol « 4 ! », woni leƴƴi tuugiiɗi kañum en fof e noordi (goobu) nguru ɓanndu, tawi kadi heen gootol heen fof ine jogii doŋre mum nde anndiraa. 

Ɗumɗoo noon, eɗen nganndi hay huunde tan fiyndiraani e goonga ! Kono heewɓe he men ko noon miijortoo. Ko ɓuri bonde nii, heewɓe mbiyata ko leƴƴi potaani. Hol no neɗɗo waawi miijoraade ɗum ? Goongɗina ɗum hannde ? Jokka goongɗinde añam-nguraagu ?

Añanguraagu noon jogiima sifaaji keewɗi he nder daartol aadee.

So en ƴeewii kartal leƴƴi ittangal he atalas (deftere karte) gooto peewnaaɗo he hitaande 1907, mo ganndoleydo biyeteeɗo Vidal de La Blache wallifii, eɗen teskoo heen tolnondiral hakkunde ɗaŋe e edda ɓalndu, ɗaŋre fof e leñol mum. Eɗen teskoo ine winndaa heen wonde ɗaŋre Afrik ndee yantude e huunde e Asi ko ɗaŋre ɓaleeɓe e monngol en (« nègres et négroides»),« mongoloide »), ɗaŋre Orop, ko oropnaaɓe e ɗaŋre Amerik hirnaange e huunde e Amerik worgo e Oseyani, ko ɗaŋre berbeer en e aarabeeɓe, dooɓaaɓe Afrik e eñnjee en (pygmées d’afrique, indiens d’amérique), e leƴƴi rewo leydi ceɓɓitiiɗo sara wuddu leydi rewo ceɓɓitiiɗo. Ndaa miliyoŋaaji, miliyoŋaaji sukaaɓe faraysenaaɓe (e afriknaaɓe) njiyii ngalɗoo kartal, haa e feccere teeminannde 19ɓiire. Atalas Allemaañ goɗɗo e oon yonta gooto, ko hono ɗuum hollittunoo.

E wiyde ɗee karte, leñol aadee en feccitii ko he pecce keewɗe, fawaade ko geɗe donaaɗe, ko wayi no noordi nguru ɓalndu, ceerungal ɓurngal yiytinaade.

Ngalɗoo ceerungal noon fuɗɗii ko gila he wiɗtooji nguurɗiiɓe (anduɓe ko faati e nguurɗiwal), ko wayi no tuubaako faraysenaajo biyeteeɗo Buffon walla Suwednaajo biyeteeɗo Linné. Oon sahaa, he  yonta teeminannde 18ɓiire, anniraande teeminannde annoore faandaare ndee wonnoo ko lawaade yimɓe. Yeru,  Karl Von Linné, waɗi yimɓe, he nder deftere mum « systèma natura » (njuɓɓudi sewlo), ko eddaaji 4 aadee (Homo sapiens) ngoodi, tolnondirɗi he  noorɗe guri ɓalli mum en : Homo asiaticus : oolɗi, surwi, yoori ; Homo afer : ɓawli, nooynii, softi ; Homo europeus : ranwi, wojji, kettolini ; Homo americanus : wojji, faaɗi, fortii.

Wonaa noordi nguru ɓalndu tan annduɓe oon sahaa kuutorii ngam waɗde yimɓe pecce pecce. Yeru, ine nataa he nder deftere wootere, koye tati yimɓe “tuggi Apollon gerek haa ndinka, ƴaaŋan-maa ɓaleejo”. Nder  natal hee, ɓilii hakkunde neɗɗo no timmirtaa nii e waandu, ko ɓaleejo. Nii woni he nder teeminannde 19ɓiire, nganndinal (siyaas) feeñii heen tawi woni faandaare mum ko ɓetde ceerungal hakkunde aadee en, ngam lawaade ɗum, waɗa ɗum en pelle-pelle, tuugaade e ɓetooji ɓalndu (anthropométrie), walla ɓetooji hoore (craniométrie). 

