Ciltugol wolde 1914-1918, Wolde adunaare adannde

0
360

Ñalnde 11 noowammbar 2018 waɗi duuɓi 100 ko jeyli hare adunaare adannde ndeƴƴi. Ko ñalnde heen, subaka law (w5: hj15) Nanondiral ciltugol hare adunaare adannde (armistis 1918) sifanoo, ngam teeŋtinde dartagol hare kam e poolgu konuuji “Haɓɓondirɓe” (Alliés) dow Almaañ. Nanondiral ngal noon wonaa jebbilaare. Jebbilaare ndee ko caggal ɗuum waɗoyi, ñalnde 28 suweŋ 1919, ñalnde nanondiral jam (deeƴre) siifetee to Versailles (nder Diiwaan Pari, Farayse).

Ngal siifaa ko e nder wagon laana njoorndi e gardagol maresaal Foch (Faraysenaajo). Ɗum waɗi ko e heneere (nokku laayɗo) ina wiyee Rethondes, nder dunndu Compiègne (rewo Farayse, sara keerol hakkunde mum e Almaañ). Ko ɗoon kadi nanondiral ciltingol hare siifanoo ñalnde 22 suwee 1940 (nde Almaañ heɓti Farayse) hakkunde Farayse e Almaañ Hitleer (Almaañ nazi en, walla mbiyen Reich tataɓo hakkunde 1933 e 1945).

Hol ko saabii nanondiral ngal ina siifoyee nder ladde ? Waɗi noon ko ɓe njiɗnoo ko ɗum waɗa ɗo wirnii gite, e  nokku mo laaɗe ɗiɗi njoorndi ina mbaawi fottude heen : laana “Haɓɓondirɓe” e laana Almaañ.

Armistis 22 suweŋ 1940 kadi (nde Almaañ heɓti Farayse), waɗiraa tan ko no armistis 11 nowammbar 1918 oo waɗiranoo nii, e fawaade e yiɗde Hitleer mumtude koyeera Almaañ 1918, e waɗtaade kala ko Farayse e yahdiiɓe mum mbaɗnoo Almaañ. Ngam muumtude kadi haa laaɓa « koyeera nanondiral Versailles » (maa en ngartoy heen so Alla jaɓii) Hitler itti ɗoon wagon oo, nawi ɗum to Berlin. Nde konuuji “Haɓɓondirɓe” njaaɓani naatde Berlin e ciltirɗi wolde adunaare ɗiɗmere, Hitler dirtini wagon oo, faani ɗum wuro woɗngo kadi, kono ka boni e pelɓondiral (aksidaa). Ko laana ngoɗka nannduka e kaan lomtinaa ɗo dunndu Campiègne ɗoo jooni. 

Wolde adunaare adannde

En mbaawaa haalde haala ciifondiral lelnugol njogitaaje, tawi en kaalaani haala hare ndee e hoore mum hay so ko seeɗa : wolde adunaare adannde.

Wolde adunaare adannde ko hare koninkaagu fuɗɗoriinde hakkunde leyɗe Orop hade mum huuɓtodinnde e yettaade duuɗe winndere keddiiɗe ɗee hakkunde 1914 e 1918 (hay so tawii nde silti tigi rigi ko e hitaande 1923 caggal nanondiral Lausanne (Suwis), nanondiral cakkitiingal siifeede (ciifangal ñalnde 24 sulyee 1923). Nanondiral Lausanne teeŋtini ko keeri hakkunde Turki e Laamaandi Otamaan, yuɓɓini eggingol yimɓe fawaade e diine mum en nder keeri mum kesi ɗii.

Wolde meeɗaano yettaade wolde adunaare adannde to bannge njaajeendi e keeweendi koninkooɓe haɓeteeɓe, e maayɓe e bonannde. Ko ina wona 60 miliyoŋ soldaat kaɓaama e mayre. Ko ina wona miliyoŋaaji sappo koninke e siwil mbaraama heen, e hedde miliyoŋaaji 20 ngaañiima heen. Ɗumɗoo fof ko jiidaa maayɓe e kewuuji goɗɗi baɗɗi e ngalɗoo daawal, ko wayi no warhoore leñol armeni en (1915-1916), waklitere Riisi (1917) e maɓɓo 1918 (girip 1918). Ɗuum fof ina jeyaa e ko addani wolde ndee battinde no feewi e hakkillaaji tawanooɓe ɗum. Wolde ndee kadi addii mbayliigaaji keewɗi battinɗi e winndere ndee e teeminannde 20siire.

