Geɗal pulaaku e kaɓɓondiral leƴƴi

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Subaka 24 colte (feebiriye) 2024, yeewtere patamlamere yuɓɓinaama Bamako ngam siftorde e mawninde Sammba Siidibe mo Rajo Mali. Yeewtere ndee waɗi ko « Laamorde Pinal» (Palais de la culture) Aamadu Hampaate Bah, daande maayo Jaaliba nder Bamako.

Naatirdi

Ina jeyanoo he tuugnorgal ñalngu nguu, yeewtere nde udditi Ceerno Buubakara Siiseh, he tittoonde : Ballal Pulaaku he dental, e jokkere enɗam renndo, kam e kollirgol jeytaare ngenndiire Mali. Yeewtere ndee fawinoo ko he dame tati : Geɗal Pulaaku he kollirgol jeytaare ngenndiire Mali, Denɗiraagu (denɗiraagal) e aada : ko waalaare ngootaagu e jokkere-enɗam nder renndo; Yeruuji to daartol kollirooji darned pulaaku he ngootaagu e jokkere-enɗam renndooji e leƴƴi.

Waɗi yeewtere ndee ko Buubakara Siiseh, karallo njuɓɓudi laamu gonɗo he fooftere duumiinde, meeɗnooɗo halafineede Pinal he catal Tabital Pulaagu Mali. Nde kabrol sankaare Ceerno Usmaan Hasan lollirɗo Sammba Siidibe yani ñalnde 20 juko (ut) 2022, ko sunaare luggere nder dingiral pulaagu Mali e banngeeji goɗɗi. Ko fotde ngati ko o gorko korsinanooɗo, keewtuɗo noppi kala nanooɓe Fulfulde nder nduu adunaaru. Ko ina wona kitaale capanɗe nay, omo yarna noppi heɗotooɓe Rajo Mali rewrude he ɗemngal ceningal, laaɓtungal, keewngal nafoore.

Ko tuggude 11 morso (suliyee) 1976 nde Sammba Siidibe fuɗɗii golle he Rajo Mali, ɗo o yiyaa fof tawata ko omo wakkii « nagra » makko, omo soorii gure e nguron e cukkon Fulɓe. Omo roɓindoo gannde Fulɓe, gila he jimɗi e jime haa yettii daari e tinndi e cifti… Ɗum fof inan mooftaa hannde nder defterdu e hitordu Rajo Mali. Yanti heen o woni jeewteewo ŋanaa, o yuɓɓini jeewte naftorteeɗe haa hannde, hono yeewtere « Poy kan poy », e « Pinal », e « Donaaɗi ».

Ko ɗuum addani yiɗɓe e musiɗɓe e gollodiiɓe Ceerno Usmaan Hasan lollirɗo Sammba Siidibe, njokkondiri e wanndiraaɓe makko, ɓe pewji teddinde mo ko dañanooka waɗeede gila he nguurndam makko. Ɓe njuɓɓini ñalnde pinal e naalaŋkaagal ngal ɓe inniri « Yammbere Pulaaku : Teddungal Sammba Siidibe ».

Faandaare huɓtodinnde ñalnde ndee ko ruttude teddungal e Usmaan Hasan loolirɗo Sammba Siidibe, karallo « rajoyaagal », gorko pinal. Kono faandaare heeriinde ndee ko :

  • - yuɓɓinde ñalawma naalaŋkaagal e pinal ngam wuurtinde ruttude teddungal e oo gorko jaajnuɗo pinal Mali he kuuɓal, haa teeŋti he ngal Fulɓe ;
  • - renndinde ngalu ngam faabaade ɓesngu Sammba Siidibe ;
  • - hollirde yonta hannde o geɗe ɓurɗe moƴƴude he pinal Mali:
  • - teeŋtinde paarnorɗe renndooji men to dental e jokkere enɗam.

Ceerno Usmaan Hasan lollirɗo Sammba Siidibe wonaa potɗo yejjiteede, etee o yejjittaake haa cay.

2. Geɗal pulaaku e hollirde jeytaare ngenndiire Mali

Teskini he ɗee kitaale 1960/1961ko eggooru-hoɗɗooru (Joolol burgu leyde Uuruɓe, Yalarɓe, Jalluɓe) kam e cosgol ceede “franc” Mali.

