Ganndal : hol heɓɓe “Njeenaaje Nobel” 2020

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Heɓɓe njeenaari Nobel ɓalliwal wonande hitaande 2020
(COMBO) This combination of pictures created on October 06, 2020 shows (L-R) a handout picture released by Oxford University shows Roger Penrose posing on October 6, 2020 in Oxford after winning the Nobel Physics Prize, German astrophysicist Reinhard Genzel at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics on October 6, 2020 in Garching near Munich, southern Germany, after he was named co-winner of the 2020 Nobel Prize in physics, and an undated handout photo obtained on October 6, 2020 from the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shows US astronomer and professor Andrea Ghez. Roger Penrose of Britain, Reinhard Genzel of Germany and Andrea Ghez of the US won the Nobel Physics Prize October 6, 2020 for their research into black holes, the Nobel jury said. Penrose, 89, was honoured for showing "that the general theory of relativity leads to the formation of black holes", while Genzel, 68, and Ghez, 55, were jointly awarded for discovering "that an invisible and extremely heavy object governs the orbits of stars at the centre of our galaxy," the jury said. - RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE - MANDATORY CREDIT "AFP PHOTO /OXFORD UNIVERSITY " - NO MARKETING - NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS - DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE - MANDATORY CREDIT "AFP PHOTO / UCLA /Christopher Dibble " - NO MARKETING - NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS - DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS / AFP / Oxford University / University of California, Los Angeles / Handout AND Christof STACHE AND Christopher Dibble / RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE - MANDATORY CREDIT "AFP PHOTO /OXFORD UNIVERSITY " - NO MARKETING - NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS - DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE - MANDATORY CREDIT "AFP PHOTO / UCLA /Christopher Dibble " - NO MARKETING - NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS - DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS

Njeenaaje Nobel hitaande 2020 ɗee mbeltini annduɓe nawruɓe ganndal yeeso, haa arti noon e Ɓalliwal (gudde ɓaleeje) e Selliwal (fiɗo heeñere C (hépatite C)). Ameriknaaɓe Harvey Alter e Charles Rice kam e biritannaajo Michael Houghton

Njeenaari Nehsuwal-Selliwal

Rokkaa ndiiɗoo njeenaari, ñalnde 5 oktoobar 2020 ndee, ko Biritaannaajo biyeteeɗo Michael Houghton kam e Ameriknaaɓe wiyeteeɓe Harvey Alter e Charles Rice, sabu maɓɓe yiytude wiris fiɗo heeñere C, ñawu caabotoongu kooñndam kam e nguɗu heeñere, mbaroowu hitaande kala fotde 400 000 neɗɗo nder winndere ndee.

(COMBO) This combination of pictures created on October 05, 2020 shows (L-R) an undated handout photo obtained October 5, 2020, courtesy of The Rockefeller University showing Charles M. Rice, an handout photo released on October 5, 2020, courtesy of the National Institutes of Health showing Dr. Harvey Alter and an undated handout photo obtained October 5, 2020, courtesy of the University of Alberta showing Dr. Michael Houghton in his lab at Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology. Americans Harvey Alter and Charles Rice together with Briton Michael Houghton won the Nobel Medicine Prize on October 5, 2020 for the discovery of the Hepatitis C virus, the Nobel jury said.The three were honoured for their “decisive contribution to the fight against blood-borne hepatitis, a major global health problem that causes cirrhosis and liver cancer in people around the world,” the jury said. Thanks to their discovery, highly sensitive blood tests for the virus are now available and these have “essentially eliminated post-transfusion hepatitis in many parts of the world, greatly improving global health”, the Nobel committee said. A – RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE – MANDATORY CREDIT “AFP PHOTO /THE ROCKEFELLER UNIVERSITY/JOHN ABBOTT/HANDOUT ” – NO MARKETING – NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS – DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE – MANDATORY CREDIT “AFP PHOTO /CHIACHI CHANG/NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH/HANDOUT ” – NO MARKETING – NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS – DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE – MANDATORY CREDIT “AFP PHOTO /UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA/RICHARD SIEMENS/HANDOUT ” – NO MARKETING – NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS – DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS / AFP / The Rockefeller University / National Institutes of Health / UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA / John ABBOTT AND Chiachi CHANG AND Richard SIEMENS / RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE – MANDATORY CREDIT “AFP PHOTO /THE ROCKEFELLER UNIVERSITY/JOHN ABBOTT/HANDOUT ” – NO MARKETING – NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS

E maayirɗe kitaale 1970, Harwey teskii raaɓo-raaɓo ñawu njaggoowu heeñere tuma dokkondire ƴiiƴam, tawi wonaa fiɗo-heeñere A, wonaa fiɗo-heeñere B. Caggal ɗuum, e hitaande 1989, Michael Hougton e gollodiiɓe mum njiyti taƴre dontere wiris oo. Charles Rice kam ne golliima duuɓi keewɗi ngam faamde no wiris oo yeñirta. Ko e ɗeen golle tuugaa ngam feewnude, he kitaale 2010, safaara ñawu nguu, ganndiraaɗo sofosbuvir.

