Jubbannde e kuulal paatungal e njiyaagu e nder leydi Muritani

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Na jeyaa e ngoƴaayi dowrowi rendo men, ɗii duuɓi kala, teeŋti nde demokaraasi sompaa, yuurnitaade gonka men e macungaagal, ɗoofde ɗum, kam e ñawndude ñawanɗe men.

Kandidaaji wooteji gardagol leydi men, kam e partiiji politik e ɓesngu men kala nanondiriino heen. Eɗen poti yettude ɓe kamɓe kala, kaɗdi njettoor. Maa won wiyɓe, baɗɗo fotde mum jaraani na mantee.

 

Na jeyaa e ngoƴaayi dowrowi rendo men, ɗii duuɓi kala, teeŋti nde demokaraasi sompaa, yuurnitaade gonka men e macungaagal, ɗoofde ɗum, kam e ñawndude ñawanɗe men.

Kandidaaji wooteji gardagol leydi men, kam e partiiji politik e ɓesngu men kala nanondiriino heen. Eɗen poti yettude ɓe kamɓe kala, kaɗdi njettoor. Maa won wiyɓe, baɗɗo fotde mum jaraani na mantee.

Kono hannde, nde wonnoo aadiyankooɓe na caɗti, keddiiɗo e aadi nafoowo ɓesngu kala, ne haandi e maanteede, kaɗdi maanoore.

Faandaare men e binndi paaɗi ɗi ko jubbude, hay sinno ko seeɗa nafoowo, e ngonka macungaagal e nder Moritani, njuurno-ɗen leñol kala no woori.

KO WONI NJIYAAGU, NA MOƳƳA NANONDIREE, TAWA ALAA FAAYOORE

So macungaagal haalaama, ne noddi alluuje ɗiɗi. Ɓee paandii heen ko macungaagal e mbaadi mum ngaadanteeri, no woorunoo hanki e hecci hanki e renndo men, kam e batte mum hannde, e jamaanu mo gon-ɗen o. Woɗɓe cooynii heen ko macungaagal e mbaadi mum kesiri : wonii liggotooɓe tawa njoɓaaka hakke mum en, wonii rewɓe e sukaaɓe honeteeɓe nawee leyɗeele goɗɗuɗe, na pijiree, na lorlee e geɗe kaaɓniiɗe – tawa faltaaki no fagguru aadorii. Liggotooɓe laddeeji tuulaa heelaa to Beresiil tawa cerɗi petelaaji ne tukkaa e mum en, wiyeteeɓe be «Ɓe memetaake»  e to Inndo, ɓeen fof ne limtee heen.

E nder ndee jubbannde noon, kaaɗa ten ko e njiyaagu ngu mbaadi ngaadanteeri.

WIƊTOBE, LEYƊEELE ADUNA OO KALA NA PAAMONDIRI E KO WONI NJIYAAGU

Wiɗtooɓe aduna oo kala, Afrik e leyɗeele ɗe kala, ne paamondiri e ko woni macungaagal. So en tonngii, en ciggii, ko nii ɗum lelorii :

Macungaagal fawii ko e nguurndam jiyaaɗo, hono liggotooɗo mo ngandu-ɗaa wonaa dimo, mo liggey mum alaa njoɓdi, tawa to bannge sariya ko jeyi neɗɗo goɗɗo, tawa oon jeyɗo oon maccuɗo ne waawi yeeyde ɗum, no kala geɗel limtateengel e jeyi mum. Njiyaagu ko ɗamaawu kuuptodinɗo jowiiɗo e kiiɗal innama aadee e dow macungaagal, woni ko cifi-ɗen ko.

Ɗum firti ndeke ko maccuɗo, tawde jeyaa ko jeyi, ne soodee, ne yeeyee, ne juknee, ne luɓree, ne ronondiree. Won e renndooji ɓurɗi sanndolinde, kaliifa ne wara maccuɗo mum tawa alaa rewam.

Kono, nde wonno macungaagal ne roondi baasal mawngal, ne gasa wooda jaawondirɓe maccuɓe e reemooɓe rimɓe ɓe baasal mumen alaa ɗo haaɗi. Ɗum fof e wayde noon ne addana mo reentaaki, jaawondirde jamanuuji ceertuɗi, hono njiyaagu e jaanduyaagal.