2.1. Marde ceede ngenndi mum ina jeyaa ko ina hollira jeytaare kala leydi

He kodaartaa, lebbi jeegom ko adii Mali ina heɓa jeytaare mum he 1961, Hooreejo Ndenndaandi Cekoslowakiya yillii Mali. Kanko e Moodibo Keytaa aɓe ngondi he piirowal aɓe payi Tummbukutu, ɓe mbeeyi dow weendu Debo, leyɗe Uruuɓe Duuɗe e Yaalarɓe e Jalluɓe. Tawi nayi kofol maayo Jaaliba (Niijeer) fof ina njolti, ina kuurii he saraaji weendu Debo.

Ɗoon nde Hooreejo Ndenndaandi Cekoslowakiya yiyi ngoo wertaango ŋarɗungo, leppungo ko ina tolnoo he “ 35 000 hektaar, o seedii ɗee cogge-cogge nayi e aynaaɓe mum en, o sooynii  caaleeje ina liiraa eñe liɗɗi, ɗoon tan o wiyi Moodibo Keytaa o gaddiima cosgol “franc” mo Mali yiɗi tafde oo. Ni woni “franc” mo Mali sosaa he 1962.

Buuɗi noogaas « Franc » mo Mali kooliroowo jelooɗe pinal Fulɓe gila he « Caamaaba » woɗa aynaaɓe haa « keñji e « nelɓi ».

Gaagaa natal Moodibo Keytaa, ina oya bannge kaayitol 20 ngol, natal coggal nayi. Ina teskee he coggal hee gayi “Keñnji, woni ko Fuuta-Tooro wiyata “kalhali”; gayi cuɓtaaɗi yo ngardo coggal nder oorngo e jofol. Keñji ina njogii geɗe pinal tati teskinɗe :

  • - Soppude (coopude to Maasina), ferde lappol, waawnaa coggal rewde he maggol;
  • - Toolnude, dokkal so yontii, woni “gamaraawol” maa “burgu” ummoraade he helmere “mburgu” e “haggaaño”. Ko ɗiin tan Jowro (jom nayi) waawata hokkude.
  • - Nelɓi ko sawru gaynaako gila he Ilo funeere Caanaba (caamaaba). Ko nduu sawru soggata nayi, holla laawol, weemtina nder ndiyam.

Eɗen teskoo noon “keñnji e nelɓi” ko gosol maa gannde jom-maayo (munu maayo). Ɗum noddi ko yeewtere woɗnde. Kono ngam hollirde yeruuji maale daartiije kollirooje geɗal Pulaagu he nanondire yuɓɓo beeli, maa en kollir he ndaɓɓa “Duuɗe Caanaba” baafal Weendu Debo. Nde sosaa ko he 1495, he duuɓi ɗiɗi lefol Askiya Mohammed. Sosi nde ko Arɗo Maayo Hammadun Fulaani lollirɗo Ngaddooru. Nanondiral ngal yowitii ko he “Eggirgol Coowagol”, lappol cuuɗangol Saahal – Burgu – Haayre. Ngal yuɓɓini no lappol ngol rewaratee, no diƴƴe ɗee kuutorirtee, haa hannde ndii njuɓɓudi ina huutoree, gila he colte (ceeɗu) haa he tolo e jolngo beddagol saakitaaji.

2.2. Ƴaaral–Degal

Ƴaaral e Deegal waɗtaama ngoodaandi jangtaandi ndi memotaako winndere (UNESCO 2005), waanjitaa he doggol ngenndiwol he 2008.

Ñalnde 25 jolal (nowambar) 2005, UNESCO ƴetti pellital waɗtude dingiral Ƴaaral-Degal he faandu jeyi winndere. Ngal dingiral pinal toɗɗii ko leyɗe oornirɗe jawdi Fulɓe nder juppirɗe maayo Niijeer, gila kolaaɗe hakkunde Keemaacina e Tummbukutu haa seeno leyɗe Dogon en, nawori heen jeeri Saahal gure Meema e Kareeri e Farimake.

Ina yuɓɓinee heen ñalɗi pine e nguurdiigu hakkakunde leƴƴi. Tuugnorɗe Ƴaaral-Degal wuurii daawal mum gadanal 2006-2009.