Ɓaari Ɓalliwal : gudde ɓaleeje

Rokkaa njeenaari Ɓalliwal ko biritannaajo biyeteeɗo Roger Penrose kam e almaañnaajo biyeteeɗo Reinhard Genzel kam e debbo ameriknaajo biyeteeɗo Andrea Ghez. Biyeteeɗo Penrose oo rokkiraa njeenaari ndii ko sabu mum hollitde wonde « miijannde yowito huuɓtodinngo ko tijjannde tiiɗnde jibinegol gudde ɓaleeje », ɗum firti ko goodgol gudde ɓaleeje ko huunde nde ganndal yowito huuɓtodinngo Albert Einstein tijjinoo fawaade e dalillaaji tiiɗɗi. Reinhard Genzel e Andrea Ghez noon ndokkiraa njeenaari ndii ko sabu mum en « yiytude huunde tiɗɗiinde, ɓujere, nder nehaande jiiryiirngal men », hono Fedannde Malaaɗo.  Wonaani hay duuɓi capanɗe joy, yimɓe njenananooka goodaangal gudde ɓaleeje, kono, e hitaande yawtunde ndee, ɗee kulle ɓuje, « ɗe njiyotaako », mbaawii portileede e holleede yimɓe ; ɗum ko seede taaɓal mawngal taaɓangal ngam huuñitaade sirluuji kammu.

(COMBO) This combination of pictures created on October 06, 2020 shows (L-R) a handout picture released by Oxford University shows Roger Penrose posing on October 6, 2020 in Oxford after winning the Nobel Physics Prize, German astrophysicist Reinhard Genzel at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics on October 6, 2020 in Garching near Munich, southern Germany, after he was named co-winner of the 2020 Nobel Prize in physics, and an undated handout photo obtained on October 6, 2020 from the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shows US astronomer and professor Andrea Ghez. Roger Penrose of Britain, Reinhard Genzel of Germany and Andrea Ghez of the US won the Nobel Physics Prize October 6, 2020 for their research into black holes, the Nobel jury said. Penrose, 89, was honoured for showing “that the general theory of relativity leads to the formation of black holes”, while Genzel, 68, and Ghez, 55, were jointly awarded for discovering “that an invisible and extremely heavy object governs the orbits of stars at the centre of our galaxy,” the jury said. – RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE – MANDATORY CREDIT “AFP PHOTO /OXFORD UNIVERSITY ” – NO MARKETING – NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS – DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE – MANDATORY CREDIT “AFP PHOTO / UCLA /Christopher Dibble ” – NO MARKETING – NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS – DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS / AFP / Oxford University / University of California, Los Angeles / Handout AND Christof STACHE AND Christopher Dibble / RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE – MANDATORY CREDIT “AFP PHOTO /OXFORD UNIVERSITY ” – NO MARKETING – NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS – DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE – MANDATORY CREDIT “AFP PHOTO / UCLA /Christopher Dibble ” – NO MARKETING – NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS – DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS

Njeenaari Wayliwal

Goo ko goomu rewɓe ngu jillaani hay gorko gooto ine heɓa njeenaari Nobel ganndal, ɓeen ko Faraysenaajo biyeteeɗo Emmanuelle Charpentier kam e Ameriknaajo biyeteeɗo Jennifer Doudna sabu mum en yiytude kaɓirgal molekileewal « binnditirgal ganol  nguurndam». E hitaande 2012, ɓee rewɓe ɗiɗo annduɓe tafii kuutorgal kesal ngam newnude baylugol ndontaandi. Ngal wiyetee ko « Crispr-Cas9 », ɓurngal anndireede « sisooje molekile ». Ko kuutorgal beeɓngal huutoraade, beeɓngal coggu, ngal annduɓe mbaawi huutoraade ngam taƴde ADN ɓey ɗo yiɗaa ɗoo, yeru ngam sosde walla feewnitde waklo ndontaandi, walla nii safrude ñawbuuli ɗi keewaani yiyeede.

