Njulaagu ɓaleeɓe : teret hirnaange (5)

0
154
Kartal kollitoowal boli njulaagu ɓaleeɓe
Kartal kollitoowal boli njulaagu ɓaleeɓe

Gargol Faraysenaaɓe e Engele en e tufɗe Afrik e hitaande 1674, ɓeydi ɗoon e ɗoon coodgu jiyaaɓe, ɓeydi jiggorɗe jiyaaɓe e nder Afrik, leefɗini renndooji Afrik gaadoraaɗi.

… Njokken…

Jacques Stuart, jogorɗo wonoyde laamɗo Angalteer oo, sosi, e hitaande 1672, kompaañi biyeteeɗo « La Compagnie royale d’Afrique ». Denɗiiko Louis XIV kam ne sosi kompaañi « La Compagnie du Sénégal » e ndeen hitaande wootere, fusi « Compagnie des Indes de Colbert » gooto e kompañiiji koloñaal Farayse gidiiɗi, ɗi o yooɓtorii waasde hattande faggaade jiyaaɓe. E hitaande 1674, Louis XIV wonti laamɗo dowrowo.

Gargol Faraysenaaɓe e Engele en e tufɗe Afrik e hitaande 1674, ɓeydi ɗoon e ɗoon coodgu jiyaaɓe, ɓeydi jiggorɗe jiyaaɓe e nder Afrik, leefɗini renndooji Afrik gaadoraaɗi.

Ko noon kadi, gargol jiyaaɓe hesɓe heewɓe to Antiiy ustiri coggu maɓɓe to remooɓe gawƴe suukara, noon ne kadi peewnugol suukara ɓeydorii yaawde, usti coggu suukara e aduna hee, ɓeydi kuutoragol mum to Orop.

Ngam yaajnande remooɓe gawƴe suukara ɓee, Jacques II e Louis XIV etii riiwde remooɓe simme ɗo Barbaad e Sen Domenngue (Barbade e Saint Domingue) tuumaaɓe nii jokkondirde e taƴooɓe. To Farayse, coodgu simme ustaa, njeeygu mum ɓeydaa, nii woni ɓalli rematnooɓe ɗum ɓee maayi, simmotooɓe mbaɗti addoyde ɗum to Virginie e to Maryland (Amerik), ɗo Jacques II rokki mawɓe katolik en leyɗe ndema jaajɗe, ina ndemna heen jiyaaɓe ɓee simme.

Daawal ɗiɗmal, feccere teeminannde XVII_ɓiire e dararɗe temminannde XIX_ɓiire.

Njulaagu Atalantik wocciti tigi-rigi ko e duuɓi capanɗe tati cakkitiiɗe teeminannde XVIIɓiire. E kuuɓal, 90% oon teret waɗi ko caggal 1672, caggal cosgol to Angalteer fedde wiyeteende « Compagnie royale d’Afrique ».

Geɗe tati ina njeyaa e jaawnuɗe golle julaaɓe jiyaaɓe oropnaaɓe : caɗtugol kaŋŋe e ñiiƴe ñiibi walla pooɗondiral hakkunde poobaar e ojji ummoriiɗi Inndo ; baɗtugol gawƴe suukara remeede to Beresil e to Antiiy ; cuɓagol joom gese en jiyaaɓe afriknaaɓe.

E hakkunde teeminannde XVIIɓiire, kompaañi neerlanndeejo Inndo hirnaange (Compagnie néerlandaise des Indes occidentales) ina heewi doole. Kamɓe ɓurnoo jokkondirde e Afrik to bannge njulaagu jiyaaɓe haa e hitaande 1738. Hakkunde 1751 e 1775 ɓe taccinii fotde 148 000 jiyaaɗo. Kono, Engele en e Faraysenaaɓe nde naati diginiral, ndaɗtii ɓe.

To Angalteer (Biritaan Mawɗo)

Tufɗe njulaagu ɓaleeɓe ɓurɗe mawnude toon ko Londres e Bristol e Liverpool. Yeru, fotde 5 700 laana njiyaagu ina njooftanoo ɗo Liverpool ɗoo. Hakkunde 1651 e 1675, Angateer / Biritaan Mawɗo taccinii 115 000 jiyaaɗo. Hakkunde 1676 e 1700, fotde 243 000 jiyaaɗo, hakkunde 1701 e 1725, 380 000 jiyaaɗo, 490 000 jiyaaɗo hakkunde 1726 e 1750, e 859 000 jiyaaɗo hakkunde 1751 e 1775. Kono tuggi 1776 ɗum deestii caggal nde njulaagu jiyaaɓe harminaa toon.