MO YUURNI JEYI LEYDI E JEYI JAWDI NDARIINDI, JAAWONDIRTAA NJIYAAGU E JAMAANU JAANDU

Maccuɓe e remnatooɓe waasɓe ngonaa gootum, hay sinno baasal mum en woɗɗondiraani.

Hol ko seerndi ɓe ?

Maccuɗo, e jamaanu njiyaagu, hay sinno tottaama hettere leydi yo rem, ko soñi fof ko kaliifa mum jeyi. Kaliifa ɓoftata coñal maccuɗo mum, yeɗa ɗum heen ko welaa, ko ngandu-ɗaa, e dow hiisa mum, ne wallita maccuɗo no ndiwniri ɓesngu, tawa diwataa ɗoon.

Noddirteeɓe maccuɓe e jamaamu jaanduuyaagal, fawii e mum ko asakal. Asakal hiisortee ko sappoɓal coñal. Oon noddirteeɗo maccuɗo, ko heddii e coñal mum kala, kañum jeyi, huutiroo no weliraa. So yiɗii yeeya, ñaama ; so yiɗii yeeya heen naftoroo, so yiɗii rokka heen, ekn.

Waɗde jamanuuji ɗi na ceerti ne feewi. E jamaanu njiyaagu, maccuɗo e coñal mum ko jeyi kaliifa mum. Noon ngooroondi fagguru woori e nder oon jamaanu. E nder jamaanu jaanduuji, biyateeɗo maccuɗo o, ko asakal tan fawii ɗum, ko heddii e coñal mum kañum fandinta. Ɗum firti noon, hay sinno won heddoriiɓe wiyeede maccuɓe, mbaydi fagguru wayliima, nattii yowitaade e maccungaagal.

Ittataa, innde maccuɗo ne heddii, won innirteeɓe maccuɓe to bannge renndo, ne ndawa dawi, ne noottoo kewuuji, keedta e hirsude, huttude, ndefde, feccude, sarwude, kono nattii wonde maccuɓe to bannge fagguru. Tawaa joom mum ko foksineer, walla ne liggoo na yoɓee. Won e maɓɓe faarnortooɓe ɗum, won naftortooɓe ɗum, won saltiiɓe ɗum…

Nganndataa en potaani jaawondirde jamanuuji macungaagal e jaanduyaagal, ko so en keɗtiima koɗoowo men ŋanaa, hono Saydu Bah, omo wiya : “Macungal jeyaa, macungel jeyaa, tebbita hutta ɓiɗta jeyaa, duñee deppoo e coowondiri jeyaa, jeyi ɗo ko jaati hootonnde, wonaa jaati haatannde”.

Addi ɗum ko wonnooɓe maccuɓe e jamaanu Satigeeɓe Deeniyankooɓe (1512–1776), ngonka nder mum en wayliima haa wooroo. Ɓee na keddii e baasal, hay sinno no mbiyru-ɗen nii, fagguru e ngooroondi renndo nattii fawaade e macungaagal. Kamɓe e waasɓe, mbappitii keeweendi.

Won e maccuɓe noon ngontii jaagaraafeeji e jamaanu Almameeɓe. Ɓe kalfinaama kolaaɗe, e dow wonde ɓe hoolaaɓe Almameeɓe Tooroɓɓe, walla hoolaaɓe jagge mawɗe hono jaagorɗe Fuuta. Ndutto-ɗen e Taariik seeɗa.

Fuutankooɓe na nganndi ɗo jeyi leydi tolnii e rendo men, teeŋti noon pooɗe e waalo.

Nde laamu Almameeɓe sompaa, ko ɓe ngidii yaaɓande ko feccitaade leydi waalo. Adii fof ko Almaami Abdul Ŋaadiri Kan mo laamu mum duumii duuɓi cappanɗe tati. Mawɓe Futankooɓe ne ciftora no o yeɗirnoo leydi, dowlirɗo e maɓɓe ko : « feccere Fuuta ».  Caggal makko, yeɗi leydi haa ɗum maantini, hay sinno ne woɗɗi «feccere Fuuta» ko Almaami Yuusuf Siree Lih e Almaami Mammadu Biraan Wan. Won Almameeɓe ndokki leydi caggal maɓɓe kono ɗum waylaani jeyi leydi haa maantaa.

