Daartol daɓɓol Ƴoƴre tafaande (ñemmbaande)

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Natal ƴoƴre tafaande
Businessman touching the brain working of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Automation, Predictive analytics, Customer service AI-powered chatbot, analyze customer data, business and technology

(Woni ɗoo ko winndannde nde Fooyre Ɓamtaare ƴoogani on he Internet)

Ƴoƴre tafaande (ƳT) ko fannu gaddanoowo masiŋaaji waawde ñemtinde ƴoƴre neɗɗo. Omo addana ordinateruuji waɗde kiisorɗe e miijoraade no neɗɗo nii. Oo fannu feeñi ko e kitaale 1950, kono teptepini ko juuti hade mum feɗɗitaade tuggi hitaande 2000. Jaltugol ChatGPT e noowammbar 2022 woni fuɗɗoode yonta ƴoƴre tafaande e caakagol mum.

Idii haalde haala masiŋ miijotooɗo ko biyeteeɗo Alan Turing janngintunooɗo hiisiwal to jaaɓi-haaɗtirde Cambridge, to Angalteer, nde o wiyata ko ɗum gagga, e hitaande 1950. E hitaande 1943 o feewniino ordinateer baɗɗo golle tiiɗɗe he nder wolde aduna, sibu wallii fiɓtude ganol Enigma ngol nazi en (soldeteeɓe Hitler) kuutortonoo he jokkondire mum en. E hitaande 1950 o yaltini winndannde he jaaynde Mind, tiitoriinde : « Masiŋ hiisa e ƴoƴre ». O naamndii mbele masiŋ ine waawi ɓallaade ƴoƴre neɗɗo ? O miijii lelnude horo ngam ƴeewde so masiŋ ine waawi ñemmbude neɗɗo. Ngoon horo wiyetee Horo Turing. Ko kanko Alan Turing, gooto e fuɗɗuɓe informatik, lelni diiñorɗe ƴoƴre tafaande e lewru oktoobar 1950.

E hitaande 1952, Marvin Minsky, tawi ine jannga to jaaɓi-haaɗtirde Princeton, lonngini ordinateer mbele ine yaltina ko nanndi e miijo. John McCarthy, sanɗa goɗɗo Princeton sosi konngol « intelligeance artificielle » hono « ƴoƴre tafaande ».

Duuɓi nay pawtii heen, Herbert Simon, jannginoowo informatik to duɗal jaaɓi-haaɗtirde Carnegie Melon sappii : mbele eɗen mbaawi waɗde haa ordinateer ñemmba miijo sañiingo ? E ballal informatikeejo goɗɗo, o dobii Logic-Thorist, hono tuugnorgaal kattanngal fiɓtude dallinanɗe hiisiwal newiiɗe.

E hitaande 1959, John McCarthy e Marvin Minsky cosi M.I.T. Artificial Intelligence Project (Eɓɓaande ƴoƴre tafaande) to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Boston). Ɗoon wonti gooto e nokkuuji laaɓtuɗi njiylawu paatungu e ƴoƴre tafaande. Konu Amerik yaltini kaalisaaji ngam ɗiin wiɗtooji. Herbert Simon, to bannge mum, sappinooma gila 1967 wonde maa ordinateer fooloy mbir fijirde “échec” (cokki ?). Kono tan, maa yaakaare fawonoonde he ƴoƴre tafaande fof cooy sabu eɓɓaaɗe lelnanooɗe ɗee fof ngoppiraama wootere wootere,  sabu mum waasde yaltinde njeñtudi memotoondi.

Tippule karalle : He hitaande 1978, peewno ordinateeruuji DEC yaltini « tippudi karaldi » : XCON/R1. Ndiin tippudi dañi wune, haa heewɓe nduttanii wiɗtooji paatuɗi e ƴoƴre tafaande, jaaɓɗe (logiciels) keewɗe ndobaa, won heen kuutorteeɗe haa hannde ngam jiytugol nguyka he kuutoragol karte keredi. Kono tan, maayirɗe kitaale 1980 ine seedtiniri njangu sosiyateeji senngo ngoo ɓurɗi mawnude, ko wayi no LISP Machines e Symbolic. Rewi heen ko nattugol hoolaade ƴoƴre tafaande e dartingol eɓɓaaɗe mawɗe wiɗto ɗe laamuuji Dental Dowlaaji Amerik e Japon umminnoo.

