Ɓoggol giiɗal « 2Africa »: Jooni Afrik seerta e caɗeele internet !

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Lappol ɓoggol giiɗal 2Afrika
Lappol ɓoggol giiɗal 2Afrika

So tawii leyɗe baaɗe no Muritani ceeraani tawo e caɗeele ceŋagol e internet sibu, sahaa e sahaa fof ɓoggol giiɗal ceŋii ngol ine taƴa, walla sabu pamɗugol waamo (débit) mum, ɗoo e duuɓi ɗiɗi ine yaakoraa ɗeen leyɗe ceerta e ɗeen caɗeele. Hol ko kewata ko ine aaɓna ɗuum ? 

So tawii leyɗe baaɗe no Muritani ceeraani tawo e caɗeele ceŋagol e internet sibu, sahaa e sahaa fof ɓoggol giiɗal ceŋii ngol ine taƴa, walla sabu pamɗugol waamo (débit) mum, ɗoo e duuɓi ɗiɗi ine yaakoraa ɗeen leyɗe ceerta e ɗeen caɗeele. Hol ko kewata ko ine aaɓna ɗuum ?

Gila e kitaale 2012, internet leyɗe baaɗe no Muritani rewatnoo ko e ɓoggol giiɗal biyeteengol « Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) », hono ɓoggol « Daande maayo Afrik feewde Orop ». Kono, hono no kollitirno-ɗen e tonngoode 188 Fooyre, pelle baaɗe no Google e Facebook (joom WhatsApp kadi) mbaɗii kaalis keewɗe e ɗii duuɓi tati cakkitiiɗi ngam jokkondirde paaɓi-keɓe mum en (data center) rewrude e cosangol koye mum en ɓoogi giiɗal geec ɗi njeyani koye mum en. Seede mum, ko ina wona duuɓi 10 jooni, ko 5% ɓoggi ɗii ɓe njeynoo. Kono hannde, ko kamɓe njeyi feccere (50%) e ɓoggi geec ɗii, tee, ɗoo e duuɓi tati paaɗi (ɗoo e 2023) ko kamɓe njeyata heen fotde  95% ! Yiɗde wiyde tan, ɓe ngoni ko e jiiraade ngam jeyande koye maɓɓe ɓoggi maɓɓe, ɓe keeroroo kabaruuji e keɓe dewrooje e kuutorɗe maɓɓe. Ɗuum noon firti ko maa njiimaandi Dental Dowlaaji Amerik (DDA) dow yah-ngartaa internet ɓeydo. Hannde, fotde 80% e waraango enternet tiindii ko DDA, nde tawnoo ko toon paaɓi-keɓe pelle biyeteeɗe GAFAM (Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft) ɓuri heewde.

Ko ɗuum nii jeyi sabaabu leydi Siin ne daraade hannde ngam ruppaade ndeen yowitaare e añde daɗeede. E hitaande 2021, maa ɓoggol Siin gadanol (12 000 km njuuteendi) yetto Farayse. Ngol rewri ko Pakistan e Jibuti e Kenyaa e Misra hade maggol joofde Marsey (Marseille).

Ko ɗuum kadi jeyi sabaabu dentugol sosiyeteeji 8, tawi ine jeyaa e mum en Facebook (Amerik), e Orange (Farayse) e China Mobile International (Siin), ngam sowtude ɓoggol giiɗal nder geec, ɓoggol inniraangol « 2Africa », tuggi Laamaandi ndentundi (Royaume Uni), rewra Purtugeec, ara fiiltoo Afrik haa hawra. Ngolɗoo ɓoggol maa paroy e hitaande 2023 walla 2024. So ngol gasii maa ngol maa ɓeydu waamo internet doŋre Afrik ndee, sibu anniya joom en ɓoggol ngol, ko yo waamo maggol ɓurto waamo ɓoggi kuuɓnanooji Afrik internet hannde ɗii fof so ndenndii.

Njuuteendi ngolɗoo ɓoggol « 2Africa » ko 37 000 km ! Pelle dentuɗe ngam feewnude ngol ɗee, ko ɗeeɗoo : Orange, China Mobile International, Facebook, MTN GlobalConnect (Afrik worgo), STC (Saudi Telecom Company), Telecom Egypt, Vodafone (Biritaan) e WIOCC (West Indian Ocean Cable Company). Ko fedde wiyeteende Alcatel Submarine Networks (ASN) halfinaa feewnude ndee eɓɓaande moolanaande inniraande « 2Africa ».

