Fedannde Malaaɗo : Natal gadanal wuddere ɓaleere jiiryiirngal men

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Natal gadanal wuddere ɓaleere jiiryiirngal men
Natal gadanal wuddere ɓaleere jiiryiirngal men

E hitaande 2019, eɗen ciftora, « natal gadanal, natal goonga-goonga wuddere ɓaleere » hollanooma. Kono ndeen, ko natal wuddere ɓaleere wiyeteende M87*.  Jooni, walla mbiyen ñalnde 12 mee 2022 ndee, ƴettaa (fotaa) ko wuddere ɓaleere wonnde hakkunde jiiryiirngal men, (hono jiiryiirngal « Fedannde malaaɗo » : hono wuddere ɓaleere pattamñisre, wiyeteende « Sagittarius A* » (Mbaangu A*) !

Iih, mate wonaa wiyanooma, e hitaande 2019, wonde « wuddere ɓaleere » fotaama, haa natal ngal saaktaa boom he teleeji winndere ndee kala, fotde lewru ko ɗuum tan haaletenoo ? Jooni kadi, he ɗee balɗe, ine wiyee wonde « ko jooni natal gadanal, natal goonga-goonga wuddere ɓaleere ƴettaa ». Mi faamaani !

Eey, ko goonga maa dee, e hitaande 2019, eɗen ciftora, ko kewu mawngu wonnoo kadi, wiyanooma tigi ko « natal gadanal, natal goonga-goonga wuddere ɓaleere » ƴettaa. Kono ndeen (ko ɗuum woni ko hesɗi he kabaaru jooni oo ), ko natal wuddere ɓaleere wonnde hakkunde jiiryiirngal goɗngal biyeteengal « Messier 87 » ; ndeen wudere ɓaleere wiyetee ko M87. Ƴettunoo ngaal natal ko niiwnorgal Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), walla mbiyen laylaytol niiwnorɗe, ɗe nganndu-ɗaa so ndentinaama njerondirta ko e niiwnorgal gootal ɓurngal mawnude he winndere ndee.

This is the first image of Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy. It’s the first direct visual evidence of the presence of this black hole. It was captured by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), an array which linked together eight existing radio observatories across the planet to form a single “Earth-sized” virtual telescope. The telescope is named after the event horizon, the boundary of the black hole beyond which no light can escape.   Although we cannot see the event horizon itself, because it cannot emit light, glowing gas orbiting around the black hole reveals a telltale signature: a dark central region (called a shadow) surrounded by a bright ring-like structure. The new view captures light bent by the powerful gravity of the black hole, which is four million times more massive than our Sun. The image of the Sgr A* black hole is an average of the different images the EHT Collaboration has extracted from its 2017 observations.  In addition to other facilities, the EHT network of radio observatories that made this image possible includes the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) in the Atacama Desert in Chile, co-owned and co-operated by ESO is a partner on behalf of its member states in Europe.

Jooni, walla mbiyen ñalnde 12 mee 2022 ndee, ƴettaa (fotaa) ko wuddere ɓaleere wonnde hakkunde jiiryiirngal men, (hono jiiryiirngal « Fedannde malaaɗo » (Voie lactée)) : hono wuddere ɓaleere pattamñisre, wiyeteende « Sagittarius A* » !

Jooni kadi, so en cawndinii nate ɗiɗi ɗee, maa en tesko eɗe nanndi no feewi : haawnaaki, ko ɗuum woni ko yaakoranoo, sibu kuule ɗiɗi ɗee njiidi edda, njiidi mahdi. Wayi ko no nate koode ɗiɗi nii, ine nanndi !

Ko goonga noon « jiiryiire ɗiɗi ɗee ine ceerti no feewi, ñise gudde ɓaleeje ɗiɗi ɗee ine ngoɗɗondiri, kono he saraaji wiiwaano majje ine nanndi no feewi », e wiyde gootal e terɗe Diiso ganndeewo EHT.

Ɗumɗoo noon haawnaaki : ko kuuje ɗiɗi weeyo jiiduɗe edda sibu ko gudde ɗiɗi ɓaleeje pattamñise. Hono no innde ndee hollitiri nii, ko kuuje ɗiɗi ñisɗe, tedduɗe no feewi, sibu ko laabi miliyoŋaaji-miliyoŋaaji ñisre naange, heen sahaaji boom ko miliyaaruuji ñisre naange men ngee.

Jiiryiirngal mawngal kala ine jogii wuddere ɓaleere pattamñisre he nehaande mum. Ɗuum anndiraa ko ƴeewgol koode e gaasuuji gonɗi he nehaande jiiryiire ɗee. Yitere neɗɗo fof e waasde hattande yiyde ko seerndi nate ɗiɗi ɗee, gudde ɓaleeje ɗiɗi ɗee ine ceerti :

- Hakkunde M87* e Leydi men (Ngaawe) ndii ko 55 miliyoŋ hitaande annoore ; teddeendi mayre ko laabi miliyaaruuji 6,5 teddeendi naange. Nde jeyaa ko e gudde ɓaleeje pattamñise ɓurɗe mawnude he tageefo hee.