Nii woni, he teeminannde 19ɓiire, “ganndal” laawɗininii miijiyeeje leñameeje, sari ɗum en. Yeru, to Farayse, deftere janngirde ekkol ine woodnoo, ine wiyee  « le tour de France par 2 enfants » ( « Sukaaɓe 2 ine taartoo leydi Farayse »), ine winndaa he mum wonde ko “eddaaji nay (4) yimɓe ngoodi, tee ko edda raneeɓe daneejo “ɓuri eddaaji aadee en fof timmude”.  Ƴeewaa noon, hakkunde 1877 e 1977, fotde miliyoŋaaji jeetati e feccere tumbitere ndeen deftere njeeyaama heen nder leydi Farayse, ɗum firti ko miliyoŋaaji potɗi noon cukalel njannginaama ndeen deftere nder ekkolaaji Farayse, loowaama miijo ko kañum en ɓuri heddiiɓe ɓee. Ko ɓeen sukaaɓe ngoni hannde jinnaaɓe yimɓe wuurɓe hannde e leydi Farayse ndii. E leyɗe Orop fof ko hono ɗii miijooji bonɗi loowaa e hakkillaaji sukaaɓe.

Haa hannde dee ndutto-ɗen he daartol. E teeminannde 15ɓiire, laamɗo katolik purtugeeco, biyeteeɗo “ Henri le Navigateur ” miijii tafngo “caravelles” (laaɗe ndiyam mbiyaa noon). Ko ɗeen laaɗe ɗanniyankooɓe wiyeteeɓe Bartolemé Dias e Christophe Colomb, Vasco de Gama, Fransisco Cabral e Magellan mbeforii haa njiytani Purtugaal  e Espaañ ko Orop jaggiri no njiyte mawɗe. Nanondire keewɗe ciifaaɗe yeeso Vatican ngaddanii ɗee leyɗe ɗiɗi feccitaade hakkunde mum winndere ndee, hay nokkuuji ɗi ɓe cuwaano tawo yiytude. Ɗee njiyte ngaddanii Orop dañde jotondire njulaagu kese, heɓde leyɗe kese e ngaluuji kesi ɗi mbaawi naftoraade. Ngam naftoraade ɗii ngaluuji kesi, ko maa gollotooɓe hesɓe ndañee. Nii woni, njulaagu kesu fuɗɗaa, nganndiraangu Njulaagu Tatiiru, ngollortoongu nii : julaaɓe oropnaaɓe comoyoo jiyaaɓe to Afrik, ɓe ngaddira ɓe doole ko leyɗe keɗe jiytaaɗe ɗee (ko ɓe inniri “Aduna Keso” koo), ɓe njeeya ɓe toon, ɓe ngartira benefiis keɓaaɗo e warñeede ɓaleeɓe ndi alaa njoɓdi to laamuuji Orop. Nguu njulaagu ɓaleeɓe, nganndiraangu “teret ɓaleeɓe”, ko kewu faggudu moolanaangu nder daartol winndere ndee. Sabu njuuteendi mum fotde 400 hitaande, hakkunde teeminannde 15ɓiire e 19ɓiire; sabu njaajeendi mum, sibu ko hakkunde 25 e 30 miliyoŋ ɓaleejo taccinaa ; sabu batte mum to ganndal leydi e renndo, to USA, to Karaybe, to Beresil, e to  Afrik e hoore mum. 

Batte mum nii ndiwtii batte faggudu tan, sibu ko geɗe ñiɓiiɗe hankati he hakkillaaji, e miijooji. E darorɗe teeminannde 18ɓiire, kelme ɓaleejo e maccuɗo ngonti puneeje nder won ɗeen caggitorɗe Farayse. Orop waawni njiimaandi kesiri, njiimaandi nehaagu e diine, pawtiindi kadi he dow njiimaandi to bannge faggudu, njuɓɓudi, karallaagal, e konu ngoodnoondi ndii. Orop hiisii ine roondaa donngal ngam findinde winndere ndee, rokkude ɓesnguuji Amerik e Afrik e Asi e Oseyaani, jaggiraaɗi no daɗaaɗi nii, ɓamtaare e fiɓnde dewal. 