Ina foti yetteede e teddineede Tereba Togola (yoo Geno yurmo mo yaafoo mo), ɗowatnooɗo jeyal pinal, kanko e yahdiiɓe makko hono Kelesige Sanogo, Mullaay Kulibali nde ɓe toowni haa weeyi pinal e donaaɗi Fulɓe Mali, gila he ndernderi haa he boowaleeri. Ina heen kadi Sammba Siidibe e Dr Temoore Culenta e Aamadu Hamma Lanndure e Bubakar Siiseh, adduɓe balle mum en teeŋtuɗe.

Kono, gila nde iiñture e « bukal » (caru) joli polindaaji 2013, Ƴaaral e Deegal wontii ɓiyɓe-naange.

3. Denɗiraagu – aadiyankooji

Denɗirragal maa Denɗiraaku (Sinankuya he Bamanan-kaŋ) jeyaa ko he gaaraaji ñootirɗi jokkere enɗam hakkunde leƴƴi. He Koolol 3ɓol (tataɓol) Naalaŋkaagal e Pinal Fulɓe jooɗinoongol Bamako he 2002, ko ndeen miijo reɓi haa Tabital Pulaaku “International” sosaa. Ko ndeen Ceerno Saydu Kan mo Muritani addi ballal timmungal he wiyde “wonde Pullo ko wootiɗinde Afirik”. Ko ɗum goonga tigi sibu gila Fiiltiingo Atalantiku haa Maayo Woɗeewo, Pulaagu (noddi ko Fulɓe e ɓe ngonaa Fulɓe ɓe pinal Fulɓe), ñootii leƴƴi nder ndee fatareere Saahal-Sahara, yimɓe peewni nguurndam mum en hay sinno sahaa aɓe pelɓondira. Ko heen jeyaa ngati hay ñiiƴe e ɗemngal koɗdi he hunuko kono ina mbaɗda.

Ko ɗuum addani Denɗiraagu jogaade nafoore nde hono mum weeɓaani. Yeruuji mum ko :

  • - Denɗiraagu Pullo e Numu to Maasina ko huunde darjunde, anndaande. Waɗaama heen yeewtere to rajo Mali “Taariku Keeñe” toŋngooɗe 4 e 5.
  • - Denɗiraagu Pullo e Soniŋke: to bannge Fulɓe nguu denɗiraagu jogii ko jeese ɗiɗi; heen yeeso wiyi ko Fulɓe e Soninkooɓe njiidi taaniraaɗo gooto sibu, ko Aarabe Oqba bun Yaasiin (?) resi garme Soninkeejo jibini Fulɓe; ngoya yeeso ko Fulɓe ina ndeeni laamu Maama Dinnga, laamɗo Sooninke caasɗo ƴiiƴiwo, carɗo Fulɓe “Mawɓe Ganni maa Ganinkooɓe” hoɗnooɓe “Cehe Gaana” (nguron Gaana) ko hebori jibinoyde “Taganit” nder nehaande leydi Muritani hannde.
  • - Denɗiraagu Fulɓe e Bawa en : Fulɓe njogii ɗoo kadi ko daarti ɗiɗi. Gadanol ngol wiyi ko nder Kunaari Mbooboori Samba Sumayla ndi Ham-Boɗeejo laaminoo, jokkondiral diineeji ngoodnoo hakkunde maɓɓe e Waran mo Sampaara en jeyanooɓe he konu Ham-Boɗeejo. Daartol ɗiɗmol ngol holliri ko jokkere woodnoonde hakkunde Bornu e Baawa en haa wonti jokkere-enɗam e ballotiral (Baa-Lobbo Bookara to Mansaara e Aamadu Abdu-Salaam Seeku mo Fiyo) nde Fulɓe mballiti filñitere Baawa en he 1916, fulɓe heewɓe maayi heen.
  • - Fulɓe e Boozo en : Nanondire kuutoragol diƴƴe hono Gommbolo, e Banngu e Pinmba hee laabi “Eggirgol Coowagol Saahal Burgu Haayre” he 1945 ngol lelni ɗum Hamadun Fullaani lollirɗo Ngaddooru ina hollita tiiɗgol jokkondire hakkunde Fulɓe e Boozo en.
  • - Denɗiraagu Fulɓɓe e Dogon en : ko he yeeso jokkondiral diineeji. Laamu Diina to Hamdallaay waɗti Dogon en ko “Hoɗdiiɓe Welneteeɓe”. Jaŋde sarii haa jibini seernaaɓe mawɓe Dogon en hono Sheek Sala Sibe, Alfaa Allaay mo Konsa, ekn. Ɓe ndesondiri no feewi he diiwal Haayre-Seeno e yoga he baltirɗe Konsa hono “Nawe Duuɗe Haaɓe” deenɗe jawdi Borko e Boore. Fulɓe e Dogon en naattondiri sanne haa haawi yimɓe no ɗii leƴƴi ɗiɗi ndufondirta ƴiiƴam.
  • - Denɗiraagu Fulɓe e Wambarankooɓe : hay sinno koɗdigal maɓɓe jogii ko mbaydi kirondiral, denɗiraagu maɓɓe ina soomi guurdigal jamyamal to Sama-Seegu hakkunde “Baaforo Bamanan”, Boloow naani (booleeji nay) e “Caanaba Fulɓe”, Daali nay – kumruɗi gooleeje.
  • - Denɗiraagu hakkunde jettooɗe (jammooje) Jallo e Bah, Soh e Siidibe, Bari e Sankare, ina tiiɗi sanne to bannge doolnude jokkere-enɗam.

