Nguurndam e maayde ɗemɗe (1)

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Maayde ɗemɗe wonaa huunde hesere. E nder duuɓi 5 000 ɓennuɗi ɗii, fotde 30 000 ɗemngal njibinaama, maayii, majjii menndeŋ. Ɗum ɓeydiima no feewi gila tuubakooɓe mbaɗti yahde ina kalfa leyɗe goɗɗe e leƴƴi goɗɗi. E nder Afrik, fotde 200 ɗemngal ina ngoodi, tawi haalooɓe heen gootal kala ɓuraani 500 neɗɗo.

Maayde ɗemɗe wonaa huunde hesere. E nder duuɓi 5 000 ɓennuɗi ɗii, fotde 30 000 ɗemngal njibinaama, maayii, majjii menndeŋ. Ɗum ɓeydiima no feewi gila tuubakooɓe mbaɗti yahde ina kalfa leyɗe goɗɗe e leƴƴi goɗɗi. E nder Afrik, fotde 200 ɗemngal ina ngoodi, tawi haalooɓe heen gootal kala ɓuraani 500 neɗɗo.

E miijo ɗemɗiyanke faraysenaajo biyeteeɗo Claude Hagège, balɗe 15 kala, ɗemngal ina maaya e winndere ndee, woni 25 ɗemngal ina maaya hitaande kala. Ndeke, so alaa ko waɗaa, feccere e ɗemɗe winndere ndee ko nattooje huutoreede (maayooje), ɗoo e duuɓi teemedere. Hol barhoore oo ? Barhoore ɓurɗo teeŋtude oo ko ƴellitaare hulɓiniinde kuutorɗe kumpital, ina jeyaa heen internet e telefoŋaaji portaabe ekn … Barhoore ɗiɗmo oo, ko ɗemɗe mawɗe «moɗooje » tokoose ɗee, ko wayi no Engele e ɗemɗe mawɗe goɗɗe.

Yeru, e nder Afrik, ɗemɗe keewɗe, «dartinooɗe» (walla daɗnooɗe) njiimaandi koloñaal, ngonka mum en hannde moƴƴaani, ɗemɗe mawɗe goɗɗe ina njogori warde ɗum en. Eswaahili (Afrik fuɗnaange) e Pulaar (Afrik hakkundeejo) e Hawsa (to Niiseer e Kamaruun) e Wolof (to Senegaal), ina njeyaa e ɗeen ɗemɗe mawɗe moɗooje keddiiɗe. Ina hiisaa wonde ɗeeɗoo ɗemɗe ɗe kaal-ɗen, ɓurondiraani e Engele e Farayse jaggiraaɗe no ɗemɗe koɗe nii, wonde ɗemɗe « conngooje », nde tawnoo ɗe njeyaa ko e ɗemɗe mawɗe e nder Afrik.

E miijo won ɓeen haralleeɓe, 50% haa 90%  ɗemɗe kaaleteeɗe hannde ɗee ko majjooje menndeŋ ɗoo e duuɓi teemedere paaɗi, woni fotde 3 000 haa 4 000 ɗemngal. Won wiɗto Unesco (fuɗɗanongo e 2007, joofngo e 2002) holliti wonde, ko famɗi fof, 5 500 ɗemngal nder 6 000 ɗemɗe goodɗe hannde ɗee, ko majjooje ɗoo e teeminannde, ɗum woni 90% ɗemɗe winndere ɗee. Musiiba mawɗo, «warhoore» kulɓiniiɗo, e miijo Unesco.

Sababuuji maayde ɗemɗe

Ɗemngal heewi hiiseede «naatii kallulahaa» ko e ɗiiɗoo sifaaji : so nattii layde, so nattii huutoreede e nguurndam yimɓe, so nattii huutoreede to bannge njulaagu, walla so nattii heewde haalooɓe. Ina hiisee wonde ɗemngal waawaa wuurde so tawii, ko famɗi fof, jogaaki 100 000 kaaloowo. Ndaa noon, feccere e 6 700 ɗemɗe goodɗe e winndere ndee hannde, njogaaki ko ɓuri 10 000 kaaloowo.

