«JASPORAA» FULƁE : Mbaydiiji ceertuɗi uujooji (2)

0
693

Fulɓe ina millee hakkunde Miliyoŋaaji 6 haa 19. Baŋ-yoo-baŋ e nder jookli Afirik, ngonka maɓɓe e darnde maɓɓe e sifaa maɓɓe ina waylodoo e nokku mo ɓe koɗi. Ina jeyaa e ɗo wiɗtooɓe Fulɓe kawri to baŋnge iwdi mum en : ko ɓe leñol durnooɓe jawdi (teeŋti e nayi) ummiiɓe e «semit’en» gila e adii-daartol jeereende Saharaa hedde duuɓi 1800 ko adii

Fulɓe ina millee hakkunde Miliyoŋaaji 6 haa 19. Baŋ-yoo-baŋ e nder jookli Afirik, ngonka maɓɓe e darnde maɓɓe e sifaa maɓɓe ina waylodoo e nokku mo ɓe koɗi. Ina jeyaa e ɗo wiɗtooɓe Fulɓe kawri to baŋnge iwdi mum en : ko ɓe leñol durnooɓe jawdi (teeŋti e nayi) ummiiɓe e «semit’en» gila e adii-daartol jeereende Saharaa hedde duuɓi 1800 ko adii

jibineede lisaa (A.J.I). Ngol leñol adorii ko ferde ummaade fuɗnaange-rewo feewde hirnaange, ɓe ndewi Tiripoliteen, ɓe taƴi jeereende Saharaa. Caggal ɗuum ɓe takkii maaje Senegaal e Jolibaa (Niijeer) aɓe ɗaɓɓoya nguura jawdi maɓɓe, ha ɓe njettoyii saraaji Weendu Cad, fayi Adamawa (rewo Kamaruun) haa e nder Darfuur.

E wiyde ɓee wiɗtooɓe, Fulɓe ko e dental hakkunde «semit en» e leƴƴi ɓaleeɓe gila yonta Misira gadano, refti heen ko Berbeer en e ɓaleeɓe Tekuruur gila yonta Nammandiiru. Hade maɓɓe ferande fuɗaange, Fulɓe njillondiri e leƴƴi Sooninkooɓe ɓe laamaandi Wagadu, e Wolof en e Seereraaɓe.

Wertaango koɗki Fulɓe

Wertaango koɗki Fulɓe ina jeyaa e ɓurɗi yaajde. Ɗemngal maɓɓe ɓuri ɗemɗe Afirik ɗee fof yaajde wertaango hay sinno ngal ɓuraani heewde haalooɓe. Haalooɓe fulfulde/Pulaar ina millee e miliyoŋaaji 15, e fawaade e yuurnito BREDA waɗi e hitaande 1985. So ɗemɗe Afirik ɗee fof njoɗɗinaama, ko ngal nayaɓal caggal Hawsa e Kiswaahili (miliyoŋaaji 40 haalooɓe gootal heen fof), e Yoruba (miliyoŋaaji 20,5 kaaloowo).

Ɗo ɓuri teskinde ɗo Pulaar/fulfulde haalatee ko leyɗe Saahal, gila Muritani e Senegaal haa Suudaan e Somaali. Ɗum firti ko nder jeejegol Saahal, gila maayo Fiiltiingo Atalantik haa Maayo (Geec) Woɗeewo, ɗo ndiyam mbelɗam tawetee, ɗo heewi huɗo moƴƴo e jawdi, ɗo mbuubon mbonkon e nayi ngalaa. Ko ɗum tagi ganndo mawɗo, taani men Aamadu Hampaate Bah siforaade Fulɓe niiyene : «… yahooɓe ɓe tampataa, ummiiɓe ɗo hay gooto anndaa, ardiiɓe cefe mum en nayi, fayɓe ɗo hay gooto anndaa, ina njiyloyoo ndiyam e huɗo e ɗo mbuubon ngalaa ! ».

Ɗemngal fulfulde/pulaar ko demngal renndo to Muritani, to Senegaal, to Gammbi, to Gine Konaakiri, to Mali, to Burkinaa Faso, to Niijeer, to Benin, to Niijeriyaa, to Kamaruun. A ngal haalee nder leyɗe goɗɗe, nder nokkuuji keeriiɗi maa nder galleeji tan (ƴeewee alluwal les ɗoo ngal).

No wertaango ɗemngal fulfulde/pulaar wayi nii yaajde, ko noon pulfule ɗee mbayi heewde, ɗe caɗtinaani ngal, kono ɓeydi ko aldinde ngal. Eɗen mbaawi tonngude pelle ɗiɗi pulfule : Pulfule Hirnaange e Pulfule Fuɗnaange. Pulal heen fof ina soomi nder mum pulfule ɗe ngaddiin mum en fawii e koɗki mum en. Mo fulfulde/pulaar wonaa ɗemngal mum neeniwal (muynangal), waawataa seerndude ɗe.

