Afrik woni mbootu ɗemɗe winndere ndee kala

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So tawii wiɗtooji tuugiiɗi e ganndal siyaas (ɓarakke ƴiƴe hoore kam e ADN) kollitiino ko ɓooyi wonde ko Afrik woni mbootu winndere, ko ɗoon aadee e mbaydi mum hannde ndii idii hoɗde, hade mum uujde feewde duuɗe keddiiɗe ɗee, hannde, wiɗtooji to bannge ɗemɗe ko hono ɗuum ngoongɗini : mbootu denndaangal ɗemɗe kaaleteeɗe ina yaakoraa woni ko e Worgo Afrik (seerndu ɗum e leydi mbiyeteendi Afrik worgo).

So tawii wiɗtooji tuugiiɗi e ganndal siyaas (ɓarakke ƴiƴe hoore kam e ADN) kollitiino ko ɓooyi wonde ko Afrik woni mbootu winndere, ko ɗoon aadee e mbaydi mum hannde ndii idii hoɗde, hade mum uujde feewde duuɗe keddiiɗe ɗee, hannde, wiɗtooji to bannge ɗemɗe ko hono ɗuum ngoongɗini : mbootu denndaangal ɗemɗe kaaleteeɗe ina yaakoraa woni ko e Worgo Afrik (seerndu ɗum e leydi mbiyeteendi Afrik worgo).

E tuugnaade e wiɗto ganndo biyeteeɗo ‘Quentin Atkinson’, wiɗto bayyinaango e jaaynde (lollunde to bannge ganndal ttw), wiyeteende «Science», denndaangal ujunnaaje jeegom (6 000) ɗemɗe winndere ndee, calti (ummii) ko e ɗemngal bajjal ngal yimɓe Afriknaaɓe idiiɓe, kaalatnoo, ko ina wona jooni duuɓi capanɗe joy haa capanɗe jeeɗiɗi ujunere (50 000 haa 70 000 hitaande). Habri ɗum ko jaaynde wiyeteende ‘The Wall Street Journal’.

Wonande jaaynde ‘The New York Times’ ngoo yiyto ina haawnii. Nde tawnoo kelme ina njaawi waylaade, annduɓe ko fayti e ɗemɗe ina keewnoo wiyde mbaawaa woɗɗoyde no feewi e sahaaji ɓennuɗi ngam faamninde won ɗeen geɗe jotondirɗe e ɗemɗe. Haa e ñalawma hannde oo, «asko ɗemngal» ɓurngo juutde ɓuraani duuɓi 9 000. Ngoon woni asko suudu ɗemɗe «inndo-oropnaaje» (Farayse e Engele e yeru, ko e nduun suudu njeyaa). (…)

Wiɗto Atkinson ngoo noon toɗɗii ko kite (phonèmes) (ɗum woni alkule muume e laaɓɗe kam e baaruuji (tons) sibu mum en wonde geɗe ɗemngal ɓurɗe famɗude, ceerndooje hakkunde kelme ɗiɗi).

Ngo tuugii kadi ko e fiɓnde wiynde «so tawii yimɓe seeɗa ceegiima dental ɓurngal ɗum en mawnude, ɓe ngonata tan ko e seertude e donaaɗi e keertiiɗi ngaal dental». E wiyde Atkinson, ndeen fiɓnde ina waawi tabitineede e ɗemɗe (ina waɗi ɗemɗiyankooɓe ɓe njaɓaani ɗuum).

Nde o wiɗti 504 ɗemngal, Aktinson teskii ɗemɗe ɓurɗe heewde gowlaali ko e Afrik ngoni, ɗemɗe ɓurɗe famɗude gowlaali ɗee ngoni ko Amerik worgo kam e nder duuɗe Pasifik tolniiɗe e ŋori. Ɗum firti ko yimɓe ɓee ina ɓeydoo woɗɗude Afrik tan, gowlaali ɗemɗe maɓɓe ina majja.

(…) Aktinson yuurnitiima no feewi ɗemɗe kuutortooɗe «kilikaaji» (ɗum woni dille ɗemngal walla toni tan, tawa jofe naataani heen).

Ɗemɗe kaaleteeɗe to Worgo Afrik (Botswaana, Namibi, diiwaan Kap Rewo to leydi Afrik worgo, worgo Anngolaa), hono ɗemɗe Khoïsan, ko ɗee ɗemɗe kuutortoo haa hannde baar «kilik».

Wonaa keeweendi «kilikaaji» e ɗeen ɗemɗe woni ko maantini ko, alaa. Faayiida oo woni ko baasgol ɗemɗe keddiiɗe ɗee waɗde ɗiin baaruuji (kilikaaji). So tawii ɗeen ɗemɗe (ɗemɗe khoïsan ɗee) ɓuri keddiiɗe ɗee kala heewde baaruuji, eɗen mbaawi miijaade wonde ɗemɗe keddiiɗe ɗee kala ko e majje calti.

Sohini Ramachandran, ganndo gonɗo to Duɗal jaaɓi-haaɗtirde Brown (to Amerik) biɗtoowo ko fayti e baylagol ciiri aadee en (évolution) wiyi : «Ko miijo teeŋtungo. Ɗemngal ko huunde waylodtoonde e ngonka no feewi. Ko ɗum tagi, ina faamnii so wiyaama wonde ko ɗemngal gootal woodnoo hade yimɓe ummaade e Afrik caroo e winndere hee. Ɗumɗoo kadi ina goongɗini no haanirta nii wiɗtooji men ɓennuɗi ɗii. Ndeke silsil baylagol innama aadee ina waawi jogaade mbaydi pinal ».

Bookara Aamadu Bah

(Ƴoogirde : slate.fr)