Ciimtol Human Rights Watch 2018 : jojjanɗe aadee ina ɓeydoo yaɓɓeede

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Ngonka jojjanɗe aadee nder Muritani
Ngonka jojjanɗe aadee nder Muritani

Ɓesngu Muritani ina heewi eddaaji. Haala kinɗe e leƴƴi ina cakkii geɗe keewɗe paatuɗe e jojjnaɗe aadee ñiɓiiɗe no feewi e leydi hee. Ngolɗoo ciimtol sifotoo ko hono laamu Muritani jaggiri pelle kaalooje ko faati e paltoor leƴƴi e kinɗe, ko faati e njiyaagu e ndonaandi mum, e ko faati e tooñanngeeji ɓennuɗi janɗi e leƴƴi keeriiɗi. Ciimtol ngol ina ɓeta kadi ñaawooje ɗiɗi kimmuɗe Muritaninaaɓe ñaaweteeɓe sabu cuurtii paltoor e baɗe yoorɓerndaagu ɓennuɗe. Ɗee ñaawooje ina kolla caɗeele e leepte baawɗe heɓtaade yimɓe haalooɓe ɗee geɗe caɗtuɗe.

Human Rights Watch (HRW) ko fedde nde wonaa laamuyeere (ONG). Faandaare mayre ko daranaade jojjanɗe aadee kam e ɗooftagol Bayyinaango huuɓtodinngo jojjanɗe aadee. Nde daranii, e ko ɓuri teeŋtude ko « wellitaare jaayɗe », e « mumtugol njiyaagu » e ittugol « kuugal warngo » e « leeɓtugol », kono kadi denndaangal hakkeeji siwil, hakkeeji politik, hakkeeji faggudu, hakkeeji renndo e hakkeeji pinal haa teeŋti noon e fannuuji nehdi e jaŋde e ɗuhngo. E nde golloo kadi e kareeli, nde suurta warhooreeji wolde walla njulaagu njogitaaje. Hman Rights Watch ina ɗaɓɓi dartagol warhooreeji laamuuji mbaɗata walla goomuuji murtuɗi mbaɗata e nder golwole nder leyɗe.

Nii woni, hitaande kala Human Rights Watch (HRW) ina yaltina ciimtol kollitoowol ngonka hakkeeji aadee, nde waɗa wiɗtooji dewondirɗi, luggi, ko faati e jaɓɓugol hakkeeji aadee e nder 60 leydi. Joɗnde HRW woni ko to New York to Dental Dowlaaji Amerik, kono ande jogii birooji nder gure goɗɗe keewɗe e winndere ndee. Won yooɓtortooɓe HRW ŋakkeende jaamburaagal, kono jaayɗe ina keewi ƴettitde e saaktude ciimti wiɗtooji nde yaltinta.

Ciimtol Human Right Watch

E wiyde hoohooɓe laamu ɗe HRW jokkondiri e lewru marse 2017, goodaangal e leydi hee ko ina tolnoo e ujunnaaje pelle ɗe ngonaa laamuyeeje (ONG), ko finnde coftal renndo siwil leydi ndii, e ɗooftagol laamu leydi ndii hakkeeji aadee. E wiyde Barahim wul Daddaa, kalifu Ñawoore : « alaa haɗde woodi e leydi hee, ɗoon ɗo haala e golle joomum en ina ɗooftii laawol… »

Geɗe denndinaaɗe e ngolɗoo ciimtol ina penna kaaɗoo haala, aɗe kollita ɗo diidol laamu nguu taƴi ngol, haaɗi. Wootere e kuutorɗe piggal ko Sariya paatuɗe e pelle, caaktanooɗo e 1964, baɗɗinɗo keɓgol yamiroore ministeer geɗe nder leydi ngam woodde, dokkuɗo mo mbaawka heɓtinde mo o welaa e salaade yamirde kala mo o welaaka, e tuugnaade e dalillaaji keewɗi, ko wayi no « parbagaan luulndiiɗo leydi » walla « jogaade batte bonɗe e hakkille yimɓe ».

