Taariika : Laamateeri Wagadu

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 “Fannuuji am e ɗemɗiyankaagal ko fannu caggirtorɗe (leksikografi), ganndal caltuɗe (jalektolosi), fiyaakuuji fonnugol/wootiɗingol pulaar-fulfulde. Ɗemɗe ɗe waaw-mi ko: pulaar-fulfulde, faransi, enngele, almankoore, seeɗa italiyen, seeɗa aarab. Mi janngii celluka suwahiliire e bammbarankoore kono mi waawaa haalde ɗee ɗemɗe.”

Laamateeri Wagadu  maa Gana (Empire du Ghana) ko hedde teemedannde 7aɓere fuɗɗii. Ndi tabiti haa e hitaande 1 240. Ko kayri woni araniri ndin e laamateeriiji mawɗi nantuɗi innde feeñunooɗi Afrik Hiirnaange feewndo ka Yonta Hakkundeejo (Moyen-Âge).

Laamateeri Wagadu hino huuɓitunoo leyɗe Senegal, Mali, Moritani. Laamorde mayri laatino Kummbi Sale, saabeere Kummbi Sale nden no tawee hannde e Ñaamo leydi Moritani.

Fuɗɗoode laamateeri Wagadu

Ko adii fow, ko honto ndee innde iwri ? Ko hasii kon, hino wi’aa wonde ko jamaa on noddiraynoo leydi mum ndin nden innde Wagadu, hinde gasa firude “dinngiraa, fottirde jawle-dariiɗe”. Innde Gana nden no gasa ko e helmere soninkeere “hwana”, e maanaa “cuuco, ŋanaajo” seekaa. Kono ko binndi seteeɓe Aarabeeɓe ɓen lollini innde Gana, ko ɗum waɗi hino gasa kadi ko e ɗemngal aarabu nde yalti.

Haa hannde jiɓi-liɓi mawɗo no woodi e battane sincuɓe maa sincuɗo Laamateeri Wagadu. Tippude e deftere “Taarikh es-Sudaan” (taariika leyɗe Ɓaleeɓe) ko Berber’en, ɗum ko Safalɓe jooɗinooɓe Nano Afrik ko adii alsilamaaku maa ko adii naatugol Aarabeeɓe e nden nokkuure Afrik, woni ko darni on dawla. Kono hannde-hannde, ɗuuɗal e wiɗtooɓe ɓen no felliti wonde ko leñol Ɓaleeɓe anndiraangol hannde innde Soninke maa Sarankulle darni Wagadu e batte njulaagu kaŋŋe, e lamɗam e jiyaaɓe ñiiɓunoongu hakkunde Nano Afrik (leydi Safalɓe) e Afrik Ɓaleeri, sikke alaa ko nde ne’ugol ngelooba ngol leyɗe Funnaangeeri Hakkundeeri adii waawude layunoo e ngal diiwal Afrik gila e teemedannde 2ɗabere si ngun njulaagu laatinoo, nde tawnoo si wonaano mbaɗɗateeri neɗɗo waawataano yiilagol e nder jeereende Sahara wondude e diwle (dimle) heewɗe. Ɓen wiɗtooɓe Aarabeeɓe seeditiiɓe fii sincuru laamateeri Wagadu ko Al-Biruuni e Al-Bakri. Hino gasa non tawa ɓen ɓe tippaano koyngal maɓɓe e leydi ndin hay ñannde wootere maa tawa ko e fillayeeji e nani-naniiji ɓe tuuginoo kono non hay e finaa-tawaaji leƴƴi ngal diiwal Afrik yeru Soninkeeɓe, Fulɓe, Manndinkooɓe, Wagadu maa Gana ko leydi Ɓaleeɓe gila ka fuɗɗoode haa ka timmoode. Ɗin finaa-tawaaji no yewti fii bollal moolanaangal, tinndiraangal, wi’eteengal Ninngi-Nannga kañum e gorko cuuco wi’eteeɗo Kayaa Magan Siise. Ko ndin moɗoori yimɓe Wagadu ɓen rewaynoo.

Kaaddi manngu e semmbe Wagadu

Ko suudu laamu Siise-Tunkara’en wonnoo laamɓe Wagadu ɓen. Hiɓe anndiranoo jammoore “Kaya Magan”, e maanaa laamɗo kaŋŋe (soninkeere hannde: kaŋŋe mahan). Haa hannde Fulɓe no wi’a “gila duuɓi Kayaa Maga” siɓe faandike teeŋtingol ko neeɓi (ɓooyi).

