Nguurndam e maayde ɗemɗe (2)

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Won biɗtoowo gooto wiyi : “Ina waawi, ɗoo e duuɓi teemedere, Pulaar majja menndeŋ”.  Hol miijo men e ɗuum ?  Ko rewi heen koo, alaa e sago ndutto-ɗen e won ɗeen geɗe cifotooɗe nguurndam ɗemɗe e maayde mum en, hade men haalde ngonka Pulaar hannde. Ɗum noon eɗen njokka. Caggal nde njumpu-ɗen e geɗe leefnooje ɗemngal (Fooyre Ɓamtaare 97), naatanen sifaade huunde e geɗe coftinooje walla cemmbinooje ɗemngal …

  • Laygol ɗemɗe

Juutgol balɗe ɗemngal fawii ko e coftal mum, ɗum woni caragol mum e weeyo; e ngol fawii kadi e geɗe goɗɗe, ko wayi no keeweendi haalooɓe ngal kam e renndo maggal.

Hakindo nguurndam ɗemngal ko hakkunde 2 000 haa 5 000 hitaande. Kono, ina waɗi guurooje jo ɓuri ɗoon, yeru e ɗemɗe « yimɓe ladde » to Ostaraali (hakkunde 5 000 e 6 000 hitaande), tawi won heen kadi ɓurataa teeminanɗe seeɗa, yeru e ɗemɗe biyeteeɗe  ‘roman’ walla ‘gotik’ walla ‘dalmat’. Won e ɗemɗe ina njaaji no feewi (engele, farayse, arab, españool) tawi won heen ina ndeestoo walla ngoni ko e majjude.

Ina jeyaa e geɗe ballitooje laygol ɗemngal, keewal yimɓe, geɗe faggudu, koninkooje, pinal e politik.

  • Geɗe jowitiiɗe e yimɓe

Yimɓe ɓuri teeŋtude e geɗe kisnooje walla cemmbinooje ɗemngal. Ɓuri kadi teeŋtude e ngalɗoo geɗal, ko keewal maɓɓe. Kono tan, geɗe goɗɗe ina heen, ko wayi no jeñgol haalooɓe ɓee, ina heen kattanɗe yimɓe mum waawde dolde nattooɓe e mum en kam e caragol ɗemngal ngal.

  • Keewal haalooɓe : Farayse meeɗii wonde ɗemngal gadanal e winndere ndee (tuggi teem XIIɓiire haa XIVɓiire). Oon sahaa, Farayse ɓurnoo leyɗe Orop fof heewde yimɓe. Ko ɗum tagi ngal jokkude e tiimde keddiiɗe ɗee haa e teeminannde XVIIɓiire e XVIIIɓiire. Hannde, ɗemɗe ɓurɗe heewde haalooɓe ko ɗeeɗoo : sinuwaa, rewi heen engele, españool, arab, hinndi, riis, purtugeec, benngaali, almaa, sapponee, farayse.

E nder 6 700 ɗemɗe winndere ndee, ko heen 80 fat njogii ko ɓuri miliyoŋaaji sappo haalooɓe. Ko ɗeen mbiyaten « ɗemɗe doolnuɗe ». Hay so en mbaɗtii heen ɗemɗe jogiiɗe hakkunde miliyoŋ gooto e miliyoŋaaji sappo haalooɓe, « ɗemɗe doolnuɗe ɗee » ɓurataa 225 ɗemngal, woni 3% e nder ɗemɗe winndere ndee. Ɗum firti tan, ko ɓuri heewde e ɗemɗe winndere ndee (97%) ina parwi, ina leefi no feewi.

Ina saɗi ko ɗemngal daɗata so haalooɓe ɗum timmaani miliyoŋ neɗɗo, so wonaa taw ko ɗemngal kidingal no feewi. Ɗemɗe jeetati ɓurɗe hannde heewde haalooɓe e winndere ndee (sinuwaa, españool, engele, arab, benngaali, hinndi, riis) ine tawee e duuɗe ɗee kala, tee, heen gootal kala ina jogii wertallo leydi ɗo ñiɓii haa tiiɗi : sinuwaa nder Asii hakkundeejo, españool e purtugeec to Amerik worgo, engele to Amerik rewo, arab to rewo Afrik e fuɗnaange ɓadiiɗo, españool to Amerik worgo, hinndi e benngaali to duunde inndo, riis to Orop fuɗnaange. E nder ɗemɗe jogiiɗe hakkunde 20 e 150 miliyoŋ haalooɓe ɗee, nay heen ngoni ko Orop (almaa, farayse, itaali, ukiren), gootal woni fuɗnaange ɓadiiɗo e Afrik hirnaange (arab), heen ɗiɗi to Amerik worgo (españool e purtugeec), keddiiɗe ɗee ko Asi ngoni (benngaali, sapponee, wu, sawaane, urdu, peñjaabal, korewal, marati, telugu, tamul, kantonaawal, wietnaamal). Ko engele e españool e farayse tan ngoni kaaleteeɗe e nder duuɗe nay walla joy ɗee.