Sababuuji majjugol ɗemngal ina keewi, tee ina metti faamde, kono yoga e majji ina njotondiri e laygol, walla e geɗe koninkaagu,maa keeweendi haalooɓe, walla ngonka to bannge nokku, faggudu, politik walla pinal. Ɗee geɗe kala ina naat-naattondira, tawa newaaki anndude hol heen geɗal ɓurngal teeŋtude.

– Sababuuji koninkaagu : Ina waawi wonde poolgu walla warngooji yimɓe haalatnooɓe ɗemngal. Woni mumtugol haalatnooɓe ɗemngal fof. Ɗum meeɗii waɗde e winndere ndee. Walla foolɓe e wolde ɓee mbaawna ɗemngal mum en, walla ɗemngal mum en yooloo e nder ɗemɗe leƴƴi poolaaɗi ɗii so tawii ko kam en ɓuri yaajde e wuurde ; alaa no wayataa.

– Famɗude haalooɓe : Heewde haalooɓe, ina hokka ɗemngal doole, ko noon, famɗude haalooɓe ina usta doole ɗemngal. Yiyaama ɗo ɗemɗe majji sabu haalatnooɓe ɗum en fof maayii. Hannde ina woodi ɗemɗe ɗe njogaaki ko ɓuri haalooɓe 5 walla 10 walla 20 jogiiɓe ko ɓuri duuɓi 50. Kono tan, « leeɓol siraaɗi » ngol ko jogaade ko famɗi fof 100 000 haalooɓe. Ina waɗi ko luulndii ɗum, ɗo ɗemngal ngal heewaani haalooɓe wuurata ko juuti, so tawii yimɓe mum ko moɓɓolde joñiinde, yeru e nder dunli walla e kaaƴe walla e duuɗe … hisa e bone ɗemɗe mawɗe goɗɗe… E aduna hannde oo noon, ɗuum nattii aaɓnaade, sibu alaa nokku baawɗo joñaade hannde.

E sifaa kuɓtodinɗo, ɗemngal ina maaya so nattii heewde haalooɓe ɗum ngam humtude haajuuji aduna, walla so tawii haalatnooɓe ɗum ɓee njaɓii walla cuɓiima woppude ɗum e waasde ronnude ɗum ɓesnguuji mum en. Ɗemngal noon so maayii, ko baasal mawngal wonande wiindere ndee, nde tawnoo ɗemngal kala ina soomi fannuuji nguurndam, ɗum woni sifaa keeriiɗo laynugol ganndal.

Ina jeyaa e ko ɓuri bonde e ɗemngal pamaral, saraade haaloɓe ɗum e nder wertallo yaajngo, sibu ngaal ɗemngal alaa no waawi haɓtoraade ɗemɗe jaajɗe.

Ina jeyaa heen kadi uujooji, ɗo ɗemɗe koɗe arɓe ɓee ɓurtotoo ɗe tawaaɓe ɓee, doole ; walla e dewle hakkunde ɓe njiidaa leƴƴi e ustagol jibingol.

– Ngonka renndo e faggudu : ɗemngal ina waawi kadi waaltaade walla semmbolinde sabu coftal haalooɓe ɗum to bannge renndo e faggudu. So tawii ɗemngal waawaa wuurnude walla lamminde haalooɓe ɗum, walla rokkude haalooɓe ɗum ɓee hay faayiida gooto walla faaro wooto, ngaal ɗemngal, battane mum tan ko woppeede. Nafoore faggudu noon (ko won heen mbiyata « neyɓingol bool ») ina waawi addande leñol woppude ɗemngal mum.

– Doole politik : ina jeyaa e ɗemɗe parwuɗe, ɗemɗe ɗe laamaaki : ɗe ngardaaki dowla walla guwarnama, walla ɗe ngalaa hay diiwaan mo keerorii … Yoga e ɗemɗe winndere ndee noon ko e ooɗoo sifaa ngoni. Ɗemngal ngal laamaaki ina famɗi kaɓtorɗe so waɗdaama e ɗemɗe mawɗe, ƴaañiiɗe e doole laamu. Ɗe keewi ko duuñeede, ɗe natta huutoreede so wonaa e nguurndam keeriɗam : diine walla nder galle walla e ndema ekn, hay so tawii noon ko ɗemɗe ɓooyɗe … Laamu ina waawi nii haɓaade won ɗiin leƴƴi, yeru berbeer en to Alaseri walla Kurde en to Irak, Turki e Iraan…