Nii woni feccere he winndere ndee halfaa, Afrik no diidorinoo feccitaa hakkunde leyɗe Orop e mooɓondiral Berlin e hitaande 1885. 

Duuɓi 20 caggal ɗuum, e hitaande 1914, ko adii wolde winndereere adannde, ko nii aduna siforinoo: Farayse e njiimaandi mum, Ndenndaandi ndentundi, Espaañ, Purtugeec, Peyi-Ba (Pays Bas), Belsik, Almaañ, Itaali njiimi ko ɓuri heewde e ngaluuji winndere, tee, he miijo mum en, ko kam ndaɗi heddiiɓe ɓee, ɓuri ɗum en finde. Kono, ngoon miijo ine woodi hay to Laamaandi Puɗal Naange (Japon) puɗɗoriindi heɓtude Formoos, Kore, Mandshukuwo to Siin, caggal ɗuum Asii fuɗnaange worgo. Nder Orop, miijanteendi Nasi ƴelliti haa kaaɗtudi wonde eddaaji yimɓe ine ceerti, tee ko edda (leñol) ariyeen en ngol ɓuri fof rimɗude. Nii woni hakkunde 1939 e 1945, nasiyonaal sosiyaalisma siyni he nder Almaañ kam he nder Orop politik mumtugol yahuud en, e Tsigaan en, e ɓaleeɓe, e jilluɓe, e luuɗeeɓe, e ɗawaaɓe kattanɗe, e kala ko wonaa aryen, leñol “kaaɗtudi ndimaagu”. Kono, sabu bonannde nde hono mum alaa, nde ndee wolde saabii, ngaddanii miijo wiyatnoongo ko edda raneeɓe ɓuri fof, fuɗɗaade waylaade. E hitaande 1945, leyɗeele poolɗe ɗee njuɓɓini ñaawoore to wuro Nuremberg ngam ñaawde nasiyaagal (nazisme) kam e añam-nguraagu mum. Kono, e oon sahaa gooto, ngonka leydi Amerik, kooniinde e wolde 1945, dillaani. 

Hol ko sabii ɗum ?

Ciftoren tan wonde ko e hitaande 1861, wolde ɓesngu fuɗɗii he Amerik. Sappo e goo (11) dowla ameriknaajo ceegii dental ngal, ngam salaade seertude e jiyɗingol ɓaleeɓe, semmbe faggudu mo Alla ɓolo, mo alaa njoɓdi. Ɗi poolaa e wolde ɓesngu hee, njiyaagu mumtaa, haɗtaa. Kono ɗuum haɗaani laabi sariya ceerndooji ine lutti woodde e nder dowlaaji hee kala, tee ine mbaawni ceerndugol Ɓaleeɓe e Raneeɓe nder boowe renndo, nder biisuuji, nder ekkolaaji, nder nokkuuji keeriiɗi, ko wayi no kaɗgol dewgal hakkunde leƴƴi. Nder won ɗiin dowlaaji baaɗi no Wasinton, ɗiin laabi sariya ine toɗɗii Iñnjee en kadi. Ɗii laabi sariya luttii woodde ko juuti, haa e nder maayirɗe teeminannde 20siire. Ko maa 1964 ɗoo tan nde sariya ganndiraaɗo “Civil Right Act” itti ɗuum to bannge binndol. 

Duuɓi 50 ina ɓilii hakkunde ɗuum e toɗɗagol, e hitaande 2008, ɓaleejo  hooreejo leydi ndii. Kono ɗuum ine woɗɗi ittude añam-nguraagu nder Dowlaaji Dentuɗi. 