Doole ɗemngal fawaaki tan e keewal haalooɓe ɗum, sibu so tawiino ko ɗuum tan, maa sinuwaa moɗ demɗe winndere ndee kala ɗoo e yontaaji sappo paaɗi (duuɓi 600 so heewii). Kono geɗe goɗɗe ina ngoodi cemmbinooje ɗemngal.

  • Ina heen coñtugol (jibingol) haalooɓe ɗum ɓee, sibu eɗum ɓeyda walla usta haalooɓe ɗum ɓee. E cappanɗe garooje ɗee, maa doole españool e purtugeec e arab e hinndi (inndo) e swaahili (swaahili) e malee (to Asi) ɓeydo, sibu leƴƴi mum en ina njibina no feewi. Ko noon ɗemɗe goɗɗe ndeestortoo, haa teeŋti noon e engele e Ruus e Almaa e Japponee, sabu leƴƴi mum en famɗude jibingol.
  • Ina jeyaa heen kadi desondiral e leƴƴi goɗɗi. Ɗoo, ɗemngal ɓurngal doole heewi hoonaade.
  • Ina heen kadi yah-ngartaa yimɓe. Ina teskaa, e sahaaji jawtuɗi, ɗum wallitii no feewi won ɗeen ɗemɗe.
  • Caragol ɗemɗe e nder wertallo. Ɗuun kadi ko e geɗe battinooje coftal ɗemɗe. Yeru 300 miliyoŋ neɗɗo haalooɓe ɗemngal gootal so ngonii e nokku gooto, jiydaa e so carondirii e leyɗe keewɗe tawi pamɗaani. Caragol ɗemngal e nder wertallo yaajngo ko huunde semmbinoore ɗemngal tan, ɓeyda daraja mum. Yeru, miliyaar neɗɗo ina haala hannde sinuwaa, kono haɗaani ɗemngal engele (330 miliyoŋ kaaloowo) ɓurde ɗum daraja, sabu mum saraade e nder 57 dowla walla farayse (75 miliyoŋ kaaloowo) kaaleteeɗo e 37 dowla. Kono tan caakagol, woni caragol galbungol, moƴƴaani e ɗemngal, ina waawi nii warde ɗum.
  • Teeru kadi ina wallita laygol ɗemɗe mawnooje, ina yaawna kadi majjugol ɗemɗe leeftooje. Sababuuji majjum ina keewi. Ko idii fof teeru ko nokku pinal ɗo yoga e janngirɗe tawetee, nokku foksineeruuji… Ko ɗoon jaayɗe binndeteeɗe ngoni, teleeji ngoni, deftorɗi ekn…. Teeru ko nokku faggudu caroowu ɗemngal sabu gostondire, ɗo leƴƴi kadi ngoogondirta, nganndondira… So yimɓe ina keewi haalde ɗemngal koɗdingal e nder ladde, ko e teeru yimɓe ɓurata yaawde haalde ɗemngal ngenndiwal, ɗemngal koɗal.
  • Geɗe faggudu e bayle mum en Doole ɗemngal to bannge faggudu ina ɓetiree bayle keewɗe, ko wayi no njeñtudi mbaylaandi, walla tolno to karallaagal, walla gostondire hakkunde leyɗe… Hedde kitaale 1 200 ko adii yonta men oo, ko leñol biyeteengol Fenisinaaɓe joginoo njulaagu e nder Mediteraane (diiwaan Orop hirnaange), ɗum addaanoo ɗemngal maɓɓe jiimde keddiiɗe ɗee duuɓi teemedde. Gerek en ƴettiti binndol maɓɓe, ndonni ɗum Romee en ; ko ɗiin binndi njibini feccere binndi ɗi winndere ndee huutortoo hannde ɗii.
  • Geɗe koninkaagu : Kooninke Faraysenaajo gooto, meeɗii wiyde : « Ɗemngal, ko calsaltiri njogiindi konu, e laaɗe hare ndiyam e diwooje ». E ko tabiti, ko ɓuri heewde e ɗemɗe keɓiri faayiida ko njiimaandi koninkaagu…