Laamu ina waawi boom yaɓɓude ɗemngal doolnungal, teetta ɗum mbaawkaaji mum haa laaɓa, waawna ɗemngal ngal welaa, hay so wonaa ɗemngal jaajngal : ɗuum yiyaama e winndere ndee nde tuubaako Farayse biyeteeɗo Guillaume le Conquérant heɓti Angalteer, jiimi ɗum (teem XI), ƴetti Farayse fawi dow Engele : hankadi, fotde duuɓi 300 caggal ɗuum, kala tinɗo hoore mum ko Farayse haalata, Farayse winndata, haalata Engele tan ko yimɓe jiimaaɓe ɓee. Engele naatti e parlamaan ko e hitaande 1363.

Ndeke, golwole e laamu so njantondirii, ina mbaawi jogaade batte teeŋtuɗe e nguurndam ɗemngal. Ɗum ɓuri heewde fof ko e maayirɗe teel XXe, ɗo ɗemngal laamiiɓe jiimi ɓurngal keeweendi : « Sinuwaa to Taywaan, Saafaan to Inndonosi, Afaar to Jibuti, Eswaahili to Konngo, Bemmba to Sammbi, Mosi to Burkinaa, Pulaar to Gammbi ekn … E nder ɗee leyɗe kala ko ɗemngal tokosal walla koɗal jiimi. E nder yoga e leyɗe laamuuji ɗii mballitta ko ɗemɗe koloñaal walla ɗemngal tokosal laamiiɓe ɓee. Ɗum ko seede batte laamu e nguurndam ɗemngal. »

Ko ɗum tagi ɗemɗe ɗe ngonaani e laamu (ɗemɗe laawɗinaaɗe, ɗemɗe jaŋde e njuɓɓudi laamu) ina parwi no feewi, haa teeŋti noon so tawii ko laamuuji doolnuɗi, ɗi njaɓataa renndeede mbaawka (Farayse, Angalteer, Siin, Inndonoosi, ekn). E nder ɗee leyɗe, dowlaaji ɗii coklaani nii mumtude ɗemɗe tokoose ɗee, ko kañje e koye majje ɗaccittoo, sibu ɗe ngalaa hattan dartaade.

– Njiimaandi pinal

Ko njiimaandi ɗemngal e fannuuji keewɗi haa arti e faggudu e geɗe pinal goɗɗe, tuggi ekkol haa yettii geɗe karallaagal, ko wayi no sinemaa e rajo e tele e informatik. Ɗemɗe jiimaaɗe ɗee, ɗe tawetaake hay e janngirɗe laamu, ngalaa no ndartorii. So tawii ɗemɗe ɗe njanngetaake e ekkol ko parwuɗe, alaa ko haali ɗemɗe ɗe mbinndaaka. Ko noon kadi, hay so tawii ɗemngal ina winndaa, so ko yeñtinta to bannge pinal ina famɗi, ngaal ɗemngal alaa ko nafata : yeru, « remooɓe wambarankooɓe to Mali jannginteeɓe Bammbara, ngalaa defte walla jaayɗe e nder deftorɗi walla nokkuuji jeeyirɗi jaayɗe, nii woni ɓe keɓataa hay kabaaru walla humpito wooto e ɗemngal maɓɓe, fof rewrata ko e ɗemngal koloñaal, hono Farayse. Ko ɗumɗoo woni, ɗemngal ngal alaa njeñtudi pinal », binndol maggal alaa nafoore.

« leƴƴi pamari kuutortooɗi no feewi pine goɗɗe, gontata ko jowitiiɗi, leefna ɗemɗe mum en, mballita laygol ɗemɗe cemmbolinɗe. Daartol hollitii wonde ko leƴƴi jogiiɗi tiiɗndi to bannge pinal tan, tiiɗndi tuugiindi e juɓɓule duumiiɗe kam e njuɓɓudi janngirɗe e aadaa binndol tan mbaawi wuurde, hay so tawii noon kalfiraama fetel».