- Hakkunde e Leydi men e SgrA* ko 25 000 hitaande-annoore ; teddeendi mayre ko miliyoŋaaji 4 ñisre naange.  Nde jeyaa ko he gudde ɓaleeje pattamñise ɓurɗe famɗude he tageefo hee. Cunnagol ɗo ɗee gudde ɓaleeje nanndi e ɗo ceerti, maa addan en ɓeydaade faamde gudde ɓaleeje.

Ɗum noon :

• E hitaande 2017, golle ƴeewngal kuuɓtodinɗe ngummanaama he winndere ndee no diidorinoo, ngam ƴeewde gudde ɓaleeje ɗiɗi, hono M87* e Sgr A* ;

• Caggal ɗuum, ñalnde 10 abril 2019, natal gadanal M87* saaktaa, kono ngal Sgr A*, nde tawnoo ine ɗaɓɓi hiisaaji ɓurɗi luggiɗde, heɓaaka tawo.

• Natal Sgr A* ari kisa ko jooni, ñalnde 12 mee 2022, duuɓi tati golle goɗɗi. Saabii leeltugol ngol ko ɓakdi mbeɗu ɗakkal (disque d’accrétion) njirlotoondi wuddere ɓaleere Sgr A* ndee, alla e mum yaawde, ine timmina jirlal mum he nder hojomaaji seeɗa. Ko ɗuum saabii nate ɗee ine niɓɓiɗa, maa waɗee hiisaaji keewɗi nde ɗe laaɓta.

Hol ko woni wuddere ɓaleere ?

« Wuddere ɓaleere » ko kuulel asamaan, no Leydi men ndii nii, no koode ɗee nii, ko nokku weeyo ɗo hay huunde waawaa ɓoccitaade, wonaa ɓakdi, wonaa hay annoore. Ɗum noon ko nokku niɓɓo, mo yiyotaako. Wayi ko no gawu (gaw) nii, pooɗoowo, ɓuucoo kala ko faandii ɗum, tee wontaa ɓoccito. Ɗum noon, ko kuulel asamaan ngel nganndu-ɗaa, Alla e mum ñisde, Alla e ɓakdi mum tiɗɗaade, caasal ɓaaƴo mum ina waawi haɗde kala ko woni e mum ɓoccitaade, gila e ɓakdi haa e caafe, ko ɗe mbaawi wonde fof, yo won caafe jiyotooɗe ɗee (annoore…), walla caafe yiite-sulɗeeje (onndooji rajo ekn).

Ngam huunde wona wuddere ɓaleere, maa ñiso heewngo tiɗɗoo e nokku weeyo paaɗɗo. Ƴetten yeru e Naange. Ñiso naange ko hedde miliyaaruuji 2 miliyaar ton, wudduwol mum ko 700 000 kiloomeeteer, woni laabi 200 wudduwol Leydi. So en mbaawii tiɗɗude ñiso Naange ngee fof e nder faandu ndu wudduwol mum jaasi kiloomeeteruuji 3, maa en ndañ « wuddere ɓaleere » : kala kuulel asamaan, walla caafal annoore ɓallingal ɗum ko jaasi kiloomeeteruuji 3, waawataa ɓoccitaade, walla mbiyen yaltude ɗoon.

So en njiɗii waɗtude Leydi men ndii wuddere ɓaleere, ɗuum kadi ɓuri hittude. Waɗi noon ko maa mbaawen tiɗɗude ɓakdi mum ndii kala e nder faandu ndu wudduwol saatimeeteer gooto, woni tiɗɗen Leydi haa fotta e abbere gawri. Oon sahaa maa en keɓ wuddere ɓaleere saatimeeteer gooto ! Hannde noon, denndaangal annduɓe ko faati e ɓalliwal koode (ɓalkoodewal : astrophysique) njenanaama gawuuji ɓaleeji (gudde ɓaleeje) ine ngoodi, tee heen gooto ina e sara men ɗoo : to wuddu jiiryiirngal men, hono wuddu Fedannde Malaaɗo, hedde ñukkere koode wiyeteende Mbaangu A* (Sagittaire A*).

Hol ko saabii kala ko naati e wuddere ɓaleere waawaaa yaltude ?

Hade ɗuum, eɗen poti faamde, e nder winndere hee, denndaangal ɓalli (geɗe) ñisɗe (jogiiɗe ñiso) ina ɓaaƴondira (pooɗondira), fawaade e pooɗondiral ɓaaƴiwal (attraction gravitationnelle). Ko jiidaa e ɗuum, kala huunde ñisnde no feewi, ko wayi no hoodere walla wuddere ɓaleere ina wayla mbaadi saraaji faru-sahaa. Nii woni diidol portol jogii toon ko mbaadi diidol kofingol, yeru no geɗe mbaylortoo so a ƴeewrii ɗum en caggal butel baɗɗo ndiyam nii.

Hol ko waɗi ɓakdi e annoore mbaawaa ɓoccitaade wuddere ɓaleere ndee so naatii heen ?