Deep Blue hawii Kasparov : Kewu maantinngu kewi ñalnde 12 mee 1997 : ordinateer IBM biyeteeɗo Deep Blue hawi e jaggondiral mum e Garry Kasparow. Oon kabaaru alaa ɗo heddi e winndere ndee. Ɗuum ko maale wonde, ɓooy juuti fof, maa ƴoƴre tafaande daɗto aadee.

Yimɓe ɓeydaaɓe : E darorɗe kitaale 2000, miijo heso joli : naatnugol piisuuji informatik e ɓanndu neɗɗo ngam ɓeydude kattanɗe mum : « neɗɗo ɓeydaaɗo », jogiiɗo kattanɗe ɓurɗe mawnude.  Addi ngoo miijo ko biyeteeɗo Ray Kurzweil. O winndii defte darjuɗe ko faati e ƴoƴre tafaande. Yeru, Ray Kurzweil ine sifoo janngo ɗo miijo neɗɗo waawoyta daɗndeede nder ordinateer. Yoga e gollooɓe nder karallaagal to Silicon Valley njaɓi miijo Kurzweil ngoo, kadi, miijo neɗɗo ine waawi ɓeydeede woni e reɓde.

Ray Kurzweil ine goongɗini wonde ine aaɓnoo gannde yimɓe maa mbaaw moofteede nder masiŋaaji ngam haɗde ɗum en majjude. Google ƴetti mo e desaambar 2012.

Jaŋde masiŋ e jaŋde luggere (Machine learning et deep learning). Tuggi kitaale 2010, ƴoƴre tafaande woni e ɓenndude, e ballal karalle baayɗe no jaŋde masiŋ e jaŋde luggere.

Jaŋde masiŋ : Jaŋde masiŋ ko heblude ɗum haa waawa jannginde hoore mum. Masiŋ oo lelnana hoore mum kettol walla mbiyen tuugorgal (modèle) hiisiwal koolningol, tawa ine tuugnii e geɗe/keɓe goodɗe. So doosɗe ciggaama heen, ɗe ciynee e keɓe kese, ngam waɗde tijje (tijjooji).

Jaŋde luggere : Jaŋde luggere ko catal e jaŋde masiŋ, toppitiinde jiiɓtugol gaggaaji caɗɗi, e tuugnaade e ñemmbugol miijo aadee. Nde tuugnii ko e geese ɗaɗi ngaanndi (réseaux de neurones), feere janngingol ordinateer haa waawa waɗde won ɗeen golle toɗɗaaɗe.

E hitaande 2012, Doktoor Andrew mo jaaɓi-haaɗtirde Stanford (Californie) ekkini laylaytol ɗaɗi nganndi heɓtinde miliyoŋaaji 10 natal, ummoriiɗe e wideyoo Youtube. Ɗo yahanoo artaa fof, yimɓe njenanaama kam tippudi ndii waawii heɓtinde ullundu. E oon sahaa ɗuum ko huunde mawnde no feewi.

Google, sosiyatee dowrowo ƴoƴre tafaande : Kitaale ina njaha tan haa Google laatii sosiyatee tiimtorɗo ƴoƴre tafaande. O waɗi taaɓe mawɗe nder keɓtingol daaɗe – jiyte makko naatnaa e tippudi Android mo simartefon (smartphone). He desaambar 2012, Google ƴetti Kay Kurzweil, ardini ɗum taƴre njiylawu paatungu e ƴoƴre tafaande. Motoor njiylawu Google (yiylorde Google) waɗti hollitde njeñtudi njiylawu neɗɗinaandi, wonande gooto kala. Google Car (oto Google dognoowo hoore mum) waɗi taaɓal mawngal. Nde heen seede yaltinaa e hitaande 2014, tawi hoolkisooji mbaɗaama e makko fotde duuɓi nay ko adii, oto mo alaa konndiroowo oo tawi dognii hoore mum fotde teemedde ujunere kiloomeeteer to Californie (Kaliforni). Feewnooɓe otooji (ko wayi no Chrysler e Jaguar) kuutoriima karallaagal Waymo ngal oto dognoowo hoore mum, immoriingal e eɓɓaande Google Car.