Ina waɗi keeri ɗi pelle ɗe keɓtinaaka mbaawaa diwtude e nder golle mum en, tee aɗe kawra e caɗeele keewɗe. Yeru, otelaaji e boowe renndo njaɓataa luwde ɗe saaluuji ɗo ɗe njuɓɓini batuuji majje, wallitooɓe kaalisaaji, waaɓe no Dental Orop cuusaa wallitde ɗe, kadi jeyaaɓe e ɗeen pelle pawaama kuuge kasoo sabu tan ina njeyaa e majje.

E hitaande 2016, joɗnde hilifaaɓe jaɓii eɓɓaande sariya fotnde lomtaade sariya 1964 oo. So o waɗtii siyneede, omo harmina cosgol kala fedde nde golle mum « mbonnata ngootaagu ngenndi ndii ».

Laamu Muritani huutoriima oon hujja ngam haɗde yimɓe walla pelle waɗde golle mum en, ngu hujjikinorii kuulal 1 Doosgal leydi keɓtinngal fiɓnde luulndiinde paltoor tuugiiɗo e leñol, harminnde « kala jeeyngal keertinngal tuugingal e nguru ɓalndu walla leñol.»

Keewal leƴƴi e Muritani fawii e ko ngonka mum hakkunde Magreb e Afrik hirnaange worgo Sahara. Yimɓe Muritani ko eddaaji tati leƴƴi dowrowi, hay so tawii heen edda kala ina soomi kinɗe e nder mum. Eddaaji ɗiɗi gadani ɗii, tolniiɗi hedde 70% yimɓe ɓee, kaalata ko caltol arab nganndirangol hasaniya. Biidaan en, jeyaaɓe e gooto e eddaaji ɗiɗi gadani kaalooji hasaniya ɗii, ummii ko e harbiyeeɓe aarabeeɓe e berbeer en. Goomu ɓurngu heewde e haalooɓe hasaniya ɓee ko hardaneeɓe. Ko ɓuri heewde e maggu ko wonnooɓe jiyaaɓe kam e ummiiɓe e jiyaaɓe, kamɓe ɓuri ɓawlude.

Goomu tataɓu nguu, anndiraaɓe Afriknaaɓe-Muritani walla Ɓaleeɓe-Muritani ina waɗi leƴƴi keewɗi muuynuɗi ɗemɗe afrikeeje ɗe ngonaa Arab.

E sifaa kuuɓtodinɗo, hardanaaɓe ɓuri heewde daranaade ko ko faati e njiyaagu e baɗte mum, tuggi njiyaagu ɓurngu hiisde, haa e baasal e paltoor, e peeje ɗe njuumtaani ɗe laamu ƴetti ngam ñawdude ɗeen caɗeele.

Ngoƴa dowrowo wonande ɓaleeɓe-Muritani ɓee noon, ko ko anndiraa ndonaandi aadeeri (passif imaniteer) njoopiindi njannguuji ɗi laamu yamiri dow yimɓe mum e kitaale 1989-1991, juumtuɗi e warngooji e belaaɗe, taccingol to Sengaal, keɓtugol leyɗe kam e paltoor e joñgol guurangol haa e oo ñalawma.

Hardaneeɓe e ɓaleeɓe-Muritani heewɓe ina njogii hujja denndaaɗo woytaade ko yahata e leydi ndii hannde koo, ko fuɗɗaa e 2011, tawi faandaare mum ko winnditaade muritaninaaɓe, ko heewɓe tuumi wallitde Biidaan en, ardiiɓe leydi ndii to bannge politik e faggudu. Laamu ina yeddi ko wiyatee binnditagol ngol ina waɗi paltoor koo.

Nanondire winndereeje jowitiiɗe e jojjanɗe aadee ɗe Muritani siifi, kam e laabi sariya ngenndiiji ƴettaaɗi ngam reende hakkeeji aadee, jaɓgol e jeyegol laamu nguu e peeje e laabi keeriiɗi Ngenndiiji dentuɗe kam e Njuɓɓudi Afrik toppitiindi jojjanɗe aadee, newnangol laamu Muritani pelle winndereeje daraniiɗe jojjanɗe aadee sunnaade ko yahata e leydi hee to oon bannge, newnugol gondungol e caɗeele, ɗee geɗe kala ina mbaɗɗini e laamu Muritani ɗooftaade baɗɗiiɗe mum paatuɗe e hakkeeji aadee, ngu welee ƴeewtagol luggiɗngol ɗeen geɗe.