E jamaanu Almameeɓe, won e jagge mawɓe, resndateeɓe kolaaɗe, ngonnoo ko maccuɓe, ngontii seɓɓe, walla njantii e leƴƴi goɗɗi, iwdi mum en majjitii.

Safalɓe na ceernda “abiid” e “haraatiin”, addi ɗum ko won e jamaanu, maccuɓe heddiiɓe e jeyi halifaaɓe mum mbiyetee ko ‘‘abiid’’, tawa noddirteeɓe ‘‘haraatiin’’ ko jiyaaɓe soodtiiɓe, walla ndimɗinaa sabu Alla.

Wolofaaɓe ne ceerndi ngonki «jaam» e «jaami buur».

Sooninkooɓe na ceerndi «waano kunko» e «jonko runkoo», «koomo» e «komo di n’koomo».

TAARIIK NJIYAAGU E NDER ƁESNGU MORITANI

Mo yuurnitii mbayliigu renndo ɓesnguuji Moritani, maa maanto Shuur Bubbë. Shuur Bubbë lombii ko hakkunde duuɓi 1644 e 1674. Ko wolde mawnde e dow gardagol Ceerno mawɗo biyateeɗo Nasr Diin mo Tashomsha Tararsa.

Ko hare ƴiƴiire Seernaɓe Safalɓe, kaɓtorii Tuubakiri, nde Tuubakooɓe jom jawɗeele joodiiɓe Ndar (Senegaal) naati e honde e soodde jiyaaɓe. Seernaaɓe Jolfuɓe (ɓeen mbiyetee Tuubnaan) e Haal Pulaar en (wontoyooɓe Tooroɓɓe janngo) njanti e Seernaaɓe Safalɓe. Oon jamaanu noon, Satigeeɓe Deeniyankooɓe laaminooɓe Fuuta ne ɓallii Tubakiri. Emiiruuji Safalɓe, teeŋti noon e ɓe Tararsa e Barakna, ne njana e Fuutankooɓe e Wolofaaɓe, na kona won e mum en, na njeeya ɗum en Tubakooɓe. Oon saanga njiyaagu andiraa ko “Traite atlantiŋue” woni “Ngalu jiyaaɓe cooriingu ‘geec’ Atlantik”. Ndeen hare, en paami ɗum, ko e dow innde Lislaam. Ne moƴƴa paamen kadi, so ndee hare mantinnde ne haɗti njeeygu juulɓe, haɗaani maccuɓe jeyeede e nder galleeji Fuuta tawa ne ligginee e dow kalifaandi. Shuur Bubbë wattondirii ko fooleede, caggal wolde nde duuɓi 30 so on ndeenii. Jogori yoftanaade malde seernaaɓe leƴƴi Moritani kala, hawa hanndoo, ko Fedde Tooroɓɓe, sompi laamu Almameeɓe Tooroɓɓe

ALMAMEEƁE TOOROƁƁE NJOFTII SHUUR BUBBE, COMPI LAAMU TUUGIINGU E DIINE LISLAAM

Nde Shuur Bubbë foolaa, goomu Tooroɓɓe eggi, feri, fayi Piir Sañokuur, ɓe ngudditi toon duɗe maɓɓe, ɓe tafi fedde maɓɓe, ɓe paggii doole moolanaaɗe, e dow gardogol Ceerno Suleymaan Baal. Ceerno Suleymaan Baal ne wondi e mum jogorɗo wontoyde Almaani Abdul Ŋaadiri, kam e Tafsiiru Ɓoggel, Aali Dunndu Segele, Faliili Acc, Arɗo Kaawel, Aali Siidi, e woɗɓe.

Won ɓe ɓe neli Fuuta Jaloŋ to Gine, yiɗde yuurnitaade no laamu mum, njowitiingu e Lislaam, aadorii. En kollitiino Feccere Fuuta waylii ngooroondi fagguru. Ngalu nattii hiisireede ɓuraa heewde jiyaaɓe e doole no faggorii maccuɓe. Jeyi leydi woni yumma jaanduyaagal, naatni Fuuta e jamaanu keso, jamaanu mo mbaydi mum seerti e njiyaagu.

