Gollordu IPELAN – UNESCO, Nuwaasoot ñalnde 10, 11 e 12 sulyee 2023 : Ɗowol golle lelnaama

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Gollordu IPELAN
Gollordu IPELAN

Duɗal Ɓamtaare e Jaŋde Ɗemɗe Ngenndiije (Institut pour la Promotion et l’Enseignement des Langues nationales – IPELAN), e dow ballal biro Unesco ɗoo e Nuwaasaat, yuɓɓinii, ñalnde 10, 11 e 12 sulyee 2023, to Otel Azalaï e Nuwaasoot gollordu mawndu ngam miijaade ko faati e naattingol jaŋde ɗemɗe ngenndiije pulaar, sooninke e wolof nder Tippudi Nehdi e Jaŋde leydi ndii. Pelle pinal tati ɗee (FƁPM, AMPLCS e APROLAWO) tawtoraama gollordu nduu. Faandaare gollordu nduu ko lelnande Duɗal ngal feere golle, haa teeŋti noon e lelnude « eɓɓaande koolkisagol naatnugol ɗemɗe ngenndiije ɗee nder ekkol  ». Ɗum ɗoon noon, rewrude e daawe garooje ɗee :

– Siftinde humpitooji nder leydi ndii, nder diiwaan oo, e nder winndere ndee paatuɗi e naatnugol ɗemɗe ngenndiije nder ekkol (yeru Muritani e Niiseer e leyɗe ɗe OIF* wallitta nder eɓɓaande ELAN* ekn) ;

- Yuurnitaade geɗe moƴƴinooje e telɓinooje ;

– Heɓtinde doole kam e kaɗooje walla caɗeele Muritani paatuɗe heen ;

- Lelnude feere ƴeewndorde ;

– Lelnude daawe silsil oo (ɗowol golle).

Caggal nde Gardo Duɗal ngal udditi gollordu nduu, ko karallo Unesco yettini konngol mum, hade Jaagorgal Jaŋde udditde golle ɗee. E nder haala maɓɓe, kamɓe kala ɓe teeŋtinii yiɗde leydi ndii tuugnaade e jaŋde ɗemɗe ngenndiije ngam moƴƴinde jaŋde mum. Karallo Unesco oo (Porfesoor Aliyuun Ngoone Sek) hollitii, e haala mum wonde «  caggal mbayliigu jaŋde e hitaande 1999, Muritani suɓinoo ko ɗemɗe ɗiɗi e nder jaŋde mum (arab e farayseere), kono jooni ndi yaltii e ɗuum. Hannde, Muritani yiɗi ko cuɓagol ɗemɗe janngirɗe e nder ekkol yo tuugo e oo sarɗi : waawde newnude keɓgol ganndal ɓurngol yuumtude e nuunɗude (newoo, janngooɓe pota heen). Ɗum ɗoon noon aaɓnotoo tan ko nde jaŋde ndee tuugii e ɗemɗe ngenndiije, tawi kadi ine suɓii ɗemngal (walla ɗemɗe) udditaare ɓurngal yahdude e ngonka mum. Ɗum noon, ekkol gootiɗɗo oo foti wonde ko ekkol potal, mo hay gooto ɗawaaka, ekkol ɗo suka Muritani kala hebletee e ɗemɗe keewɗe, ekkol ñiɓiiɗo e pinal ngenndi, tiiɗtinoowo ngootaagu ngenndi e mahondiral renndo, ekkol udditaniiɗo pine keddiiɗe ɗee kam e neesu winndere ndee  ».

l Ñalawma gadano oo kala gollordu nduu rippi ko e ndaɗɗudi Unesco holliti paatundi e humpitooji jaŋde ɗemɗe ngenndiije haa teeŋti noon to Senegaal, e Mali, e Burkinaa, (Doktoor Tijjaani Sal mo Unesco sakkiti miijo ngoo) kam e humpito Muritani (pelle pinal ndaɗɗi miijo, kam en fof e waasde heblanaade ɗum).

Hol ko foti teskeede e humpitooji ɗii :

Humpitooji ɗii fof e seertude, luural alaa wonde kala jaŋde fuɗɗoriinde ɗemngal neeniwal ɓurata jaŋde fuɗɗoriinde ɗemngal ngal wonaa ngal almuudo huɓindii, soñtude. Ciftinen ɗoo tonngol banke moñnjaal waɗi ko faati heen : «  So sukaaɓe ngidoriima tawo jannginireede ɗemngal ngal kaalata, paamata no moƴƴi, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata faamde, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata yaawde waawde ɗemɗe goɗɗe, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata ɓooyde e nder jaŋde, ko ndeen jaŋde maɓɓe ndee ɓurata yahdude e pinal maɓɓe e ngonka nokku maɓɓe. … Politikaaji jaŋde moƴƴi ɗemngal jannginirgal ine mballita potal nder ekkol e nder ƴettugol gollotooɓe ; kañji kadi ɓuri famɗude fere, tee eɗi ñiɓa no moƴƴi janngooɓe e nder renndo mum en  ».