Doole koninkooje ɓooyɗe : Ko njiimaandi Romee en e dow leƴƴi keddiiɗi ɗii, hokki ɗemɗe caltuɗe e Romee ɗee (Farayse, Españool ekn) doole. Fellannde diine Lislaam e teem VIIɓiire addani aarabeeɓe Afrik hirnaange e huunde e Espaañ e Arabi e Siiri e Mesopotaami e Perse e Misra en, waawnude ɗemngal Arab e ɗiin diiwanuuji kala haa e ooɗoo sahaa (so wonaa e Espaañ). Njiimaandi leñol Han en to Siin (gila 206 ko adii Iisaa haa 220 caggal Iisaa) addani ɗemngal sinuwaa jaalaade e nder diiwanuuji Manndsuri e Tibee e Monngoli e Turkestaan… Ko noon kadi Españool en e Purtugeec en e Faraysnaaɓe e Hollanndee en mbaawniri ɗemɗe mum en e duuɗe joy winndere ɗee hakkunde teem XVIɓiire e XIXɓiire, haa arti noon to Amerik e Oseyaani e Afrik. (…) Ko noon kadi paamraten ko addani doole Engele ɓeydaade, sibu ko kanngal wonnoo ɗemngal leyɗe poolnooɗe e hare adunankoore ɗiɗmere, ɓurngal yaajde, haa teeŋti noon to Asii e Oseyaani.

Ɗum addaannoo binndoowo gooto Alserinaajo biyeteeɗo Kateb Yaasin wiyde, e nder yeewtere waɗdunoo e jaaynde Jeune Afrique (1983): “Waɗi mi winndude e Farayse ko sabu Farayse heɓtude leydi am, jooɗorii doole, haa wonti ko maa mbinndaa e Farayse nde nguuraa. Kono hay so mi winndii e Farayse, ɗaɗi am Arab e Berbeer ɗii ina nguuri tawo. Luure e pelɓondire ina ngoodi hakkunde leƴƴi ɗii. Pelɓondiral ɓesngu Alseri e ɓesngu Farayse, ko pelɓondiral njogitaaje, pelɓondiral ƴiiƴam, pelɓondiral yimɓe e pine, tee ko ɗum ɓurnoo teeŋtude. Yah-ngartaa fof, ko ɓurnoo himmude e jotondire hakkunde Alserinaaɓe e Faraysenaaɓe caggal wolde duuɓi 130, ko pelɓondiral hakkunde yimɓe, rewrude e ɗemngal ».

Kono tan doole koninkaagu njonaani e ƴellitagol ɗemngal dow goɗɗe ɗee. Ko maa geɗe keewɗe ngarda, hono keeweendi haalooɓe e faggudu e koninkaagu e pinal nde ɗemngal waawa ɓamtaade no haanirta nii. Ɗum ina faamna en doole Farayse hannde, walla doole ɗemngal engele, keedngal yeeso ɗemɗe ɗee fof.

  • Pinal: Doole pinal ɗemngal jeyaa ko geɗe baawɗe softinde ɗemngal. Yeru gerek e latin cariima e nder leyɗe hirnaange sabu mum en wonnoode ɗemɗe pinal teeminanɗe keewɗe, hay nde ɗe natti heewde haalooɓe ndee, ɗe natti semmbolinde to bannge konu e faggudu ndee.

Ɗemɗiyankooɓe ina kiisii cañagol ɗemngal e limooje defte binndaaɗe e mum, e limooje binndanɗe ganndal e jaayɗe binndaaɗe, e sinemaa, kam e keewal rajooji e teleeji njeyaa ko e geɗe ciirɗe baawɗe semmbinde ɗemngal. Pinal ina heɓoroo gaaci e ñeeñe e ndefu ekn… kono ɗee geɗe ina pamɗi ko mbattinta e laygol ɗemngal. Ko ɗum tagi, ɓuri heewde nafoore ko nangtaade e daabaaji ɗemngal ɗi ngalaa jeddi, hono binndaaɗe (coñce e ganndal e kuutorɗe e jaayɗe ekn…).

Hannde, ɗemɗiyankooɓe ina ɗeɓi yenaneede wonde ko ɗemɗe binndaaɗe ɗee tan (ɗe ndiwaani teemedere) mbaawi teeɗanaade ƴellitaare pinal faayodinnde.

