Njulaagu ɓaleeɓe : Njulaagu feewde hirnaange

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lappi njulaagu ɓaleeɓe : feewde hirnaange (Amerik) e fuɗnaange (leyɗe aarabeeɓe)
lappi njulaagu ɓaleeɓe : feewde hirnaange (Amerik) e fuɗnaange (leyɗe aarabeeɓe)

Njulaagu ɓaleeɓe (traites négrières) ko njeeygu miliyoŋaaji miliyoŋaaji ɓaleeɓe jeyanooɓe e Afrik hirnaange e Afrik hakkundeejo e Afrik fuɗnaange waɗtanooɓe jiyaaɓe, njulaagu nduumiingu fotde duuɓi teemedde keewɗe.

Njulaagu ɓaleeɓe (njulaagu/teret hirnaange) ndewratnoongu geec atalantiijo fuɗɗii ko e hitaande 1441. Ngu fuɗɗorii ko taccingol e njeeygu dahaaɓe e tufɗe geec atalantik e hitaande 1444 nder wuro to Purtugeec ina wiyee Lagos. E teeminannde rewnde heen, Purtugeec en taccinii jiyaaɓe feewde Karaybe e Amerik worgo.

Nokkuuji julorɗi jiyaaɓe gonnooɗi e tufnde Afrik hee ko nokkuuji deenaaɗi no feewi, kidiiɗi, baɗɗi koninkooɓe yonɓe e julaaɓe heewɓe jokkondirɓe e tirbiiji (leƴƴi) jeeyooji jiyaaɓe. Yoga e jiyaaɓe ɓee nawetenoo ko to duuɗe Antiy gonnooɗe e njiimaandi Angalteer e ko ɓuri teeŋtude duuɗe Antiy Farayseeje, heen huunde kadi ina nawetenoo Amerik, kono meeɗaa yettaade 15% e njeeygu nguu kala.

Njulaagu tatiiwu

Ko ɓuri maantinde e teret hirnaange ko lappol ganndirangol lappol tat-tatiwol (commerce triangulaire) walla lappol Atalantik maa lappol hirnaange. Ko njulaagu ngostiigu ɓaleeɓe hakkunde Orop e Afrik e Amerik ngam huuɓnande koloniiji Amerik soklaaji mum to bannge jiyaaɓe, huuɓnande Afrik geɗe peewnaaɗe Orop e Amerik e huuɓnande Orop geɗe ittaaɗe e koloniiji hee.

Konngol ‘’Njulaagu tat-tatiiwu’’ ngol haaɗaani tan e lappi hakkunde duuɗe tati ɗee : laaɗe leyɗe hirnaange ina njaha faggaade jiyaaɓe e tufɗe Afrik, e yeeytoyde ɗum en (jiyaaɓe ɓee) to koloniiji Amerik e wostoraade ɗum en suukara e kafe e bukki e kakawoo e simme e kaŋŋe e nawgol ɗeen geɗe ittaaɗe Amerik to Orop. Njulaagu nguu ɓurii ɗoon yaajde sibu lappi ɗii ina keewi, sibu golle keewɗe ina tammbinoo ɗum to Orop e to Afrik, njulaagu nguu haaɗaani tan e ummaade Orop faya Afrik, fayta Orop ekn…

E nder Orop, julaaɓe ɓee ko maa ndenndina kaalisaaji e marsandiis e yimɓe e laaɗe katojinaaɗe, ɓe toppitoo kadi baylugol marsandiis ummortooɗo Amerik oo.

To Afrik kadi, ko maa jiyaaɓe ɓee njiyloyee, ngaddee e tufɗe njulaagu hee, mooftee ɗoon, soodooɓe ɓee cuɓtoo heen ko cokli.