En limtiino Almameeɓe ɓurɓe maantinde e mbayliigu jeyi leydi Fuuta, hono Almaami Abdul Ŋaadiri Kan mo Appe, Almaami Yuusuf Siree Lih mo Daabiya Hodeeji, Almaami Biraan Wan mo Mbummba. Hankadi, doole demal nattii yowitaade e maccuɓe, hay sinno rewam njiyaagu ne doolni tawo, ne maantini haa wooro.

Sariyaaji kesi naatii : jeyi, luɓal, coodgu, coodtiigu, asakeeje, laamorba, ekn.

KO DOWLUNOO TO SAFALƁE ?

Njiyaagu ɓurno yaajde ko e Hassaan en (eɓe mbiyee L’Arab), teeŋti e ɓe Tararsa e ɓe Barakna. Ɓe ngaadorinoo ko dahde maccuɓe, eɓe njeeya ɗum en Tuubakiri. Ɓeen maccuɓe dahaaɓe coketenoo ko e geƴƴelle, nguddee e galleji to Ndar, Rifiska e Goree – dee gure kala ngoni ko Senegaal. Goree ko duunde geec. Dogrude ɗoon, hisa, aamnotaako: maa liɗɗi geec congii joom mum, ma hortiima yooliima, maa yaawi tineede abbee, leptee haa lorla so balɗe mum keddaki heen.

Ɗo Tuubakooɓe cokatnoo maccuɓe no jawdi eeltateendi nii, galle mum nana Gore, no wooruno hanki. Yimɓe yonɓe, ɓe diiwaan Afrik, walla ummiiɓe Orop, teeŋti noon ɓaleeɓe tumarankooɓe ɓe Amerik, Antiiy e leyɗeele goɗɗe na ngara Gore njillu, yiɗde humpitaade no taaniraaɓe e njaatiraaɓe leptiranoo.

So Seernaaɓe Safalɓe na luulndii yeeyde Tubakooɓe maccuɓe, eɓe kalfi maccuɓe, eɓe liggina ɓe  e gese maɓɓe e galleeji maɓɓe.

Sifaa ceerndoowo Abd e Hartaani, jiimɓe e leydi kam e remnotooɓe, naatii : Abd woni maccuɗo, Hartaani woni diimaajo (hono maccuɗo coodtiiɗo, walla gaccanaaɗo sabu Alla).

Macungaagal to Safalɓe ɓurno fawaade ko e ndema e ngaynaaka. Won e Emiiruuji Safalɓe jiimɓe e leydi Waalo, keɓtaandi e juuɗe Haal Pulaar en walla Wolofaaɓe. Abiid, hono maccuɓe, kam e Haraatiin, hono gallunkooɓe, na ndema e leyɗeele waalo ɗe halifaaɓe mum en njiimi, e nder leydi taarindi sewnde ɗo ɓe keewi aawde tamarooje.

E jamaanu maccungaagu, kamɓe halifaaɓe njeyi coñal, ɓe njeɗa heen Abiid (maccuɓe) ko ɓe mbelaa. Caggal nde jaanduyaagal joli, Haraatiin (enen mbiyata Hardaneeɓe) ndemnoto, na njoɓa asakkeeji…

Ne woodi, Safalɓe woɗeeɓe, na mbiyee Tiyyaab, Aɗnaaga, walla Lahme, na mbaasi, ngalaa leydi. Eɓe ndemnoo, ɓe ndokka asakkeeji. Ɓurɓe heewde e maɓɓe ko reftinooɓe won e laamɓe e saanga golwole. Nde jiiɓru natti, ɓe ngalaa jeyi, ɓe mbaɗti remnaade ngam ɗaɓɓude ko ɓe ñaami, ko ɓe koltiri, ko ɓe ñawndiri haajuuji maɓɓe cerindiiɗi.

Laamu Almameeɓe battinii e diiwanuuji Safalɓe. Nawrii Barakna, Tararwa e Adraar to Ehel Maami (inde nde noddi ko e Almameeɓe).