To bannge ɗemɗiyankaagal, so ɗemngal ina maaya, hay tippudi gowlaali mum wonata ko e saayde e ɗemngal jiimngal ngal, hay konnguɗi maggal mbaɗtata ko ñemmbude lelngo kelme ɗemngal jiimngal ngal, kelmeendi mum kadi wona e saayde e ngala. Ɗemngal maayrata ko saayde e ɗemngal jiimngal ngal, gila e celluka mum haa e faayiida mum e ustagol haalooɓe ɗum».

Kono tan, ɗemngal ina seerta e tagooje goɗɗe ɗee, sibu ɗemngal ina waawi wuurtude, fof fawii ko e mbayliigaaji renndo.

Yeruuji mum ina ngoodi, ɗo ɗemngal pamaral moɗi ɗemngal mawngal. Yeru, e teeminannde VIIIɓiire, ɗemngal Wiking en (Viking en) ɗeɓii warde Engele, sibu ɓeen keddoranoo ko golwole seeɗa ngam muumtude haa laaɓa leñol Anglo-Saxons en. Haa e teeminannde XVIIɓiire, Engele ko ɗemngal leefngal wonnoo, tee haralleeɓe heewɓe mbiyiino ko ngal maayowal. Kono hannde, eɗen nganndi ɗo ɗum wattini.

E teeminannde XVIIɓiire, heewɓe kadi ina tijjinoo maayde ɗemngal Farayse to Amerik hirnaange, kono hannde, ɗemngal Farayse ina wuuri toon, ina semmbolini hay sinno ko to Kebek, sibu ngal waawii dartaade njiimaandi Engele. Ɗemngal Farayse jiimii Arab to Alaseri fotde duuɓi 150, kono hannde Farayse ina toon yahra caggal no feewi, banngeeji kala.

Yeru ɓurɗo maantinde ko ɗemngal Hebree (ɗemngal banii israayiil en). Ngal nattiino haaleede gila e teeminannde ɗiɗaɓere, haa yimɓe fof koddiri ko ngal maayngal haa bada. Kono, duuɓi 1 700 caggal ɗuum, ngal wuurtii ha ngal wonti ɗemngal dowla. Hay so tawii noon ko miliyoŋaaji 7 tan kaalata ngal, semmbe maggal ina mawni, alaa ko yoga e ɗemɗe njoganii ngal.

Bookara Aamadu Bah

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  • Aadi men e Umar Mboyna Bah
Mammadu Demmba Sih bisminooma en to rajo Muritani ngam timminde aadi mbaɗduno-ɗen e Umar Mboyna Bah  (Yo Alla yurmo mo, yaafoo mo) ñalnde altine 19 marse 2012. Yarham mum Umar Bah, noddiino mi ñalnde alet 4 mars, ngam bismaade mi e yeewtere maɓɓe wiyeteende tufnde ganndal, fotnoonde yuɓɓineede ñalnde altine, (janngo mum tan). Mbiymoo-mi « ɗum ñoosaaki, Umar ? Mi heblaaki ! » O wiyi mi « Ɗum noon mbaɗten ɗum altine gartoyoowo. Ɗoo e ndeen ; ma mi rew galle.» Mbiy-mi mo « eey, moƴƴii, mbaɗen noon ». Ñalnde alkamiisa 8 mars, Umar Bah fiyi hoore e leydi. Ko ɗum wonnoo aadi oo. Sabaabu bismaango ngoo, ko yiɗnoode yeewtude ko faati e kaabaaru mo ɓe njiynoo e jaaynde wootere, biyɗo wonde « ɗoo e duuɓi 90 so heewii, Pulaar ko ko maayata ». Ɗemngal maayngal noon, ko ɗemngal ngal hay gooto haalataa ɗum e winndere ndee.
Hol miijo men e ɗuum ? Ko idii fof, ko ɗum huunde hulɓiniinde. Ko rewi heen koo, alaa e sago ndutto-ɗen e won ɗeen geɗe cifotooɗe nguurndam ɗemɗe e maayde mum en, hade men haalde ngonka Pulaar hannde, e miijo men e oo kabaaru kulɓiniiɗo.