HRW hawraani e caɗeele goote e njilluuji mum wiɗto ɗiɗi waɗi Muritani e 2017, tee laamu nguu jaɓii ɗaɓɓaaɗe jooɗodaade e mum baɗanooɗe.

Ndonaandi aadeeri e pelle daraniiɗe nafooje loraaɓe

Keɓtingol laamu Muritani wonde yimɓe dowla oo mbaɗii geɗe bonɗe e daawal ndonaandi aadeeri, laaɓtaani. Kono tan e ngu heɓtini wonde ngu waɗii sariya, tee ngu lomtinanii loranooɓe ɓee no haanirta nii e tuugnaade e sariya yaafuya mo 1993, tee ngu ƴettii gila ndeen peeje lomtinangol loranooɓe ɓee e daɗɓe ɓee, wondude e gollal hooreejo leydi oo waɗi ngam safrude ñawannde ndee.

Pelle daraniiɗe nafooje loraaɓe ɓee, jokkuɗe e ñiŋde Sariya yaafuya oo, kaɗooje laawol yettaade kala jaɓɓunooɗo jojjanɗe aadee baawngol wonde e ɗo bonannde mum tolnii kala, e daawal joopangal ngal, ɗaɓɓooje keɓtingol waɗnooɓe bonannde ɓee, kam e lomtingol timmungol e dokkitgol neɗɗaagu, ina mbaawi hiiɗeede e golle mum en.

Ardiiɓe Covire e Fedde rewɓe koninkooɓe e siwil maayraaɓe e kewkewe 1989-1991 mbiyii HRW wonde laamu nguu haɗii ɗum en, e cili keewɗi, mawninde warngooji e majje baawnaaɗe baɗanooɗe e ngaal daawal, nde salii rokkude ɗum en jamirooje katojinaaɗe ngam yuɓɓinde batuuji walla ngu dartina golle maɓɓe.

Ñaawooje paatuɗe e wellitaare konngol (haalde miijo mum).

Ñaawooje baɗɗe ko ɓooyaani ina kollita ɗo pellital laamu tolnii so artii e deƴƴinde kala suurtooɓe paltoor e nder renndo Muritani.

Cimmtol ngol siftinii to oon bannge wonde biyeteeɗo Muhammed Sheek wul Mukaytiir nana e kasoo gila 2014. E lewru desaambar ndeen hitaande, ñaawirde fawii e makko kuugal warngo sabu jartodingol, ngal ñaawtirde teeŋtini e makko. Caggal ɗuum Ñaawirde toownde yamiri ñaawoore woɗnde ; nii woni ñaawtirde wootere artiri kuugal ngal e duuɓi ɗiɗi kasoo ñalnde 9 noowammbar 2017. O waɗii ko ɓuri ɗum e kasoo, ɗum noon o fotnoo ko welliteede, kono ellee haa hannde ko o dummbaaɗo e nokku mo yimɓe nganndaa.

Umaar wul Beybakar : Umar wul Beybakar ko kolonel garde gonɗo e alteret gila sulyee 2015. Duuɓi ɗiɗi jooni ko o baɗaaɗo e ndeenka ñaawoore. E wiyde Beybakar, ɗumɗoo ko sabu o jeyaa e « bidaneeɓe seeɗa, – e cetta kunal ofiseeji konu – ɗaɓɓuɗi e laamu nguu nde ɓurata softande heɓtinde warngooji amdu ofiseeji ɓaleeɓe baɗnooɗi ko ina wona duuɓi 25 jooni ».

Ñalnde 9 suyee 2017, suudu sarɗi ɓamii sariya keso jahoowo e haɓde e paltoor, baɗɗo taƴe baawɗe huutoreede ngam sokde yimɓe, sabu haala mum en ka noddaani e fitina. Waɗi HRW wiyde noon ko lelngo sariya laaɓtaani, kala belaaɗo bone mum ina waawi facciride ɗum no weliraa.