E ndee hare, laamuuji keewɗi njanii walla pecciima, ko wayi no laamuuji Riisi e Otomaan. Laamaandi Almaañ nattii woodde. Njaajeendi leydi Almaañ ustiima. Keeri hakkunde leyɗeele Orop e fuɗnaange hakkundeejo keewɗi leemtaama. Dowlaaji maruceeji walla dowlaaji demokarasiyeeji lomtiima laamuuji hoorameeji gaadanteeji. Kadi, go’o njuɓɓudi winndereeri ina sosee ngam haɗde golwole, ko anndiranoo SDN (Société des Nations).

E oon sahaa, aduna oo wayi ko no ñoomre nii, feetere jayngol wootere ina waawi duppitde cumu. Ko ɗuum woni ko waɗi, sibu sabaabu wolnde ndee jiytiniiɗo ko warngo laamɗo Otiris-Hongiri (Autriche-Hongrie) e jom suudu muuɗum to Sarajewo ñalnde 28 suweŋ 1914. Wari ɓe ko leñameejo serbinaajo. Ɗuum addani laamu Otiris-Hongiri, e ballal sehil mum Almaañ, jeertinde laamu Serbi, kono serbinaaɓe calii sarɗiiji ɓe pawi heen ɗii, ndiiwti jeertinaango ngoo. Ɗuum addani Otiris-Hongiri umminde wolde feewde e Serbi. Kono ɓooytaani, ko wonnoo luural hakkunde heediiɓe wonti luural kuuɓtodinngal, sibu wonti ko jingi-jingitere.

Otiris-Hongiri  ko dowla Orop hakkundeejo ɓooyɗo, goodnooɗo hakkunde 1867 e 1918. Ko dowlaaji ɗiɗi, jerondiriɗi ndenti ɗoon. E oon sahaa, yoga e dowlaaji Orop ina ngardinoo laamaandi njaajndi nder duuɗe winndere ndee keewɗe, ɗuum ina jeyaa e ko addani hare ndee yaawde huuɓtodinde. Banngeeji ɗiɗi kaɓatnooɗi ɗii ko ɗiiɗoo :

- “Haɓɓondirɓe”  (Alliés) walla “Nanondiral-Tato“ (Triple-Entente), bannge gadano oo. Woni heen ko Farayse, Laamaandi-Ndentundi, Riisi, yanti e koloniiji mum en (leyɗe ɗe njiimi). Dowlaaji keewɗi tawti ngal, ko wayi no Belsik, caggal nde Almaañ yani e mum, ɗaɓɓi e Farayse e Laamaandi-Ndentundi yo paabo ɗum. Japon tawti ngal e lewru ut 1914, Itaali e abriil 1915, Ruumani e ut 1916, e Dowlaaji Amerik Dentuɗi (Amerik) e abriil 1917, ko jiidaa e dowlaaji goɗɗi pamari doole.

– Bannge ɗiɗmo oo ko Almaañ e Otiris-Hongiri  kam e koloniiji mum en. Laam-Laamu Otomaan (Empire Otoman) tawti ngal e lewru oktoobar 1914. Laamu Bulgaari rewii heen caggal ɗuum.

E ciltirɗi hare ndee ko ɗee leyɗe tan gonnoo jaambureeje : Peyiiba (Pays-Bas), Siwis, Espaañ, Damenark, Norwees, Suwed, Litesten (Liechtenstein) e Monako, hay so tawii noon ngootiri heen kala woodii bannge mo walliti kaalis e kaɓirɗe. 

Konuuji ɗii njaggondirii e ceŋɗe keewɗe, kono ko ɓuri heewde heen ko e nder Orop, seeɗa to Asi, to Oseyaani e nder Afrik e to Atalantik rewo. Ko ngol woni go’o kadi ko diwooje ina kuutoree e wolde, diwooje ƴeewooje e daddooje e bommbooje. Ko ɗoo kadi mobelaaji buumaaɗi (véhicules blindés), laaɗe hare mutooje (sous-marins) puɗɗii huutoreede.