Ka attorun, laral leydi ngal ko e falnde maa diiwal gootal tun haaɗtunoo, ɗum ko diiwal Wagadu kono fewndo timmoode teemedannde 9aɓere, tawno diiwe go’o tawtii ɗon, yeru Tekrur (Fuuta Tooro), Galam, Kañaga, Malle haa yottoyii e nokkuure Safalɓe no wi’ee Awdagos e baŋŋe ñaamo Moritani hannde. E on saa’i, tawi kadi njulaagu ngun addorii kadi diina lislaamu barki Alla e njulaaɓe Safalɓe  e Aarabeeɓe jooɗinooɓe e leydi ndin. E konngol Al-Bakri, juulɓe ɓen hino joganinoo hoore mum senngo wooto e saare laamorde nden, Kummbi Sale. Woo hiɓe teddinanoo muraadu moƴƴuru laamɗo on no diisotonoo ɓe ko heewi. Ko e nder ɗum, gooto e laamɓe ɓen tuubi wonti juulɗo, ɗum ɓurti semmbinde darnde juulɓe e leydi ndin. On tuma, Kummbi no joginoo ko yahata yimɓe 20 000, e ko winndiyankeeɓe Aarabeeɓe ngun njamaanu Al-Bakri, Ibn Battuuta e Ibn Xalduun seeditii kon.

Yirbugol laamateeri Wagadu

Ittude e teemedannde 11aɓere, laamu lislaamiyankeewu Safalɓe lollirɓe innde Almurabbituun’en fuɗɗii naɓude konu e leydi ndin. E piide misal, e hitaande 1076, Kummbi Sale yani e juuɗe maɓɓe lancaa. Hino tuumaa kadi yoorunal (hokkere duumiinde) hino tawaa e sababeeji yirbugol dawla on sabu e finaa-tawaa Soninkeeɓe, ko ɓaawo gorko go’o warii Ninngi-Nannga, toɓo acci, ndiyam fuɗɗii ŋakkude ka leydi sabu ko ndin moɗoori hormanteeri danndaynoo leydi ndin masiibooji kono laatino hitaande woo hitaande ko maa ndi sakkanee curbaajo ko ɗum waɗi haa gorko murtanɗo on aada wari ndi.

Nde laamu ngun lo’unoo, diiwe ɗen wattii sortugol hoore mum e maggu jeya hoore mum. E hitaande 1203, laamɗo Kañaga, laamateeri Sooso ndin, Sumaworo Kante (woɓɓe no wi’a Sumannguru Kante) dahi Wagadu watti e nder laamu mum. Caggal Sumaworo tigi foolaama e hare Kirina (hitaande 1235), fooluɗo on, Laamɗo Manndenkooɓe Sunnjata Keytaa sinci laamateeri hesiri, Malle (Empire du Mali/Mali Empire). Ko wano non kadi Tekrur yaltiri e juuɗe wonti laamateeri Fulɓe.

Umar Bah Gongore

Hol Umar Bah Gongore ?

Umar Bah Gongore ko gooto e sagataaɓe gollotooɓe e ɓamtaare ɗemngal Pular (Pulaar). Ko o neɗɗo keewɗo ko gollii, kono pamɗuɗo ko haali, jankiniiɗo. Ina gasa tawa ko ɗuum haɗi mo anndeede no feewi. Seede mum, ko nde min ɗaɓɓiri mo yo o hollit janngooɓe Fooyre “holi kanko ?” ko ɗumɗoo woni ko o winndi : “Anndinoore am, e raɓɓiɗinaade, ko ɗum :

Ko mi jibinaaɗo saare Pita, Fuuta Jaloo, Gine, e hitaande 1959. Gila 1978, wonu-mi ko Vienne, leydi Autriche, e dow sabaabe ɓitteende dawrugol sattunde Gine e ngun jamaanu (laamu Seeku Ture). Ko mi jogiiɗo “meetris” e ɗemɗiyankaagal e soosiyolooji (renndankaagal) to jaaɓi-haaɗtirde Vienne ɗoo, mi jannii pulaar/fulfulde ɗoo haa 2002. Jooni miɗo gollana sarwis wonɗo ɗoo wallitotooɗo ɗaɓɓooɓe golle. Fahin miɗo golla e firugol e mbaadi “freelance” e ɗemɗe Alman-Faransi-Pulaar wonande laamu ɗoo e ñaawirɗe (tirbinalji). Fannuuji am e ɗemɗiyankaagal ko fannu caggirtorɗe (leksikografi), ganndal caltuɗe (jalektolosi), fiyaakuuji fonnugol/wootiɗingol pulaar-fulfulde. Ɗemɗe ɗe waaw-mi ko: pulaar-fulfulde, faransi, enngele, almankoore, seeɗa italiyen, seeɗa aarab. Mi janngii celluka suwahiliire e bammbarankoore kono mi waawaa haalde ɗee ɗemɗe.”

Kono Umar haaldaani ko gollanii Pular/Pulaar. Sibu miin, nganndu-mi Umar ko e hitaande 2008, to lowre pulaar-fulfulde.org (fula.org). En puɗɗodinooma e makko firooji kelmeendi informatik e nder carwirɗe firo (lowe firo) Mozilla, hono mozilla.locamotion.org. En ngollodiima e ngoon firo haa e maayirɗe 2010. Kono hade ɗuum, tawi Umar gollii ko heewi, haa arti noon e caggitorɗe kelmeendi taweteeɗi e lowre internet wiyeteende peeral.com.

Caggal ɗuum o heɓii fartaŋŋe heɓde feewnitde e timminde saggitorde ndee (Saggitorde Pulaar-Farayse) e saaktude ɗum e lowre wiyeteende  WEBONARY.ORG (Ƴeew ɗoo http://pular.webonary.org). 

Bookara Aamadu Bah