  • Ɗemɗe e yonta Internet :

Annduɓe ina cikki, e aduna men hannde oo, kala ɗemngal ngal huutortaake e internet, ko ɗawangal e njulaagu, kono kadi, ko joñangal, walla mbiyen tan ngaal ɗemngal woodaani. Ina haaɓnii tan ko ɗemngal baangal no Arab nii mawnude (200 miliyoŋ) e hinndi (182 miliyoŋ) mbayi nii leefde e nder internet.

E darorɗe kitaale 2 000 ko hedde 500 miliyoŋ neɗɗo kuutortonoo telefoŋ portaabal, 250 neɗɗo kuutotonoo internet. Hannde, huutortooɓe internet ɓurii miliyaaruuji ɗiɗi (gila oktoobar 2010). Telefoŋaaji portaabe kuutorteeɗi ɓurii miliyaaruuji 5 (aɗa tawa neɗɗo gooto ina jogii telefoŋaaji ɗiɗi haa tati walla ko ɓuri ɗuum). E ɗiiɗoo fannuuji ɗiɗi kala, ko Afrik heedi caggal. Ɗum ɗoon ndeke, maa battinoy, so jokkirii nii, e ɗemɗe afriknaaɓe.  Hannde, denndaangal kabaruuji toɗɗiiɗi geɗe nguurndam ndewrata (binndi, nate, dille …) ko e internet walla e kuutorɗe ciindeteeɗe. Kala ɗemngal ngal alaa e internet wayi ko no woodaani nii.  Jaŋde laamu e hare humambinnagu, tolno jaŋde renndo, ko ɓetirgal tolno mum pinal e ƴellitaare renndo e faggudu teeŋtunde no feewi. Ko ɗum tagi majjere e leefre jaŋde ina jibina baasal e leefre to bannge faggudu e pinal. So renndo siforiima noon, yaltinde ɗum heen ina hitti no feewi. Ŋakkere jaŋde (jaŋde sukaaɓe) e humabinnaagu ina mboni e ɗemngal kadi. Eɗen mbaawi wiyde boom, leyɗe doŋkuɗe jannginde yimɓe mum en, maa teppu ƴellitaare ɗemɗe mum en. Ɗumɗoo ina toɗɗii yoga e ɗemɗe Afrik. Ƴellitaare pinal ɗemngal ina jotondiri no feewi e ɓamtaare faggudu. Ko noon paamraten doole ɗemɗe leyɗe hirnaange hannde. Leefre faggudu ina leefna hay pinal ɗemɗe mawɗe ; yeru, arab e hiindi e purtugeec ekn … Kono ɗum ɓuri fof teeŋtude ko e Asii e Afrik. Ko ɗemɗe leyɗe galɗuɗe, doolnuɗe, kuutortee hannde ngam sarde ganndal e winndere ndee. Kala jiɗɗo janngude ɗemngal ɗiɗmal, suɓotoo ko ɗemngal ngal waawi heɓirde binndanɗe keewɗe, ina hasii ɓe cuɓoo engele walla farayse, walla riis walla almaa, ɗum ɗoon kadi wallita ko ɗeen ɗemɗe doolnunooɗe.

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Fotde 700 000 deftere ina muulee hitaande kala e winndere ndee. Kono ko ɗemɗe 30 fat (e nder 6 700 ɗemɗe winndere ndee) njaltinta ko famɗi fof 1 000 deftere e nder hitaande. Heen 2/3 ko e ɗemɗe jeegom fat peeñata, hono engele e Ruus e Almaa e farayse e españool e sapponee. Won e geɗe kadi ina kaawnii : gootal e ɗemɗe eskanndinaafi ɗee kala (Suednaawal, danuwaawal, norweesnaawal e finneewal) foti e leyɗe 20 aarabeeje fof so ndentii, ko njaltinta e defte e hitaande kala. Ko kebeknaajo kaaloowo farayse winndita e hitaande koo, ina sowoo laabi 30 ko aarabe winndata e oon dumunna gooto.  To bannge binndaaɗe ganndal winndere no woorunoo, heen 95% ko e engele e ruus e sapponee e españool e farayse e sinuwaa njaltata. Kono ɗemɗe ɗee kala ina ndeestoo so ƴeewdaama e engele. Hay farayse yahrii ɗoo caggal sibu tataɓal e wiɗtooɓe faraysenaaɓe mbayyinta njeñtudi njiylawu mum en ko e engele. Ɗum noon to bannge gannde, engele nana moɗa ɗemɗe ɗee kala.

Bookara Aamadu Bah

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