WAALO BARAK, LEYDI JOLFUƁE

Waalo, haa Fuuta waylii, naatani jaanduyaagal, ko e njiimaandi wiyeteeɓe Barak woni. Barak en keerondiri e Ndar, ɓuri naatondirde e Tuubakooɓe dahooɓe maccuɓe. E dow doole maccuɓe laamu ɓe ɓe mbiyata « Jaami Buur », ɓe njani ko e ɓesngu remooɓe ɓe ngalaa doole (Baadoolo en), wolofaaɓe e fuutankooɓe, eɓe ndaha won e mumen, eɓe njeyaa Tuubakooɓe. Ɓe ngonti ko reftiiɓe Tuubakiri. Wolofaaɓe halfaaɓe, tawa njeyaaka e konu Barak, noddirtee ko « Jaam ».

Ko oon jamaanu Hormankooɓe njillii Fuuta e Waalo Barak na kona maccuɓe ne njeeya ɗum en Tuubakooɓe. Ɓeen Hormankooɓe na teskaa ngummorii ko Maruk, nde Satigeeɓe laamii. Addunoo ɗum en ko wallitde won e satigi ñolanooɗo. Caggal ɗum ɓe keddi e Fuuta, eɓe pola, eɓe ñaaya.

Fedde hesere feeñii e Wolofaaɓe gila jamaanu Nasr Diin, ne wiyee ‘‘Tuubnaan’’, woni Lislaamiyaankooɓe. Eɓe kaɓtoo Barak en, eɓe mahondiri e Seernaaɓe Safalɓe e Almameeɓe Tooroɓɓe. Kisal nattii, alaa mo ina suusa dawde gese, heege e warngooji pooltiima. Laamɗo Barak, keewɗo yurmeende, biyeteeɗo Jomboot Mbooc, yiɗde yo boomaare nde darto, resondiri e laamɗo Trarɗa biyeteeɗo Mohamed L’Hbib. Alla arsikini ɓe biɗɗo na wiyee Eli Wul Mohammed Faal, omo anndiraa kadi Eli Jommbot. Ɗum ittaani boomaare Waalo Barak e hoɗdiiɓe mum.

Maa hare juulɓe dooki, nde heewɓe e Wolofaaɓe njanti e fedde Tooroɓɓe. Ɗum woni yumma jettooɗe keewɗe e Haal Pulaar en, teeŋti e tooroɓɓe, tawa na andaa iwdi mum en ko Jolfuɓe ngonnoo : Mbooc, Njaay, Saar, Joop, Caam, Ñaŋ, ekn. Oon saanga, jaɓɗo Lislaam kala wonta Toorooɗo. Alaa mo ina jibinee Toorodo, sabu Tooroɓɓe ko hinnde hesere. Neɗɗo tuubat, wonta Toorodo.

Ko caggal mum, nde laamu Almameeɓe fooli, ɓe ngontii hinnde jom doole, ardiiɓe renndo ne woorunoo, nde ɗum waylii. Hankadi wona tuubɗo kala wonta Tooroodo, moni kala ma jinnaaɓe mum ngona tooroɓɓe, teeŋti e jinnaaɗo mum gorko, nde kañum ne wiyee ko tooroodo.

SOONINKOOƁE GIDIMAKA E NJIYAAGU

Jubbannde men haaɗata ko e diiwaan Gidimaka (Gidi Maƴa). Kayhayɗi ko alluwal goɗngal.

Mo yuurnitii ɓesngu Muritani, felliti haalde ko woodi, ne andi Sooninkooɓe maantoraa ko hillande liggeey. Ɗum waɗi Haal Pulaar en na tooñira ɓe : « maa kaalis, maa anñeere woɗɗunde ». Addi ɗum ko alaa ɗo njiyaata Sooninko, celluɗo to bannge terɗe mum e hakkille mum na yeloo. Ɓe nguuri ko e warñeende maɓɓe. Eɓe mbiyee eɓe tiiɗi junngo, kono wonaa noon : ɓe kumpiti tampere nde faggaade ngalu roondii, ɓe ngaadoraaki batde e rewnaade eɓe ɗaɓɓa, no won e Moritaninaaɓe nii. Ittaani eɓe ngondi e ñeeñɓe maɓɓe e awluɓe maɓɓe.  Ɗo Sooninkooɓe koɗi e Moritani, leydi waalo ne haaɗi e juuɗe, ne wiyee ni alaa no foti. Ɗum waɗi jeyi leydi na teeŋti e maɓɓe. Won e galleeji e gure maɓɓe ngummii ko rewo goɗɗuɗo, laamii Ganna… Won e maɓɓe peri ko diiwanuuji Mali, na telloo ne kaɓto Safalɓe, ne kaɓtoo Tuubakiri haa ciiñti e gure mum en jooni ɗe. Yoga eɓe cifi-ɗen wattan ɓe, ngardi ko cente cente.