FILE — In this March 14, 2016 file photo American biochemist Jennifer A. Doudna, left, and the French microbiologist Emmanuelle Charpentier, right, poses for a photo in Frankfurt, Germany. French scientist Emmanuelle Charpentier and American Jennifer A. Doudna have won the Nobel Prize 2020 in chemistry for developing a method of genome editing likened to ‘molecular scissors’ that offer the promise of one day curing genetic diseases. (Alexander Heinl/dpa via AP)

Ɓee rewɓe ɗiɗo ngoni rewɓe jeegoɓe e jeeɗiɓe heɓde njeenaari Nobel Wayliwal gila 1901. Ko ngol woni nayaɓol ko rewɓe mehɓe ine keɓa njeenaari Nobel, caggal Nobel Wayliwal mo Marie Curie (Faraysenaaɓe poloñnaajo) heɓi e hitaande 1911, mo Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (Biritaannaajo) heɓi e hitaande 1964, kam e Nobel nehsuwal-selliwal mo Barbara McClintock (Ameriknaajo) heɓi e hitaande 1983.

Njeenaari Coñce :

Louise Glück, yimiyanke, ñalnde 22 settaambar 2016.
FILE – In this Sept. 22, 2016, file photo poet Louise Gluck stands next to President Barack Obama before being awarded with the 2015 National Humanities Medal during a ceremony in the East Room of the White House in Washington. The 2020 Nobel Prize for literature has been awarded to American poet Louise Gluck “for her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal.” The prize was announced Thursday Oct. 8, 2020, in Stockholm by Mats Malm, the permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)

Rokkaa ndii njeenaari ko debbo ameriknaajo ine wiyee Louise Glück sabu binndanɗe mum jime ceetdanaaɗe jeyeede e ɓurɗe maantinde nder coñce Amerik yontannde. O saaktii defte sappo e ɗiɗi jime. « Defte makko ine laaɓti. Ko ɓuri teeŋtude ɗe njowitii ko nguurndam nder galle, kam e jotondire enɗam ». Ko o porfesoor ɗemngal Engele to Jaaɓihaaɗtirde Yale.

Njeenaari Jam : Rokkaa ndii njeenaari ko Tuugnorgal winnderewal nguura (Programme alimentaire mondial) lollirngal PAM, walla mbiyen ko Fedde ngenndiije dentuɗe (FND) rokkaa ndi, sibu PAM ko njuɓɓudi FND, sabu « darnde mum ngam haɓde e heege, sabu ballal mum ngam ɓeydude deeƴre nder nokkuuji kareeli e sabu gardagol mum darnde daraande ngam haɗde baɗtugol heege njogitaari wolde ».

PAM sosaa ko he hitaande 1961, joɗnde mum woni ko Room. E hitaande ɓennunde ndee, PAM wiyi rokkii 15 miliyaar bottaari, wallitii fotde 97 miliyoŋ neɗɗo nder 88 leydi. Tuugnorgal Winnderewal Nguura (Programme Alimentaire Mondial, PAM ; walla he Engele  World Food Programme, WFP) ko njuɓɓudi ballal nguura wonande Fedde Ngenndiije Dentuɗe (ONU) kam e FAO.  E hitaande 2019 ndee tan, PAM faabiima fotde 97 miliyoŋ neɗɗo he nder 88 leydi. Ɗum waɗi nde hoore pelle kaɓotooɗe heege, paabotooɗe yimɓe e nder ngonkaaji keñoraaɗi, he nder winndere ndee. Kayre woni fedde faabotoonde ɓurnde mawnude rokkoore sukaaɓe janngooɓe ñaamdu e nder winndere ndee ko ina wona duuɓi 50 jooni. Nde wottinii 17,3 miliyoŋ sukaaɓe janngooɓe e nder 59 leydi. Aduna oo huniima ñamminde yimɓe fof haa kaara, e waɗde haa kisal to bannge nguura laatoo e moƴƴitinde ñaamdu ɗoo e 2030. Kono ɗuum haɗaani, hannde, nder yimɓe njeenayo fof, heen neɗɗo gooto alaa ko ñaami haa haarna ñalnde fof.

Ñalnde kala PAM ine nelda 5 000 kamiyoŋ, laaɗe ndiyam 20 e 92 ndiwoowa, dimnduɗi nguura e geɗe paaɓorɗe goɗɗe, ngam rimtande ɗum yimɓe ɓurɓe waasde. Hitaande kala PAM ine yeɗa fotde 15 miliyaar lahal (rasiyoŋ). Ko ɗumɗoo addani PAM lolludirde wonde fedde ɓurnde waawde faabaade e nder ngonkaaji keñoraaɗi, sabu kattanɗe mum yaawde faabaade, tawi ko e nokkuuji ɓurɗi mettude yettaade.