Ɗum fof e waade noon, humpitooji ɗi karallo Unesco oo holliti ɗii (to senegaal mali e burkinaa) ine ceerti e humpito Muritani. E nder ɗee leyɗe, jaŋde ɗemɗe neeniije ɗee waɗiraa ko toŋtude jaŋde ɗemngal ɗimmal (hono Farayse). Eɗen nganndi noon, hay sinno nii jaŋde ɗemɗe neeniije waɗiraaka toŋtude ɗemngal goɗngal, ine anndaa kala puɗɗoriiɗo jaŋde e ɗemngal mum neeniwal, ɓurata yaawde huɓindaade ɗemɗe goɗɗe.

Faandaare jaŋde ɗemɗe ngenndiije e nder Muritani, so en tuugniima e humpito ɓennungo ngoo, walla e ko winndaa e sariya kuccam jaŋde leydi ndii (kuulal 7), jaŋde ɗemɗe ɗee waɗiraa ko haa rokka janngoowo oo kala ko ɗemɗe keddiiɗe ɗee ndokkata joomum en koo, so wonde ɗemɗe gollorteeɗe e ɗemɗe ɓamtaare nder renndo.

l Ñalawma ɗimmo oo hollitaa heen ko tippule jaŋde tuugiiɗe e ɗemɗiɗaagu (bilinguisme) kam e eddaaji mum. Naamnal ngal ko ƴeewde hol edda mo Muritani jeyaa. Eddaaji kollitaaɗi ɗii ine peccii e pecce ɗiɗi mawɗe : Edda ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu (Bilinguisme de transition) e edda ɗemɗiɗaagu ñiiɓngu (bilinguisme de maintien). Ɗemɗiɗaagu woni waawde haalde e faamde ɗemɗe ɗiɗi ko famɗi fof. Ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu firti ko mawnude e nder ɗemngal mum neeniwal, caggal ɗum waɗee e sato ɗemngal goɗngal ngal waawaano. Yeru, e nder leyɗe Afrik hirnaange (Senegaal e Mali, e Burkinaa heen limtetee…) sukaaɓe ɓee mawnata ko e sato ɗemngal mum en neeniwal (Ɗ1), caggal ɗuum so naatii ekkol tawa toon ɗemngal Farayseere (Ɗ2) ngal nganndaano. Yeruuji ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu kollitaaɗi ɗii, ko ɗiin koolkistee jooni, walla koolkisanoo to Senegaal, Mali, Burkinaa ekn.

Ɗemɗiɗaagu ñiiɓngu heewi waɗde ko so neɗɗo jokkii huutoraade ɗemngal mum neeniwal tawi kadi ine jannga ɗemngal goɗngal. Ɗoo ine seerti e ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu sibu ko ɗemngal neeniwal ngal ɓuri doolnude nder renndo e galle. Ɗemngal goɗngal ngal (ɗemngal ɗimmal ngal) jaggiraa ko no kattanɗe ɓeydaniiɗe joomum kono lomtaaki ɗemngal neeniwal ngal. Ooɗoo sifaa ɗemɗiɗaagu ine heewi wasiyeede nder won ɗiin dawruɗi nehdi e jaŋde e galle ngam hisnude ɗemngal e pinal iwdi ngal, tawa kadi joomum ine jannga, waawa ɗemngal goɗngal. Yeru dokkaaɗo wonande oo ɗoo edda ko to leydi Inndo…

Caggal nde yimɓe ɓee peccitii e tumbuɗi, njeewti heen, ngartiri golle, tawaa alaa e eddaaji cifaaɗi ɗii, alaa heen mo Muritani waawi innitoraade, hay sinno noon ɓuri ɓadaade ko ɗemɗiɗaagu ñiiɓngu. Kono, ine laaɓi yeru Muritani oo ko Muritani tan heerorii ɗum. Woni e Muritani ko heewɗemɗaagu (multilinguisme) keeriingu.

Caggal ɗuum gollordu nduu huccani ƴeewde hol no ɗemɗe ɗee potata tippondirde nder jaŋde hee. Yonaaɓe pelle pinal ndokkii yeru «  tippondiral ɗemɗe  » kollitangal e nder dallinannde mbinndunoo ndee… Sifaaji ɗo ɗemɗe 2 walla nii 3 njahdata ine keewi : Pulaar/Arab, Sooninke/Arab, Wolof/Arab, Arab/Pulaar, Arab/Sooninke, Arab/Wolof, Pulaar/Arab/Farayse, Sooninke/Arab/Farayse, Wolof/Arab/Farayse, Arab/Pulaar/Farayse, Arab/Sooninke/Farayse, Arab/Wolof/Farayse… E ɗii sifaaji ɓennuɗi tawa ko ɗemngal neeniwal ngal woni janngirgal. Jooni noon, ine foti kadi ƴeeweede sifaa ɗo ɗemngal ɗimmal walla tataɓal wonata janngirgal huunde e fannuuji, e hol nde ngaal ɗemngal ɗimmal fuɗɗotoo wonde ɗemngal janngirgal. E tonngol, so ɗuum woodoyii, wasiyaa ko yo ɗum aroy e hitaande nayaɓere (4eA) tawa cukalel ngel janngii ɗemngal ɗimmal ngal duuɓi 3 haa cukalel ngel huɓindoo no moƴƴi ɗemngal mum neeniwal ngal, tawa kadi ngel fuɗɗiima huɓindaade ɗemngal ɗimmal ngal, … Kono ɗum fof maa haralleeɓe njuurnitoyoo ɗum no moƴƴi…