Amerik ne wonaano tan nokku ƴaaŋtorɗo. Hannde ina anndaa wonde ko Riyo de Jonero (Rio de Janeiro), wonaa Liwerpuul (Liverpool) wonnoo tufnde njulaagu jiyaaɓe idiinde e winndere ndee, tee njulaagu jiyaaɓe ngoɗngu ina woodnoo e oon sahaa hakkunde Beresil e Anngolaa (e yeru), tee ko ɓuri heewde e jiyaaɓe ko ɗoon ndewri.

Ina hiisee wonde njulaagu hirnaange nguu fuɗii ko e hitaande 1 411 nde wefotooɓe purtugeec en ndahi afiriknaaɓe ngam waɗtoyde ɗum en jiyaaɓe. E oon sahaa kadi, Purtugeec en wonooɓe e laaɗe mum en, caggal ɗanle juutɗe no feewi nder geec feewde Inndo walla Siin (to Makawo) walla feewde Japon (to Nagasaki), ina katojinnoo e fooftere. Aɓe mbaɗatnoo lebbi keewɗi e ɗanle nder geec, heewɓe e maɓɓe keddoo heen (sabu tampere e ñawu mbiyeteendu eskorbit (scorbut)). Ko ɗuum addantunoo ɓe soklude fooftaade e tufɗe Atalantik leyɗe ɗe ɓe kalfunoo, haa teeŋti noon e duuɗe Kap-weer, Sao Tome e Prinsipe. Ko ɗuum addannoo laamu Portugaal fellitde addude ɗoon remooɓe Purtugeec en ngam remde e ɗee duuɗe gonɗe e Atalantik (mbele wefotooɓe ƴaaŋooɓe ɗoon ɓee ina ndaña ko ñaami, kisa e eskorbut). Ɓeen remooɓe noon, nde tawnoo ngoowaano weeyo duuɗe ɗee, ngoowi ko weeyo Portugaal, yoga e mum en ko ɗoon maayatnoo. Kono Afriknaaɓe ɓee ina mbaawnoo gollaade ɗoon tawa alanaa ɗum en tanaa gooto. Ko ɗuum addani Purtugeec en waɗtude dahde Afriknaaɓe, ngadda ɗum en e duuɗe hee mbele ina mdemana ɗum en. Ko ɗoo Oropnaaɓe puɗɗorii jiyɗinde Afriknaaɓe.

Daawal gadanal ngal, tuggi ko teeminannde 15ɓiire haa hedde feccere teeminannde 17ɓiire. , Laamuuji Orop peri lappi gadani paggagol jiyaaɓe ɓaleeɓe.

E wiyde won ɓeen, ko Portugeec en fof ɓuri yiytinaade heen, sibu ɓe taccinii fotde 757 000 jiyɗinaaɓe (3/4 denndaangal ko taccinanoo e ngaal daawal). E nder taccinaaɓe 4 fof, heen 3 fof njolniraa ko Afrik hakkundeejo faade Beresiil (34%) e to Amerik Españool en (43%).

E kuuɓal, 90% ooɗoo teret waɗi ko caggal 1 672 e caggal cosgol, to Angalteer, kompaañi ganndiraaɗo « Compagnie royale d’Afrique », jebbilatnooɗo to Jamayke, e cosgol to Farayse kompaañi biyeteeɗo « Compagnie du Sénégal » ngam nawde jiyaaɓe to Saint-Domingue (Sen Domennge).

Gila e teeminannde 15ɓiire, saanga teret dewratnooɗo Sahara oo (tacci-sahareejo) geɗe Afriknaaje keewɗe, ko nanndi e kaŋŋe, e jiyaaɓe, e poobaar (ko lollirnoo toon ‘’gabbel Aljanna’’) ine tawetenoo e jehreeji Orop. Purtugeec en kumpitiima no feewi nguun njulaagu caggal nde keɓti Ceuta e hitaande 1415. Faayndaare maɓɓe wonnoo ko yettaade oogirɗe kaŋŋe gonɗe e Afrik ɗee. Ngam ɗuum, ɓe taarti lappi dewruɗi Saharaa ɗii, sibu ko Aarabeeɓe tamnoo ɗum en haa tiiɗi, ɓe ndewroyi maayo. Portugeec en ngoni Oropnaaɓe idiiɓe joofde e tufɗe Afrik Atalantiije. Geɗe keewɗe mballitii ɓe heen :