Hol ko woni njeenaari Nobel

Njeenaari Nobel ko njeenaari adunakoori ndokketeendi hitaande kala yimɓe « ɓeydanɓe winndere ndee huunde » to bannge wiɗto, to bannge njiylawu ganndal, to bannge ɓeydugol ganndal, to bannge gollal coñce maantinngal, walla sabu darnde mum en ngam yiylaade jam e deeƴre. Sosi njeenaari ndii ko Suwednaajo biyeteeɗo Alfred Nobel, ganndo ko faati e wayliwal (Chimie) cankiiɗo gila 1896, ine ɗacci jawdi keewndi, tolniindi e 32 miliyoŋ kaalis Suwed (fotde miliyaar e 100 miliyoŋ uguiyya). Hade makko maayde o wasiyinoo ko ndiin jawdi yo sosre njuɓɓudi mbele ina rokka yimɓe seedtanaaɓe golle ɓeydanɗe winndere ndee ganndal walla kisal e nder fannuuji joy garooji ɗi, njeenaari : deeƴre, jokkondiral, coñce, wayliwal, ganndal tago, cellal e ɓalliwal.

Afred Nobel

Ma on tesko wonde hiisiwal alaa heen. Ina haawnii sibu hiisiwal woni yummum gannde Siyaas. Haala ina heewi heen : won wiyɓe wonde joopaa e njeenaari hee ko gannde « kuutorɗe », woni baawɗe huutoreede e nguurndam ; won wiyɓe ko sabu kiram hakkunde Alfred Nobel e hiisiwo biyeteeɗo Gosta Mittag Lefleer, mo o yiɗanaano njeenaari ndii, sibu mum ɗaftu mo debbo biyeteeɗo Sofii Hess (Sophie Hess) … Kono heewɓe ngoongɗinaani kaaɗoo haala.

Ɗuum addani Hiisiwal sosaneede njeenaari keeriindi mbiyeteendi « Karaŋ Fields » e hitaande 1936, ndokketeendi duuɓi nay kala yimɓe nayo.  E hitaande 2003, laamu Norwees sosanii matematik njeenaari kesiri mbiyeteendi Abel (ngam mawninde hiisiwo mawɗo biyeteeɗo Niels Henrik Abel (jibinanooɗo e hitaande 1802)). Ko laamɗo Norwees rokkata ndi e lewru Noowammbar, njaru mayri ko miliyoŋaaji 6 kaalis Norwees (hedde 730 000 ooroo).

Hol ko woni wuddere ɓaleere ?

« Wuddere ɓaleere » walla mbiyen « gawu ɓaleewu » ko kullel asamaan, no Leydi men ndii nii, no koode ɗee nii, ko nokku weeyo ɗo hay huunde waawaa ɓoccitaade, wonaa ɓakdi, wonaa hay annoore. Wayi ko no gawu nii, pooɗoowo, ɓuucoo kala ko faandii ɗum. Ɗum noon, ko kuulel asamaan ngel nganndu-ɗaa, Alla e mum ñisde, Alla e ɓakdi mum tiɗɗaade, caasal ɓaaƴo mum ina waawi haɗde kala ko woni e mum ɓoccitaade, gila e ɓakdi haa e caafe, ko ɗe mbaawi wonde fof, yo won caafe jiyotooɗe ɗee (annoore…), walla caafe yiite-sulɗeeje (bempeƴƴe rajo ekn). Ɗum noon ko nokku niɓɓo, mo yiyotaako. Yeru, so en njiɗii waɗtude Leydi men ndii wuddere ɓaleere, maa mbaawen tiɗɗude ɓakdi mayri fof e nder faandu ndu wudduwol saatimeeteer gooto, woni tiɗɗen Leydi haa fotta e abbere gawri.

Wuddere ɓaleere

So neɗɗo yanii e nder wuddere ɓaleere, won ko tinata ?

Jaabawol Andrea Ghez : « O daɗataa. So tawii ko koyɗe maa ngidii naatde wuddere ɓaleere ndee, geɗel idotoongel kewde ko, sabu caasgol ɓaaƴo ngoo, aan fof, gila e koyɗe haa hoore, a silkitto. Ndeke hay huunde en tinataa, sibu en nattii woodde… en caayii, en ngontii ceŋle ɓakdi ɓurɗe famɗude ».

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