Ɓoggol ngol maa jokkondiroy Orop hirnaange e Fuɗnaange ɓadiiɗo kam e leyɗe 16 afriknaaje rewrude e geec Mediteraane, Maayo woɗeewo, jookdu Aden, tufnde Afrik wonnde e geec iñnjeejo haa yettoo sorfundu Bonne-Espérance, roondtoo geec Atalantik haa yettoo Biritaan-Mawɗo. So ngol gasii feewneede maa ngol newnu kuunugol 4G e 5G, kam e internet waamo toowngo. So tawii kay leyɗeele jokkondiraaɗe ɗee, kuutoriima ɗum no haanirta nii, sibu eɗen nganndi, yeru tan e Muritani, hey kattanɗe ɓoggol ACE goodngol hannde ngol ine ngoɗɗi huutoreede e naftoreede, ko ɗuum nii tagi haa hannde leydi ndii ruuddata ko e 3G leefɗo boom. Haralleeɓe ɓee kollitii boom ko yoga e leyɗe Afrik kuutortoo heen ko hedde joyaɓal (20%) kattanɗe ɗiin ɓoggi. Ɗuum woni leyɗe ɗee naftortaako no feewi kattanɗe goodɗe ɗee.

Ina yaakoraa kadi ngolɗoo ɓoggol so arii, maa taƴgol internet usto sibu laaɗe ndiyam njogoraani daasde ngol saka taƴde ngol, sibu ko ngol ubbeteengol fotde meeteruuji 3 nder leydi, nder luggere geec, tee maa ngol rommbo nokkuuji geec ganndiraaɗi feddeendi ɗii. Maa ngol loow 16 funere ɗo ɓoggi goodɗi hannde ɗii loowi pune 8 fat.

Kulol mawngol noon ine woodi : hol no keɓe meeɗen (sirruuji men) jogorɗe rewde e ngolɗoo ɓoggol njogori hisnireede ? Waɗi noon jeyi ngol ko pelle keeriiɗe baawɗe ardinde nafooje njulaagu, haa ko waɗananooɓe ɗum ɓee, hono ɓesnguuji leyɗe ɗee, ndonka naftoraade ɗum.

Facebook ine reerɗi e Afrik sibu ine anndi afriknaaɓe ceŋaaki e internet no moƴƴi, sibu hannde ko nayaɓal e maɓɓe tan ceŋii heen. Ndaa nguu ñawu koronaa kuuɓtodinngu kadi hollitii nafoore internet to bannge golle, jaŋde ekn e sahaa mo yimɓe ngoni e dummbere. Ɗum firti tan, ko nafoore internet ko ko ɓeydii tee jogori ɓeydaade e winndere ndee e duuɓi paaɗi…

Bookara Aamadu Bah

Ɓoggol giiɗal

Jokkorgol ɓoggol giiɗal waɗi ko neldowel giiɗal e keɓɓotoongel giiɗal, leeɓol giiɗal ina jokkondiri hakkunde mum en.

Leeɓol giiɗal waɗi ko korwe ɗiɗi weer ummiiɗo e oogaande wiyeteende silis : korwal ɓurngal famɗude ngal ina lommbii e ɓurngal mawnude ngal. Ɓurngal famɗude ngal woni ɓernde ndee ; ko e maggal caafal annoore loowngal kabaruuji ɗii rewrata. Korwal mawngal ngal, ko coomgal kuuringal e tokosal ngal ; ko kanngal ɗowata annoore ndee (so annoore ndee saytii e maggal ruttoo refta bolol, woni ɓernde ndee).

Korwe ɗiɗi ɗee ina mbaɗanee kadi kuurngal goɗngal dalli ngam hisnude fof : « ɓernde + coomgal ». Kuurngal ngal nafata tan ko soomde, alaa golle e nawgol annoore ndee.

mahdi ɓoggol giiɗal
mahdi ɓoggol giiɗal

Leeɓol giiɗal goƴngol en ngol, tekkeendi mum (hakkundol mum) ko 9 µm (mikoro meeteruuji 9). Hakkundol coomgal ngal ko 125 µm. Tekkeendi leeɓol sukundu ko hakkunde 50 haa 100 µm. Ɗum firti ko leeɓol giiɗal e coomgal ngal e kuurngal ngal fof so ndenndii, tekkeendi mum en ɗeɓata yerondirde ko e tekkeendi leeɓol sukundu. Ɓernde leeɓol giiɗal ndee, leeɓol sukundu ɓuri ɗum tekkude laabi 5 haa 10, ndeke ina famɗi no feewi !

Mbeelu (spectre) njuuteele wempeƴƴo (longueurs d’ondes) ina feccoo e pecce tati : heen feccere ko mbeelu ngu yiyotaako tolnondirnde e caafal dow-wiyolee, (Ultra-violet) heen feccere ko mbeelu njiyotoongu tolnondirngu e noorɗe/goobuuji timtimol, feccere heddiinde ndee ko mbeelu ngu yiyotaako tolnondirngu e les-boɗewol (infra rouge). Ko nguuɗoo mbeelu ngu yiyotaako (lesboɗewol) toɗɗii laylayti giiɗal. Keɓe ɗee ndewrata ko e njuuteele bempeƴƴe 1310 nm (tellagol) kam e 1490 nm (ŋabbugol) nguuɗoo mbeelu lesboɗewol.

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