To Farayse

17 tufnde kuutoraama e nguu njulaagu, tawi ɓurnde heen mawnude ndee ko Nantes, rewi heen ko tufɗe La Rochelle, Le Havre, Bordeaux, Saint Malo, Lorient, Honfleur, Marseille, Dunkerque, Rochefort, Vannes, Bayonne e Brest. Ɗo ƴoog-ɗen ɗoo rokkaani limoore ɓaleeɓe dahaaɓe, ɓe Farayse jiyɗini, walla yeeyi… en nganndaa ko saabii ɗum.

Tuggi teeminannde 17ɓiire haa e darorɗe teem 19ɓiire, Orop ina julotonoo jiyaaɓe e  denndaangal tufɗe Afrik. Ina jeyaa e ɗeen tufɗe : tufnde Senegammbi (ɗoo, ko Faraysenaaɓe e Purtugeec en e Biritannaaɓe njulodtonoo ɗoo e Jolfuɓe e Sereer en e Mandeŋ en e Julaa e Balante en e Felupe en). ine heen tufnde Siyeraa Leyoon, tufnde Beneŋ (yupporde Niiseer), tufnde Gabon, tufnde Anngolaa…

Kono, e teeminannde 18ɓiire, ko ɓuri teeŋtude e njulaagu nguu waɗatnoo ko e sorfoondu Gine (Golfe de Guinée), e sorfoondu-Kaŋŋe e sorfoondu Jiyaaɓe. To Afrik hakkundeejo, fotde nayaɓe tati (3/4) jiyɗinaaɓe ɓee njeeyetenoo ko hakkunde Kabinnda e Luwannda, yeru to Uwidaa (Ouidah).

E teeminannde 18ɓiire (teeminannde limiyeer), geɗe ummortooɗe Amerik ɓeydii sokleede no feewi to Orop, haa teeŋti noon e suukara ummortonooɗo Sen Dominnge, ɓeydiiɗo feewneede sabu gollingol ko ina abboo e 550 000 jiyaaɗo. Ɗii soklaaji kesi caabii cosgol gese kese e ɓeydugol jiggagol jiyaaɓe heewɓe, fotnooɓe faggoyeede nokkuuji goɗɗi.

Ko Beresil wonnoo happu gadano laaɗe jolnatnooɗe jiyaaɓe ɓaleeɓe : fotde 40% jiyaaɓe njilaagu tatiiwu ko toon nawanoo.

Haa tonngoode faande njokken : dartagol e fuɗɗoode deestagol njulaagu ɓaleeɓe.

——————————————-

Louis XIV mo Farayse
Louis XIV mo Farayse

Louis XIV ganndiraaɗo kadi « Le Grand » (Mawɗo oo) walla « le Roi-Soleil » (Laamɗo-Naange) ko laamɗo Farayse e Navarre (14 mee 1943 haa 1 settaambar 1715), jibinaaɗo ñalnde 5 settaambar 1638 to château Neuf mo Saint-Germain-en-Laye (nder diiwaan Pari), cankiiɗo ñalnde 1 settaambar 1715 to Versailles (nder diiwaan Pari). Innde makko tigi-rigi ko Louis, waccoore makko ko « Dieudonné ». O lomtii e laamu Farayse ko baaba makko Louis XIII nde sankii. Kanko woni laamɗo Farayse 64ɓo e laamɗo Navarre 44ɓo. Laamu makko (duuɓi 72) jeyaa ko ɓurɗi juutde e daartol Orop, ɓurngu juutde e daartol laamuuji Farayse.

Jacques Stewart mo Angalteer
Jacques Stewart mo Angalteer

 Jacques Stuart (e Engele James Stuart) jibinaa ko 14 oktoobar 1633, sankii ko 16 settaambar 1701. O wonii laamɗo Angalteer e Irlanndaa e innde Jacques II, o wonii laamɗo Ekos (Ecosse) e innde Jacques VII.

Bookara Aamadu Bah

Woppu jaabawol

Winndu yowre maa
Winndu ɗoo innde maa