So a werliima haayre faade dow, ɓaaƴo Leydi sammina nde e leydi. So a werloriima nde doole, nde ɓeydoo toowde, kono nde saamoya kadi. So a werliima nde doole doole, nde ŋabba dow dow, haa ɓaaƴo Leydi natta waawde samminde nde : nde naata e faru, nde ɓoccitoo ɓaaƴo (fooɗo) Leydi. Njaaweendi ndi haayre ndee werliraa haa nde waasi saamde e Leydi, wiyetee ko njaaweendi ɓoccital. Dow Leydi ndiin njaaweendi ko 11,2 km nder leƴƴannde kala (40 000 km/w). Satelitaaji e fiiseeji ina njaawi yettaade ndi. Njaaweendi ɓoccital fawii ko he ñiso kuulel asamaan ɗo huunde ndee werlaa ɗoo : dow Naange ko ndi 617 km nder leƴƴannde (2 221 000 km nder waktu kala). Wonande gudde ɓaleeje, ndiin njaaweendi ɓurii njaaweendi annoore : waɗde haayre ndee waawata ɓoccitaade ɓaaƴo wuddere ɓaleere ndee, ko maa nde ɓura annoore yaawde, ndaa ɗuum aaɓnotaako. Alaa tawo ko yiytaa ko ɓuri annoore yaawde. Ko ɗuum tagi haayre ndee wattinta tan ko saamde nder wuddere ɓaleere ndee. Ko noon wonande annoore, sibu njaaweendi annoore ndee foti ko e njaaweendi mum, ɗum noon nde waawaa ɓoccitaade gawu nguu.

Nde tawnoo alaa ko yaltata e wuddere ɓaleere, hay annoore, ko ɗuum addani ɗum wonde huunde nde lewñataa, wonaa tan wonande caafe jiyotooɗe, kono hay caafe yiite-sulɗeeje.

No paamirten, so annoore waawaa yaltude wuddere ɓaleere : so a huɓɓii toon lampa, gonɗo boowal yiyataa annoore kaan lampa sibu nde yaltataa wuddere ɓaleere ndee, ɗum noon ko niɓɓere wonnoonde toon ndee tan yiyetee. Noon kadi, rajo walla tele gonɗo nder wuddere too, hay gooto nanataa ko saaktata, sibu hay onndooji njaltataa nde. Ɗo wuddere ndee woni ɗoo, ko niɓɓere tan yiyetee ɗoon ; ɗuum woni wuddere ɓaleere yiyotaako, heɗtotaako. So wonaa dee, ma a taw, etaade ƴeewde ko woni saraaji wiiwaano mum, etaade ƴeewde ɓarakke geɗe moɗaaɗe ngoppi ɗoon…

Wuddere ɓaleere ko « gawu ɓaaƴo »

Wuddere ɓaleere ko « gawu ɓaaƴo » : so a ɓadtiima ɗum no feewi, ɓuuco maa, naatnu maa nder. E nder ganndal « ɓalliwal yowito », ɓaaƴo ina fooɗa ɓakdi, kono kadi ina wayla « faru sahaa ». Ɗoo noon, ndokkaten yeru ko e gawu ndiyam…

 So laana arii saraaji mum ina doga e laawol mum portingol, gawu nguu fooɗa ɗum, ooña bolol mum, laana kaa naata e yiriinde, ka yirloo, ka yirloo, haa ka yettoo wuddu gawu nguu, ka muta. Woni gawu nguu ɓuuciima ka. Ko noon gudde ɓaleeje pooɗirta cereeli annoore, ooña ɗum en, (portol wontii ooñingol) njirla ɗum en haa « moɗa » ɗum en.

Fedannade Malaaɗo

Jiiryiirngal Fedannde malaaɗo, ko jiiryiirngal jirliwal baɗngal ko ine abboo e 200 haa 400 milyaar hoodere, e ko famɗi fof 100 miliyaar tagofeere. Ko he maggal Yuɓɓo Naange woni, ɗum noon ko e maggal Leydi (Ngaawe) woni, ɗum noon ngon-ɗen. Annoore (leer) ina waawi dogde he maggal 100 000 haa 120 000 walla nii 150 000 hitaande tawi

Fedannde malaaɗo
Fedannde malaaɗo

taccaani ngal. Hakkunde Yuɓɓo Naange e nehaande Jiiryiirngal Fedannde malaaɗo ine wona fotde 27 000 hitaande annoore (leer ina doga 27 000

hitaande hakkunde majje).

So gonɗo he Leydi ƴeewii ngal, yiyrata ngal ko no lefol danewol nii. Waɗi ngal siforaade noon ko Yuɓɓo naange (ngo ngon-ɗen ngoo) heedti ko he saraaji mbeɗu maggal (mbaadi maggal ko mbeɗu). Ko cooynoto-ɗen ine ranwi koo ko ñukkulle koode, ɗe yitere neɗɗo mehre waawaa laaɓtindaade.

Fedannde malaaɗo ine waɗi koode ɓooyɗe no feewi, sibu ko gila sahaaji tageefo ɓurɗi niɓɓiɗde, walla mbiyen tan ɗe peeñdi ko he tageefo, ko ine wona jooni 13,2 miliyaar hitaande.
Bookara Aamadu Bah

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