4. YERUUJI TO DAARTOL

Koɗdigal moƴƴal e nanondire renndo ngam yuɓɓo maaje e beeli nder lappi Saahal–Burgu–Haayre ko he juuɗe Arɗo Maayo Hamadun Fullaani lollirɗo Ngadooru he 1495 nder duuɓi ɗiɗi gadani lefol laamu Askiya Mohammed.

Ngam reende lappi Maayo to Kareeri (Saahal) feewde Jamtooji nder Haayre-Seeno, Arɗo Maayo waɗdi maalde e Boozo en e Somono en, ɓe pecci baltirɗi ɗii kala, Fulɓe hoɗnooɓe ɗoon keɓi geɗal mum en:

  • - Fulɓe Ferooɓe keɓi fonngo bannge nano Maayo Jaaka;
  • - Fulɓe Jalluɓe (Jalluɓe Burgu) keɓi hakkunde Maayo Jaaka e Maayo Dembi;
  • - Fulɓe Uuruɓe ngoni hakkunde Maayo Dembi e Maayo Ɓaleewo.
  • - Geɗal Jalluɓe Jenneere (ɓe Jenne) maa yaltoy duuɓi yeeso.
  • Duttorɗe goɗɗe ina ngoodi, hono :
  • - Gommbolo : ko ɗoon Boozo en ɓe suudu Culenta en ndewatnoo diine mum en ko adii cogge nay ina ndewa ɗoon;
  • - Banngu : ko ɗoon galle Balakoro en ngonnoo;
  • - Pinmba (Fimmbere Sanfalmaaɓe ɓe duunde Caanaba) he naatirde Weendu Debo, nder kaar Caatamaare, kawral caaɗli nay “ɓoggi gooleeje”: Maayo Demmbi, Maayo Raneewo, Maayo Ɓaleewo, Maayo Commbo; nder duuɗe nay jofnirɗe: Pinmba, e Ceekoy, e Ruunde Jowro, e Perecooro. Ɗum fof lommbii ko hakkunde kaaƴe tati ganniije: Hoore Haayre, Haayre Soroba, Haayre Guraaw. Daartiyaŋkooɓe mbiyi ko annduɓe ɗii nokkuuji njanti he seernaaɓe Kukiya (hedde Gaawo) e Beñca njeytoraa he galleeji seernaaɓe gila he yonta Firawna en to Misirra.