Ƴoƴre Tafaande naatii nder nguurndam ñalnde kala : Seeɗa seeɗa, Ƴoƴre Tafaande naatii e ciynirɗe / jaaɓnirɗe (Applications) keewɗe ɗe gooto e men kala huutortoo hannde, ko wayi no keɓtingol daande, firo masiŋ, roboo pooɗoowo (hono Roomba), cakkitgol geɗe nder lowre Amazon, tuugnorɗe cokki, walla pijirlooji goɗɗi. Yimɓe ine ɓeydoo ñalnde kala haaweede ngal karallaagal, yiylotooɓe faamde ƴoƴre tafaande e baɗte mum, ine ɓeydoo heewde ñalnde kala.

Deepface mo Facebook ine heɓtina jeese : He lewru suwee 2014, biɗtoowo faraysenaajo ine wiyee Yann Lecun gollantooɗo Facebook, saaktii ciynirgal deep learning ngal ceeɓndam mum haawnii, – ceeɓndam millangal hedde 97,25%. Ko ngal tippudi keɓtingol jeese, mbiyeteendi DeepFace : so a yollii natal he kontal maa Facebook, DeepFace ine waawi heɓtinde yimɓe wonɓe heen. Ngal karallaagal ine faayni no feewi daraniiɓe nguurndam keeriɗam. Yann Le Cun rokkaama njeenaari Turing 2019 sabu wiɗtooji mum paatuɗi e deep learning.

Minority Report wontii goonga : Hedde kitaale 2000 filmo Spielberg, hono Minority Report, yaltinii mogoore tuugiinde e jangtol binndoowo Philip K. Dick miijinoo : ɗo Ƴoƴre Tafaande haaltata warhoore jogorɗo kewoyde gila nii cuwaa waɗde. Warkoyeeɓe ɓee nanngaa ko adii ine mbara koye. To Canada (Kanada) Vancouver feewni tippudi « tijjordi warhoore » mbaandi noon. Polis nokku oo wiyi teskiima ustagol moƴƴol bonanndeeji gila tippudi ndii waɗti huutoreede. To Seoul (Sewul) Kooree Worgo, ardiiɓe kominaaji poŋtii kameraaji ƴoƴɗi ngam iditaade anndude golle wirtotooɓe e heɓtinde geɗe ɓe njogii. So tippudi ndii yiyii tolno ŋakkere kisal ngal ine mawni, jeertinaango neldee to sarwisaaji polis.

Ƴoƴre Tafaande ine soomi tanaa ?

Jaŋde masiŋ e jaŋde luggere keɓtinaama, tee anpamririsaaji keewɗi ine kuutoroo ɗum en e nder fannuuji keewɗi. Kono tan, won miijo woni e saraade seeɗa seeɗa : Ƴoƴre Tafaande nana naata no feewi e dingiral men keeringal, tee ine waawi soomde tanaa wonande yimɓe.

Gila 2014 Elon Musk jeertinii. O wiyi o jaggiri Ƴoƴre Tafaande ko no « tanaa ɓurɗo mawnude wonande tagoore men ndee » – kam ɓuri heewde tanaa e njogitaaji nokleyeer.

Miijo ganndo Hiisiwal biyetenooɗo Stephen Hawking woɗɗaani ɗoon. « Ƴellitaare Ƴoƴre Tafaande timmunde ine waawi firtude aadee ».