Leyɗe jiimanooɗe (koloniiji) ndariima darnde rowrowre e ndee hare, to bannge mooɓgol soldateeɓe, e gollotooɓe e oogirɗe. 134 000 tirayeer Senegaalnaajo (koyngal konu tafangal e hitaande 1857) mooɓaama ngam wallitde konu Faryse, tee ina hasii ko kañum en keedata yeeso. Ko noon wonande fotde 270 000 magrebnaajo, 125 000 alserinaajo, ngaddaama Orop ngam haɓeede. Leyɗe ƴoogirɗe koninkooɓe ɓe ɗeeɗoo : Senegaal, Burkinaa, Beneŋ, Mali, Muritani, Niiseer, Alaseri, Tuunus, Maruk, Madagaskaar, Siin, Inndosiin, Antiiy, Guyaan. E kuuɓal, ko hakkunde 550 000 e 600 000 sagata mooɓaa. Fotde 450 000 e maɓɓe nawaa ko Orop. Nder konu Farayse ndeen, soldateeɓe 100 fof, heen 15 ko arɓe. Fotde 70 000 ko toon keddii (36 000 magrebnaajo e 30 000 tiraayeer Senegaal), woni, so hiisaama, nder 100 maayɗo fof, heen 23 ko tiraayeer senegaalnaajo e 19 ko magrebnaajo. Ɗum firti ko kamɓe ɓurnoo heewde wareede heen, nde tawnoo ko kamɓe keewnoo heedneede yeeso. 

Nder Afrik

Kareeli keewɗi wolde adunaare adannde mbaɗii e Afrik, e nder nokkuuji ceertuɗi, ɗo Almaañ joginoo koloniiji, ko wayi no Kamaruun, Togo, Afrik hirnaange-worgo, walla Afrik fuɗnaange.

E oon sahaa, Ndenndaandi ndentundi, Farayse e Almaañ kala ina njiɗnoo yaajtinde njiimaandi mum en, tee ina njaakorinoo maa wood nde potti e yolnde pooɗondiral, kaɓa heen walla ŋaaftondira. Nde wolde ndee fuɗɗii to Orop, koloniiji Almaañ ina njoginoo soldateeɓe heewɓe, tee ina mbaawnoo dartaade. Tuddule leyɗe haɓɓere (faraysenaaɓe e engele en e belsiknaaɓe) ina keblaninoo hare.

Almaañ ina joginoo koloniiji ɗiɗi e Afrik hirnaange (Togo e Kamaruun). Kono konuuji haɓɓere keɓtii Togo law, sibu ko gila e ut 1914 ; ɗi keɓti Kamaruun e feebariyee 1916. Almaañ ina joginoo koloni to Afrik hirnaange worgo (Namibi). Oon koloni kadi heɓtaama ñalnde 12 mee 1915 (njangu Windhoek). To Afrik fuɗnaange, Almaañ ina joginoo koloniiji ɗo Tansani e Burundi hannde ɗoo. Konuuji mayri ndartiima toon ko juuti konuuji Engele en e Portugeec en e Belsiknaaɓe. Hare dartii toon tan ko caggal ciifgol Nanondiral ciltugol wolde ñalnde 11/11/1948. To Afrik rewo ko Senusi e tirbiiji berbeer en, e ballal laamlaamu Otomaan e laamlaamu Almaañ, ngaƴƴondiri toon e Laamaandi Ndentundi e Itaali e Farayse nder hirnaange rewo Libi.

Ko e ndee wolde Almaañ waasi koloniiji mum fof, natti wonde leydi njiimndi. Ko Laamaandi Ndentundi e Farayse e Belsik pecci koloniiji ndi joginoo e Afrik. Caggal ɗuum ɗi keɓi koye majji tuggi 1960. Leydi Namibi, ndi SDN halfinnoo Afrik worgo, sakkitii jeytaade e hitaande 1988.

Ina jokki …

“Aadi Versailles” (Traité de Versailles)

Bookara  Aamadu Bah

Ngalɗoo natal ƴettaa ko caggal ciifgol nanondiral dartingol hare, ɗo ɓe njalti e “wagon artimistis” laana njoorndi ardorde konu seneraal Foch (ɗiɗmo ummoraade ñaamo).

Woppu jaabawol

Winndu yowre maa
Winndu ɗoo innde maa