Arɗo Maayo joɗɗini koyngal konu mum to Pinmba ngam reende diiwal Fulɓe Uuruɓe Sanfalmaaɓe Bah, he hitaande 1495. Koyngal konu Suudu Baaba firtaa ko he teeminannde 18ɓiire. Gila he teeminannde 15ɓiire haa ñalngu hannde ngu, kala hitaande, so hoodere “badamalhuuti” feeñii, ina wiyee kadi hoodere “balmalwaar” (hoodere baawal), yaltoore he lewru mbooy (marsa), Fulɓe ina teskoo yitere Caanaba ina walta. Ɓe mbiyi ko yerɓaango leydi nder diƴƴe ngaddata ɗum. Ɗuum ina yiyee to Pinmba, naatirde Weendu Debo, saraaji Sotuba e Tawsa, kadi to Buyyi nder kaaƴe Bannjagara. Kaa ngonka ina addana Fulɓe waylude laabi polindaaji e eggooru mum en, awooɓe ne mbayla gawirɗe e ñalɗi gawateeɗi.

4.1. Njaatigeeɓɓe lappi Saaha-Burgu Haayre

Njaatigeeɓe lappi Saahal–Burgu Haayre maa “Eggirgol Coowagol” ko lappi ɗi mbayyintaake haa oo ñalawma hannde, hono lappol Ganɗe Koboro Ŋabbirɗe Haayre bannge Fuɗnaange (Konza nder diiwal Mooɓti), udditta baltirɗi leydi Uuruɓe Duuɗe.

4.2. Koɗdigal moƴƴal he laamu Diina Hamdallaay he 1821

Ko he ndee hittande laamu Diina sosaa, leydi denndinndi leƴƴi keewɗi, pine keewɗe, jaɓondirɓe nguurndam ngootam, mo-woni fof he dewal mum Geno mum, rennduɓe jaŋngirɗe e ñaawooje… haa hannde gonal maɓɓe ina tiimtee.

4.3. Kawtal gonal he 1821

Seernaaɓe njooɗii Hamdallaay he 1821, ɓe njuurnitii nguurndam maɓɓe e diineeji maɓɓe, ɓe cosi “dowla” Diina he tawtoragol leƴƴi koɗdaaɗi fof e seernaaɓe dowluɓe, ardiiɓe diiwe, e Joowro en (ardiiɓe oorngo), jom-leydi en (Besama), jom-diƴƴe’en (Baaba Awgal), ekn. Ɓesnguuji kofol maayo Niijeer fof njaɓi nanondiral ngal.

4.4. Hamdallaay, Laamorgo Diina

Wuro Hamdallaay (firata ko “Geno yettaama”) waɗaa laamorgo, renndini leƴƴi e pine. Ngo yahii haa ngo jogii ardiiɓe galleeji 116, duɗe 740, deenirɗe “alyatimaaɓe” 120, annduɓe 100 rennduɓe he Batu Mawɗo, leeɗe 60, luumooji 60, gammbi pucci 74, doktoreeɓe gannde Lislaam 60, Jumaa nawoowo fotde juulooɓe 3.000, catallaaji calliginorɗi 3.000… (sewnde ɗum ko Alhajji Arsike Bah, muqaddam Qaadiriya, jooɗaniiɗo to Bamako galle Seeku Aamadu).

4.5. Dawrugol e Njuɓɓudi e Faggudu e Renndo

Ɓe lelni laabi njuɓɓudi laamu e dawrugol, laabi faggudu e renndo… dowla ƴellitiiɗo. Batu Mawɗo jiimi baatuuji goɗɗi hono pelle leslese (Hariima) e pelle jaambureeje (Batu Jammbe) e dente rewɓe (Weloore). Kala pellital ngal ina ƴettee maa ɗee dente fof ngadda miijooji mum en e darnde poti heen daraade heen. Gure Fulɓe e Boozo en e Somono en cosaa sara gure Maraka en (Soninkooɓe) e gure Wambarankooɓe e Baawa en. Leydi Diina ina waɗnoo gure 67.000 peƴtaaɗe he leppi leydi 340 e diiwe 5 mawɗe.

Golle jowitiiɗe e durngo e ndema e awo pawinoo ko e duuɓi 4, ngootu heen fof ina jogii hoodere mum. Al-dabara ko saanga aawo gese (14 haa 27 Duujal (mee) ; Al-hufuru ko sahaa Deegal (gartol nay jahnooɗi polindaaji, hakkunde 5 haa 18 (oktoobar) woni lewru Yarkoma; Bada Malhuti ko tuggi 23 Mbooy (marsa) haa 05 Seeɗto (abiril) ko awo renndaango.