E lewru saawiyee 2015, Bill Gates, coso Microsoft, ko hono ɗuum haali : « ngon-mi ko he senngo hulɓe ƴellitaare ƴoƴre mawnde ». Elon Musk e suka atampereneer Silicon Valley ine wiyee Sam Altman njiidi kulhuli. Ɗiɗo kala mbiyi ine ngoƴaa kattanɗe ƴoƴre Tafaande. Gostondiral maɓɓe miijooji ngal addanii ɓe fellitde sosde njuɓɓudi kesiri, hono OpenAI. Ko ñalnde 11 desaambar 2015, Elon Musk, e Sam Altman e wiɗtooɓe nayo woɗɓe udditi OpenAI, sosiyatee baɓanaaɗo wiɗto faatungo e ƴoƴre Tafaande. Donngal OpenAI ko : – « ƴellitde kuutorɗe Ƴoƴre Tafaande ciirɗe, udditiiɗe, ɗe faandaare mum en woni rokkude yimɓe mbaawka, kono wonaa mumtude ɗum en ». Wonande OpenAI, Ƴoƴre Tafaande foti ƴellitereede ko haa nafta aadee.

Ƴoƴre Tafaande mbir Go : He lewru mars 2016 Ƴoƴre Tafaande dañi poolgu ngoɗngu, kesu, he kawgel Go, fijirde ɓurnde cokki jiiɓaade… To Seoul, Lee SeDol, gooto e ɓurɓe waawde Go e nder winndere ndee, jaggondiri e tippudi AlphaGo, kono nde yahnoo haa ɓooyi, AlphaGo hawi.

Deepfakes : He noowammbar 2107 deepfakes kaawniiɗe, peewniraaɗe ƴoƴre Tafaande, njalti e laylaytol renndo Reddit : mo anndaaka jolni heen nate ŋaccolinɗe, kollitooje rewɓe darjuɓe, ko wayi no Emma Watson e Scarlett Johansson. Jaayɗe mawɗe keewɗe, ko nanndi e New York Times walla Washinton Post kolliti kulhuli mum en e ɗee golle kaantare.

11 juin 2018, GPT : He lewru suwee 2018, wiɗtooɓe nayo OpenAI caakti winndannde mawnde, Improving Language Understanding with Unsupervised Learning, ɗo ɓe kolliti model GPT. « GPT » ko ñoggannde Generative pre-trained transformer (baylirgal jaltinoowal, ekkinaangal). Ko model ekko tuugiiɗo e sifaa no yimɓe njanngirta, keblaaɗo e binndanɗe yimɓe keewɗe. GPT ine waawi sakkitde naamne e jaabaade naamne. Yamre adannde GPT, inniraande GPT-1 ekkinaa ko he “BookCorpus”, hono mooɓre waɗnde 11 038 deftere, waɗnde 74 miliyoŋ konngol.

Microsoft waɗii kaalis he OpenAI : Microsoft jeytaama e wallitooɓe OpenAI kaalis ɓurɓe mawnude e hitaande 2019, caggal nde Elon Musk woɗɗitii eɓɓaande ndee. Sosiyatee Bill Gates gonnooɗo ko juuti hoore feewnooɓe jaaɓnirɗe, deestiima seeɗa e kitaale 2000. Miijo Microsoft ko huutoraade wiɗtooji OpenAI ngam heɓtaade Google, gooto e mbiruuji ƴT. Microsot waɗii e OpenAI fotde miliyaar dolaar.

E lewru mee 2020 OpenAI yaltinii GPT-3 tuugiinde e 175 miliyaar ñaawirgel. Ɗuum woni model ƳT ɓurnde yaajde hollitaande haa e oon sahaa.

ChatGPT : OpenAI yaltinii ChatGPT, tammborde yeewtirde ƴoƴnde, ñalnde 30 noowammbar 2022. Ndee siynirde ine waawi jaabtaade naamne ceeɓɗe, yaltina binndanɗe ganndiwal walla miijiwal, e ko wonaa ɗuum tan… Aduna oo fof ruuyani ɗum : e nder balɗe joy, miliyoŋ neɗɗo mbinndiima e lowre mum. E nder lebbi ɗiɗi, 100 miliyoŋ neɗɗo mbaɗtii huutoraade ɗum (Tiktok yettii ɗoon ko he lebbi 9, Instagram lebbi 30).

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