Ne gooŋɗini haala men biyeteeɗo Maƴa Mallee Nduwoo Sumaare, hono Maƴa mo haayre, hono haayre Asaaba.

Kinɗe Sooninkooɓe ko nii:

– «Hooro» ngoni laamɓe maɓɓe (ena e maɓɓe yetteteeɓe Kamara, Sumaare, Jaawara, Jaabira, Ganndega) ;

– «Moodini» ngoni seernaaɓe maɓɓe (eɓe njettee Siisee, Soƴonaa, Sillaa, Jaƴitee, Yatabare, Daraame, Kebe, Saaƴo, Njaay, Kanutee, Samasaa) ;

– «Jonkorunko» e «Waanokunko» ne nannda to iwdi mum en e maccuɓe laamɓe, ngabborii caggal ɗum jaawanɓe (ɓe kalfinaa maslahaa e nder renndo so luural jolii)

– «Ñamalanii» ngoni ñeeñɓe maɓɓe

– «Komo» ngoni maccuɓe

– «Komo di n’komo» ngoni maccuɓe halfuɓe jiyaaɓe

Ɗum holliti ko jaanduyaagal naatii. Won e maccuɓe njaltii hinnde mum en adan, ngalɗii, ngam reftaade laamɓe e njogitaari petelaaji, mbaɗti halfude, na liggina… Ɓeen, ngonka mum en ɓuri abbitaade ko «Jonkorunko» e «Waanokunko».

Nde Soninkooɓe eggiyankooɓe ciiñti e gure mum en, ɓuri huuraade e jeyi leydi ko laamɓe, Seernaaɓe e won e jagge mawɗe (Jonkorunko e Waanokunko).

Hol no kuulal kesal pawingal e njiyaagu hiisorii ko cifi-ɗen e leƴƴi Moritani kala ?

MBUNNDI–MBUNDI KUULAL NGAL

Kulal ngal ko nii siforii macungaagal : “Macungaagal ko ngonka walla sifaa neɗɗo mo ngandu-ɗaa sariyaaji jowitiiɗi e jeyi na piilii e mum, wonii kañnji fof, wonii won e majji.”

Won e golle, won e haala, sariya lundiiɗo macungaagal ne yani e mum en :

– piggal

– teetde kaake janane

– heɓtude jawdi njananndi e kaalis janano

– haɗde sukaaɓe janngude

– happaade ndonu

– resde debbo innirteedo korɗo tawa wonaa e sago mum,

– luulndaade dewgal ngal biyeteeɗo korɗo yiɗani hoore mum

– winndude, bayyina jimɗi, jime, tiyaataar ekn, tawa ne maanta njiyaagu

Sariya ne yani e kala mawao jooɗaniiɗo laamu (guwerneer, perfee, e wonɓe les mum en), kala sanndarmori, kala polisiyee kollitaaɗo luure jowitiiɗe e njiyaagu salii yo yetto sariya, walliti halifaaɓe, luulndii jiyaaɓe walla adduɓe e mum haala.

Heen bonande kala, kuulal ngal ne taƴani ɗum alamaan.

Ɗee geɗe ɗe cifi-ɗen kala sariya luulndiiɗo njiyaagu na yani e dow mum en. Ko ɗum ɓuri tiiɗde e ko kuulal ngal roondii.

Jubbande men faande yowittoo ko e sifaaji njiyaagu ɓurɗi maantinde e nder Moritani hannde. Tongirten ko peeje ɗe cikku-ɗen maa mbaylu ngonka wiyateeɓe maccuɓe, fellitɓe taƴde ɓoggi piiliiɗi e daaɗe mum en, njaaɓana yowitaade e warñeende mumen.

Bookara Muusa Bah
Settaambar 2007