Polindaaji e Sarɗiyeeji Ngaynaaka: nde cahe cosaa, addani yimɓe ɓe ƴellitde aynooɓe e awooɓe eggiyaŋkooɓe. Ɓe cosi sarɗiyeeji jeyi-leydi e ngaynaaka e awo, haa no jawdi yettortoo durnirɗe tawa bonnaani gese e maaje:

  • – dursaago ko durnirɗi ɗi ilataa udditaaɗi ɗi mo-woni kala waawi huwtoraade;
  • – Tolo ko gamrawol Burgu, nokkuuji ilooji deenaaɗi nder kofol Maayo Mawngo (maayo Niijeer), ina jogii nde naatatee, ina jogii nde waɗaa haɗde.
  • – Suudu Baaba maa Jowro ko he durnirɗi jeyaaɗi galleeji toɗɗaaɗi.
  • – Hariima ina jogoo ko jeyi (beyt-il maal), ko dowla Diina mooftata, reenata, so yooro arii totta miskineeɓe.

4.6. Ñaawirɗe e yuɓɓo mum

Tabitinaa nder denndaangal leydi Diina ko laabi Lislaam, laawol Maalik, gila e luure haa kareeli e dewle. Ko Batu Mawɗo woni dow fof, mo terɗe “annduɓe” 100, heen 40 ko duumiiɓe, ko kamen njogii doole tafde sarɗiyeeji, kamɓe ndeeni ciynugol laabi ɗi, alaa yuɓɓo ñaawooje ari ɓe dow. He Diiwe joy ɗee, diiwal fof ina waɗi ñaawirde mum heeriinde, tunndu fof ina mari Qaadi mum mo heerorii, wona Qaadiiji 340.

Kono, aadaaji ɗi diine salaaki ina mbaawi huutoreede. Ko ɗuum tagi, ñaawo luure ngadotoo ñaawreede  ko fawaade e aadaaji e goowaaɗi he gardagol Jowro (deenoowo durirɗi), e Batu Suudu Baaba e Batu Jawlo, teskoo noon hoɗɓe adiiɓe e arduɓe wattan. Ina teskee kadi durnooɓe arɓe, ɓe njeyaaka he leydi he, ɓeen ngoni Joljolɓe, hakkunde kadi remooɓe e aynaaɓe e njoldi “Coongi”, e hakkunde aynaaɓe e awooɓe, “Uude” woni uddooji no kuwtorirtee.

5. TONNGOL

Tawa noon wonaa eɗen mbasoo, so en cilii tigi-tigi nguurndam Diina mo Seeku Aamadu, maa en taw Pulaaku mahii he teeminannde 19ɓiire mbaydi nguurdiigu to dawrugol e faggudu e renndo, ngu renndini leƴƴi keewɗi ceertunooɗi pine, nder duttorɗe ngootaagu e jokkere-enɗam e dewal Geno, e jaŋde e potal nder ñaawirɗe jaambureeje. Ko geɗe hannde ɗe wiɗtooɓe e daartiyaŋkooɓe e dawriyaŋkooɓe kuutortoo.

Alaa-e-sago tesko-ɗen nder laawol mahtagol leydi men, costagol Mali Kura (Mali mawɗo) donaaɗi men to daartol e to pine ngu Laamu Diina pawiingi e Lislaam addi, ɓeeɗnoongu ɗalñitaade, selli ɓoggi laamu haa ndanndi he ko dowlaaki ɗaɓɓata hannde.

Tesko : Ƴettunoo nate ɗee ko Aamadu Malal Gey mo Wéropular to Ndakaaru garnooɗo Konza he Burgu leydi Uruuɓe Duuɗe 1818-2008, laawol mum 190ɓol (ñalɗi 6 haa 7 Siilo 2009 he unnde Fedde Ɓamtaare Pulaar he Muritani, omo won’dunoo Ceerno Abdullaay Sal (yurmeende Geno he makko) e Ceerno Ifiraa Boli.

  • – Yeewtiyaŋke o ko Bubakara Siiseh to Bamako
  • – Ñiiɓirde : Kalabancoura Ext Su  rue 404 porte 186  Bamako
  • – Telefoŋ: +223 66 75 24 45
  • – Email: cisseboubacar7@yahoo.fr 
  • – Fuli winndaande ndee ko Aamadu Malal Gey

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