Pelle kaɓooje e njiyaagu

Muritani haɗii njiyaagu gila 1981, ngu harminaama e hitaande 2007, kadi e hitaande 2015 ñaawirɗe keeriiɗe cosaama ɗe alaa ko toppitii so wonaa ɗuum. Laamu nguu wiyi ko njiyaagu momtaama, heddii ko toppitaade batte mum to bannge renndo e faggudu. Pelle ɗiɗi Muritaninaaje ɗe ngonaa laamuyeeje kaɓotooɗe njiyaagu, hono SOS-Esclaves e IRA njaɓaani ɗuum, sibu e miijo majje « njiyaagu ina lutti tabitineede e leydi hee », hay so tawii no ɗe njiyrata geɗe ɗee nii ina seerti seeɗa…

SOS, ɓuri ɓooyde e hakindaade e haala mum, tee ina heɓtinaa. IRA sosaa ko e 2008, laamu jaɓaani heɓtinde ɗum. E wiyde hooreejo mayre hono Biraam Daa Abeydi, njiyaagu ina woɗɗi momteede e leydi hee, sibu e ngu yettii 20% (joyaɓal) yimɓe ɓee.

Caɗeele keɓgol kaayitaaji

E saawiyee 2008, laamuuji Muritani e Senegaal puɗɗii gartirgol muritaninaaɓe moolinooɓe to Senegaal e kitaale 1989-1990, hedde 60 000 neɗɗo. E lewru mee, laamu Muritani juutii binnditagol paandingol cosgol duttorgal keɓe limnewal, gootiɗingol karte dentitee, e timmingol doggol woote. Fedde Touche pas à ma nationalité (TPMN) sosaa sibu e miijo mayre « faandaare binnditagol ngol ko haɗtude ɓaleeɓe Muritaninaaɓe jeyeede e leydi hee ». Won jaagorɗe laamu mbiyi HRW wonde addani laamu nguu salaade heɓtinde TPMN, ko sabu mum, hono no IRA nii, « wonde peccooje ngootaagu ngenndi ndii ». Ɓe mbiyi haala TPMN « alaa ɗo tuugii », so wiyiibinndatal ngal ko binndital paltoor. HRW hoolkisaaki haalajuuji ɗii, kono Siimtooɓe Fedde Ngenndiije Dentuɗe ko faati e rasisma e baasal teeŋtungal, mbiyii wonde binndital ngal ko paltingal hardaneeɓe e ɓaleeɓe Muritani…

Wasiyaaji feewde e laamu Muritani

E joofnirde, ciimtol ngol waɗii wasiyaaji feewde e laamu Muritani, paatuɗi e caɗeele cifaaɗe dow ɗee, ko wayi no : ittugol kuugal pawangal e wul Makaytiir, woppitde terɗe IRA dummbaaɗe (Aballaahi wul Saalek e Muusaa Bilaal), joofnude wiɗto takkere fawaande e Umar wul Beybakar ndee… momtugol denndaangal lelnaaɗe kuugal warhoore gonɗe e dabi kuuge, ine heen kuukal 306 paatungal e karmingol jartodingol, caabingal kuugal warhoore pawanoongal e Muhammed Sheek Makaytiir.

Ina heen momtugol denndaangal lelnaaɗe sariya paatuɗe e kaɓgol e ownugol (terorisma) sibu no siforaa nii laaɓtaani, momtude denndaangal lenaaɗe Sariya yaafuya 1993 kaɗoowo ñaawoore warnooɓe hoore e kitaale 1990. Ina heen ɗooftaade hakke batuuji jamyami e dente peeñcu, so wonaa tawa dalillaaji memotooɗi ina ngoodi kollitooji aɗi mbaawi lorde kisal ngenndi walla deeƴre renndo. E nder ɗuum, yuɓɓinooɓe ɓee potaani ɗaɓɓude yamiroore, kono poti tan ko tintinde laamu fawaade e sarɗiiji jaɓniiɗi. Haaɗnude ɗo jaɓi mbaawka laamu to bannge calagol winnditaade walla fusde fedde woodnoonde. Ittude e dalillaaji pusgol fedde, sababuuji « politik » walla kiisaaɗi « ina pecca ngootaagu ngenndi » e ustude mbaawka keɓtingol walla keɓtugol mum ; pusgol fedde foti wonde ko feere wattannde e peeje fof, tee, foti waɗde ko e ndeenka ñaawoore. Heɓtinde kala fedde yamyamre ɗaɓɓunde ɗuum ; ko wayi no Fedde rewɓe koninkooɓe waraaɓe e kewkewe 1989-1990, IRA e TPMN.

Ciimtol : Bookara Aamadu Bah

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