  • A ɓe kumpitii diƴƴe (maaje e geecuuji)
  • Ko ɓe ‘’subalɓe’’ (annduɓe diƴƴe, maren en) waawɓe, humpitiiɓe karte e busol (beforgal)
  • Aɓe njoginoo laaɗe moƴƴe (ganndiraaɗe « caravelles »)
  • Njulaagu nguu ina soñtunoo, ina softunoo. Leyɗe Orop rewo ina ngaratnoo somaade e tufɗe Purtugeec en geɗe ummoriiɗe Mediteraane
  • Laamuuji Orop keddiiɗi ɗii kiilninoo ko haɓde, ina ngoni e golwole.

E hitaande 1 441 biyeteeɗo Antao Gonsales nanngi ɓaleeɓe Afriknaaɓe ngam hoɗoraade ɗum laamɗo biyeteeɗo Henri. Ina hiisaa, hay so tawii e oon sahaa alaa ko ɗum maandintunoo no feewi, ko ɗoo woni fuɗɗoode teret atalantiijo. Waɗi noon, duuɓi capanɗe jooni, jiyaaɓe ɓaleeɓe ummortonoo ɓe ko e juuɗe aarabeeɓe (lappi Saharaa), hankadi ɓe mbaɗtii dahande koye maɓɓe, sibu njeñtudi mum ko jooni jooni. Nii woni sifaa keso paggorɗo jiyaaɓe feeñi caggal ɗuum, so njulaagu (woni coggu). Antoñio Gonsales fuɗɗiima soodde jiyaaɓe gila 1 446. E hitaande 1 448, ujunere (1 000) jiyaaɗo taccinaa faade Portugaal kam e duuɗe Portugeec en (Asoor e Madeer). E kitaale 1 450, yiyaama ɗo fotde 15 jiyaaɗo ummoriiɓe Gine, ngostoraa puccu. Won e Purtugeec en etiiɓe jokkondirde e Soni Aali Beer, laamɗo Sonngaay en, kono ndonki.

Purtugeec en ina njoginoo paandaale keewɗe :

Aɓe njiɗnoo jokkondirde e laamu Ecopi ngam haɓɓondirde e mum. E miijo maɓɓe, ɗuum maa addantuno ɓe waawde taartaade e uddude juulɓe.

Njulaagu maɓɓe e leyɗe Asi addannoo ɓe yiɗde jokkondirde e Afrik sibu aɓe coklunoo heɓde kaŋŋe (ɓe njeeytoya laamu Ottoman en) e kaalis (ɓe njeeytoya fuɗnaange goɗɗuɗo) e kiri (ɓe njeeytoya to Inndo).

Faandaare rowrowre ndee ko dañal e ngañaari.

Nii woni e daawal feccere ɗiɗmere teeminannde 15ɓiire ndee, Purtugeec en ɓeydii mammude. Laamɗo maɓɓe hiilnii waɗdude e Afrik worgo Saharaa njulaagu. E hitaande 1 458 laamɗo biyeteeɗo Henri hollitii ɓurani ɗum ko yo yimɓe mum cood jiyaaɓe, ɓe mbaasa dahde. O halfini ɗum gooto e yimɓe makko. Oon artirani mo 650 yijaaɗo dahaaɗo. O felliti halfinde golle ɗee julaaɓe Purtugeec en.

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* Ceuta (Sebta e Arab) : ko wuro españoolnaawo wonngo e fonngo rewo Afrik heedngo e Maruk ngoo, dow fonngo mediteraane feɗorde Gibraltaar, ina hucciti e duungel iberiyeewel. Maruk ina fooɗanoo ngo gila 1956.

Bookara Aamadu Bah

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