Kaawis goɗɗo oo woni ko e limlebbi ndee teeminannde 20siire. Ɗoon ɗo silsil dimɗingol leyɗe fuɗɗii, añam-nguraagu laawɗinaangu, ndonaangu he miijooji koloñaal Orop, ine jokki to Afrik worgo. Ɗuum woni Apartaayd tuugiiɗo e ceerndugol eddaaji leƴƴi, haa teeŋti hakkunde Ɓaleeɓe waali wuro en, e Raneeɓe  uumiiɓe e koloñaal en Holanndee en e Engele en. E hitaande 1951 leydi ndii sosi dowlaaji sappo (10) Bantustaan, dowlaaji baɗanaaɗi Ɓaleeɓe tan, jaalɗini he leydi hee paaltoor hakkunde leƴƴi. Oo paltoor laawɗinaaɗo, mo suuɗaaki moggaaki, woodii 43 hitaande nder Afrik worgo. Kono wonaa baylagol miijooji itti apartaayd, itti apartaayd ko joofgol “wolde ɓuuɓnde”. En paamii tan, ɗaɗi añam-nguraagu ine ñiɓii ɗo ɓuri luggiɗde he daartol.

Hannde noon anndaama wonde yimɓe fof tagraa ko ɓakdi ngootiri, ndi ranwaani, ndi ɓawlaani, ndi oolɗaani. Ciirol aadee en ko bajjol, tee innama aadee en kala ngummii ko he taaniraaɗo gooto.

Homo Sapiens (Enen aadee en ɓee), ko peeñ-ɗen wonii hannde duuɓi 150 000, to Afirik ŋoriijo, seeɗa-seeɗa ngon-ɗen e uujde, ko ine wona jooni duuɓi 60 000 hitaande, ngam laamaade leydi ndii kala… Ceertugol goobu nguru ɓanndu, fawii ko e goowtugol ɓanndu neɗɗo ngonka weeyo. Noordi (goobu) nguru ɓanndu fawii ko he keewgol melaniin (huunde wonnde nder ɓanndu) he ɓanndu joom mum. Ɓalli ɓaleeji ɗii ɓuri heewde melaniin paddotooɗo nguleeki. Aɗa ŋabba feewde rewo tan, ine ɓeydoo ɓuuɓde, ɓalli ine ɓeydoo leerde.

… Jahrugol yeeso guurɗiwal (biologie), ndoniwal (génétique), biillewal (archéologie), waawii addande yimɓe waawde dallinde wonde ɓurondiral alaa hakkunde leƴƴi. Nganndinal (ganndal) ñaawii hafeere eddaaji leƴƴi. Kono, ndaw ko haawnii, ɗuum haɗaani añam-nguraagu feeñirde sahaa kala mbaadiiji ceertuɗi. So añam-nguraagu nguu feeñiraani noordi nguru ɓanndu, ngu feeñira mbaadi ngoɗndi, yeru nder inɗe yimɓe, walla e luwooɓe koɗorɗe, walla ƴettugol e golle, walla to bannge diine, walla tumarankaagu…

En ceediima no añam-nguraagu waylortoo ngam yahdude e ngonkaaji. Kono hol ko waɗi ngol jerondirgol yimɓe tiiɗiri nii hoore, haa saɗiri nii diwteede ? Ko waɗi añam-nguraagu ñalnde fof ine arta ellee miijo politik ? Haala ko faati e añam-nguraagu weeɓaani, sibu ɗum wonaa huunde tuugiinde e hakkille. Ɗum ɓuri noddude ko ɓernde, walla neɗɗaagu. Ɗuum fof dee ittataa, sukaaɓe ɓee fof, ɗo njibinaa ɗoo, nganndaa nii hay goobu guri ɓalli mum en. Ndeke ɗum ari ko caggal ɗuum. Nder nehdi.

Bookara Aamadu Bah

Ƴoogirde : ARTE

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