Ko ɗee Pulfule fof ndenti ngoni ɗemngal pulaar, maa fulfulde. Ko ɗe ɗemgnal gootal ngati aɗe nanondira e ko ɓuri heewde. Alaa heen ɓurngal keddiiɗe ɗe, so wonaa to keeweendi haalooɓe. Hannde o, wiɗtooji ina mbaɗee, mo woni kala e pulfulal ngal haalata ngal, ko adii nde kawraten e pulfulal coñce ngal yimɓe fof potata huutoraade.

Natal timmitoore 1 ngal, ina holla no Fulɓbe carorii nder duunde Afirik. Natal timmitoore 2 ngal eyɓinta ko caragol ɗemngal Pulaar. Pulfule goɗde ina carii nder duuɗe jookiiɗe haa fulɓe puɗɗii naattude e leƴƴi koɗdiiɗi. Ko hono noon pulfule nder Denndi (rewo lesdi Beneŋ) e pulfule rewo lesdi Santarafirik. Demɗe koɗdiiɗe mbaylii kelmeendi maɓɓe alɗiri heen, kono kadi ɗum waylii doosɗe celluka maɓɓe.

Ngam yerondirde ɗemɗe Afirik, BREDA winndii wonde “ɗemɗe 23 ko ɗemɗe jaajɗe nder lesɗe ɗiɗi haa ko ɓuri. Ɗemngal fulfulde ina yaaji nder lesɗe sappo (10), Kiswahili yaaji ko nder lesɗe jeegom (6), Mandinkaa ne ko nder lesɗe jeegom (6). Ɗemde noogaas (20) keddiiɗe ɗe njaaji tan ko nder lesɗe nay (4)”.

Mbaydiiji fergooji Fulɓe

Uujooji maa fergooji njeyaa ko e pinal Fulɓe, pulaagu pawiingu e kaatane Teddungal – Ganndal – Dañal. So suka Pullo yiɗii yettaade ɗee kaatane, alaa-e-sago o yiyloyoo ɗum nder lesɗe goɗɗe. So suka Pullo fuɗɗiima naatande cagataagal mum tan, muuyete yiyde aduna. E nder pinal Fulɓe, Ñalli wuro wonaa neɗɗo teddinteeɗo.

Pullo ina haɓɓii e jawdi mum, ina waɗɗii mo anndude ndi, o faama kala maale kalhaldi maa kuunaali yummaawe nayi. Reenata ngal ganndal ko mawɗo ganndiraaɗo «Arɗo», ganndal keɓangal e ɗanle. Ɗum tagi, ɗannanaade ganndal ko huunde waɗɗiinde kala ɓiɗɗo Pullo.

Nguurndam Pullo fof fawii ko e Pulaagu mum. Ko ardii fof, Pulaagu ko darnde hollitoore sifaa Pullo, sifaa taƴtoowo keeri lesɗe e mbayligaaji nguurndam makko. Eɗen mbaawi wiyde Pulaagu ko neesu nehooɓe jawdi. Pulaagu noddi ko jikku, noddi ko muñal, ballowal roondaade kala caɗeele keɓtotooɗe. Pulaagu noddi kadi ko salaade semteende, wonde jankiniiɗo, teddinoowo hay gaño mum. Pulaagu noddi e wattan ko hakkille, deentotooɗo, jamyamo, moƴƴo, jaajɗo. Oo jikku waɗi Pullo jaggireede neɗɗo nuggaro, mo heewaani hollirde ko woni e ɓernde mum.

Ndeke noon ko oo jikku yalti e kaatane  Teddungal e Ganndal e Dañal. Reenata «Teddungal» e «Ganndal» ko «Dañal». Pullo mo alaa jawdi, pulaagu mum ina ŋakki. Pullo ko neɗɗo mo yiɗaa fawaade e yimɓe woɗɓe, hay ko fayti e nguura mum.

Yoorooji jolɗi tuggi kitaale 1970, kam e caɗeele kuule nderndere lesɗe uujo, addani nguumdam Fulɓe waylaade. Ɓe ngonti yimɓe nder gure, kono ɗum ittaani muuyaaɗe maɓɓe yiɗde ɗannaade.

Kucce fergooji Fulɓe

En njiyii uujooji Fulɓe pawii ko e ñaamdu jawɗeele maɓɓe. Ko Arɗo yamirta nde eggatee e to tiindatee. Ko e oo yah-ngartaa Fulɓe carii nder jeejegol Saahal fof, gila Fiiltiingo Atalantik haa Geej Bodeejo.

Fergo Fulɓe ɓurngo teskinde wattano, joli ko hakkunde teeminande 16ɓiire e 20siire. Diine lislaam addani Fulɓe diƴde e nder gure cahe. Ɓe ndaranii yaajnude diine Lislaam nder kareeli Jihaadi. Ɗum jibini laamateeɗi kesi ko wayi no dowla Diina mo Usmaan Dan Fojjoo to rewo Niijeriyaa, dowla Laamiiɗo to rewo Kamruun, laamaandi Maasina e laamaandi Tekuruurnaaɓe to Hamdallaay, nder leydi Mali, dowlaaji Almameeɓe to Fuuta Jaloŋ e to Fuuta Tooro, dowlaaji lislameeji to Gaabu, ekn.