l Ñalawma tataɓo oo, Gollordu nduu yuurnitiima ko faati e heblo, ko faati e rewindo e ɓeto, ko faati e kaɓirɗe jaŋde, ko faati e wiɗto ekn.  Ndu yuurnitiima kadi ko faati e kumpital e hirjino renndo, e ko faati kadi e ɗowol golle (feuille de route). Ndu waɗii kadi wasiyaaji kuɓtidinɗi :

– kala ko ine waɗee yo tuugo e golle duɗal ɗemɗe ndeen ngal ; – yo laamu waɗ hirjino e renndo ngoo mbele yimɓe fof ine paama nafoore soomiinde e jaŋde ɗemɗe ngenndiije, ndaronoo ɗum, mballita ɗum ; – yo laamu heblu  gollotooɓe heen (jannginooɓe, huufooɓe, haralleeɓe ekn. ngu hebla ngalu katojinaangu ngam moƴƴinde golle ɗee. 

Ciimtol Bookara Aamadu Bah

Eddaaji ɗemɗiɗaagu

Ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu heewi kewde ko so neɗɗo ine jannga e nder ɗemngal ɗimmal tawi ko ngaal ɗemngal ɓuri doolnude, ɓuri waawde huutoreede, ine hasii tawa ko e leydi ngoɗndi walla e nder renndo woɗngo. Yeru, so yimɓe uujii faade e nokku goɗɗo ɗo ɗemngal ngal jiidaa e ɗemngal mum neeniwal ɓuri doolnude. Ɓe njannga ɗemngal kesal ngal ngam waawde faamondirde e tawaaɓe ɓee e heƴde e sato heso ngoo, tawa noon aɓe keddorii ɗemngal maɓɓe neeniwal ngal. Kono ɗemngal kesal ngal wona e lomtoraade seeɗa seeɗa ɗemngal maɓɓe neeniwal ngal. Ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu kadi ko edda keeriiɗo ɗo ɗemngal ɗimmal lomtortoo seeɗa seeɗa ɗemngal neeniwal.

Hoolkiso jaŋde ɗemɗe ngenndiije waɗeteengo hannde to Senegaal, waɗetenoongo ko ɓooyi to Mali ekn. njeyaa ko e eddaaji ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu, sibu ɗemɗe neeniije ɗee njanngiraa ko haa mballita jaŋde ɗemngal farayseere : ɗemɗe neeniije ɗee ko ɗemɗe tuggorɗe walla mbiyen ŋabbirɗe wonande Farayseere.

Ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu ine waɗi eddaaji tokoosi keewɗi, haa arti noon e ɗii ɗoo ɗiɗi : Ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu lawɗungu (bilinguisme de transition précoce) e Ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu njenngungu (bilinguisme de transition tardif). So ɗemngal neeniwal ngal lomtaama law, wiyee ko ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu lawɗungu : yeru nder duuɓi 2 walla tati. So ɗemngal neeniwal ngal leelii lomteede (yeru e nder duuɓi 6 fayi dow) wiyee ko ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu njenngungu.

Ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu lawɗungu : ɗoo, neɗɗo oo ine fuɗɗoo janngude ɗemngal doolnungal ngal law e nder cukaagu mum, tawi ine yahra e duuɓi 5 walla 6. Ɗum heewi waɗde ko e galleeji uuji faade leyɗi ngoɗndi, sukaaɓe mum naata janngirɗe tawi ɗee, tawi ɗemngal janngirgal ɗoon ngal jiidaa e ɗemngal mum en neeniwal. Yeru galle Muritaninaaɓe so uujii faade Amerik, sukaaɓe mum en naata toon ekkol law, hay so tawii nder galle maɓɓe ko sapatoore walla pulaar kon kaalata, to ekkol too e to mbedda too, ko engele kon ekkotoo haalde.

Ɗemɗiɗaagu cabborgu njenngungu : ɗoo, neɗɗo oo ine jennga fuɗɗaade janngude ɗemngal doolnungal ngal e nder cukaagu mum, walla nii o fuɗɗotoo janngude ngal ko e curbaagu walla nii e cagataagu. Ɗum heewi waɗde ko nde sagataaɓe uuji faade leydi ngoɗndi walla nde pelliti janngude ɗemngal goɗngal sabu sokla golle walla yiɗde heeriinde.   

«  So sukaaɓe ngidoriima tawo jannginireede ɗemngal ngal kaalata, paamata no moƴƴi, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata faamde, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata yaawde waawde ɗemɗe goɗɗe, ko ndeen ɓe ɓurata ɓooyde e nder jaŋde, ko ndeen jaŋde maɓɓe ndee ɓurata yahdude e pinal maɓɓe e ngonka nokku maɓɓe…  ».

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