Kalifaandi koloñaal ari. Jeytaare refti heen. Ɗum jibini fergooji kesi. Pullo nattii yiylaade ɗo jawɗeele mum ndañi ko ñaami. E nder kitaale 1970, durnatnooɓe mbaɗti sooraade «leyɗeele dunli » kam e duuɗe keddiiɗe, ko jiydaa e Afirik tan.

Hannde o, Fulɓe ina tawee e nder winndere hee kala, aɓe njiyloyoo ganndal maa dañal. Ɗum jibini «ferannde faggudu» kam e «ferannde ganndal » Fulɓe ɓe. Ɗii mbaydiiji ɗiɗi uujooji ina tawee nder Afirik e nder Orop e nder Amerik e nder Asi.

  • Nder lesde Afirik

Nder Afirik Hakkundeejo, Fulɓe ummiiɓe Afirik Hirnaange ina tawee :

– to Gabon haa teeŋti e wuro Liberwiil kam e Poor Sentiiy

– to Kamruun, haa teeŋti e sahre Duwala

– to Santaarafirik, haa teeŋti e cahe Banngi, e Buwaar, e Karno, e Berberati

– to Konngo, haa teeŋti e Barasawiil e Ponte Nuwaar

– to Konngo RDC, haa teeŋti Kinshasa.

Fulɓe ummiiɓe Afirik Hirnaange wonɓe e leyɗeele, ɓuri daranaade ko njeeygu e njulaagu kaŋŋe. Kamɓe e koye maɓɓe aɓe ngasoya kaŋŋe, so ɗum alaa ɓe ngona hakkunde asooɓe e soodooɓe jooɗiiɓe Afirik Worgo e Belsik.

Aɓe njokkondiri hakkunde maɓɓe nder pelle «jokkere enɗam», ballooje yimɓe sokluɓe : ñawɓe maa ɓe caɗeele keɓtii, hoɗɓe arɓe, ekn… Fulɓe Gabon ummiiɓe Mali e Gine e Muritani e Senegaal, ko yeru ceedtinɗo. Aɓe keewi bismaade naalankooɓe Fulɓe ngam wuurtinde pinal maɓɓe e coñce maɓɓe.

  • Nder lesɗe aarabeeɓe e ɗe Asi

Naatde ɓe law e diine Lislaam addani Fulɓe jotondirde law e lesɗe Aarabeebe, teeŋti e leydi Misira, ɓe njahi toon janngoyde maa jannginoyde. Hannde o, Fulɓe ina toon njanngina nder duɗe toowɗe bayɗe no Al-Azhaar to sahre Misira (Al-jaahira), kam e duɗe diine lislaam goɗɗe to Riyaad e to Makka.

Ndeke ɗo ko « ferannde ganndal ».

To lesdi Libi e to lesɗe Toggere (Golfe), Fulɓe toon ko «feranɓe faggudu» doganɓe « pétrodollar », e gollaade ko e ko wayi no «polis» e «duwaañ», aɓe ngona kadi gollooɓe nder galleeji. Woɗɓe ngontii toon julaaɓe.

Aɓe ndenti ɗo kadi nder pelle pine e jokkere enɗam. Yeru mum ko Fedde Jaŋde e Pinal to lesdi Koweyti.

To Asi hirnaange-worgo, Fulɓe toon njahri ko njulaagu e jaŋde. Ɓe ɓuri hirjude ko to lesdi Maleesi e to Indoneesi. To Maleesi, ɓe cosii toon fedde ina wiyee Fedde Jokkere Enɗam.

  • Nder lesɗe Orop e ɗe Amerika

Ɗannagol feewde leyɗeele Orop fuɗɗii ko nde kalifaandi maɓɓe e lesɗe natti. Janngooɓe Fulɓe ɗannanii leydi Farayse e Purtugaal e Engele. Lesɗe Afirik biyetenenooɗe ngenndiyankooje ko wayi no Mali e Gine Konaakiri e Gine Bisaaw neldi janngooɓe nder lesɗeele Orop Fuɗnaange, hono URSS, Poloñ, Rumaani e RDA, ekn…

Nde «Ɓalal Berlin» yani, winndere wonti senngo wooto, geɗe karallaagal e faggudu udditi dame lesɗeele hoore-jawdiije, ko wayi no USA e Kanada. Hannde o, annduɓe mawɓe Fulɓe ina njannga, ina njanngina, nder duɗe maɓɓe toowɗe.

 

Kuɗol  : Aamadu Malal GEY e

Aamadu Abdul SIH

Duɗal Panos Afrik Hirnaange, Catal Rajo

JASPORAA FULƁE, RENNDO JAAMBUREEWO

«JASPORAA» FULƁE : Mbaydiiji ceertuɗi uujooji Fulɓe

Ñalnde 13 e 14 lewru ut 2003