Laamlaamu Sonngaay en

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Ndutto-ɗen seeɗa. E hitaande 1235, konu Sumaaworo Kante (laamɗo Soso) e konu Suñnjata Keytaa kaɓiino e wolde, anndiraande wolde Kirina. Caggal njangu laamlaamu Ganaa, Soso en njiimii diiwaan oo fof caggal nde pooli laamuyon tokoson kon. Suñnjata haɓɓondiri e laamuuji malenkee en kawritnooɗi to wuro ina wiyee Sibi, dikkii Sumaaworo Kante. Wolde sakkitiinde hakkunde maɓɓe ko wolde Kirina, ɗo konu konu Suñnjata Keytaa fooli. Laamorgo Soso en momtaa haa wonti karawal.

 

Ko nguu poolgu addannoo Suñnjata wonde Mansa (laamlaamo) gadano Mali, mo denndaangal laamɓe heddiiɓe ɓee kaɓtini. Ko ɗoon woni fuɗɗoode laamu Mali njiimnoongu bannge Afrik hirnaange oo e nder teeminanɗe keewɗe. Oon sahaa yimɓe nokku oo ina peccitinoo e kinɗe 30 : kinɗe 16 rimɓe, kinɗe nay awluɓe, kinɗe joy seernaaɓe, e kinɗe joy fitiram golle en. Ngam wootiɗinde ɗee kinɗe fof, o sosi ndenɗiraagu, o sompi guwarnamaaji ɗiɗi koninkooji, to Sura bannge rewo, e to Sankaran bannge worgo. Ine wiyee wonde innde “Mali” ndee, firoore “ngabu” e ɗemɗe Manndeŋ e Bammbara e Joolaa, joofii ko Suñnjata Keytaa, joolinooɗo e maayo Sankarani, ine sikkaa e nokku biyeteeɗo “Sunjatadun” gonɗo hedde kiloomeeterruji 10 hade maa yettaade Ñaani. Eno daarol jangtorii, nde Suñnjata sankii ndee wakli wonti ngabu; ɗuum addi innde “Mali” ndee.

Ko ɓeen Sonngaay noon cosi laamlaamu mum en e teeminannde 15ɓiire saraaji Gaawo. Mahi yanaande Askiyaa en ndee ko laamɗo Sonngaay en biyeteeɗo Askiya Muhammed, e hitaande 1495. Ko e oon sahaa gooto gure-dowlaaji doolnuɗe ƴuuñi bannge worgo Sudaan too. Ine heen Ife, e Bono e Beneŋ. Bannge mum fuɗnaange kadi, Yurubaa en compi toon dowla Oyo, Igboo en compi Denta Aro, ɗo woni hannde Niiseriyaa ɗoo. Kono caggal ɗuum, caggal maayde Askiyaa Daawuud, kiris joli e laamlaamu hee

Laamlaamu Sonngaay, walla laamlaamu Sonngaay en ko dowla gonnooɗo e Afrik hirnaage hakkunde teeminannde 15 e teeminannde 16. Ngu idorii ko wonde laamuyel dow maayo Niiseer, caggal ɗum ngu yaajtii e dow huunde e Siiseer e Mali e Niiseriyaa hannde oo.

Dowla Sonngaay sosaa ko e teem 7ɓiire to Kukiya caggal dewlondire e jillondire baɗnooɗe hakkunde Sonngaay en e Berbeer en, e gardagol mawɗo maɓɓe biyeteeɗo Za el-Ayamen. Ko ngaal jillondiral hakkunde Sonngaay en e Berbeer en jibini galle laamu ganndiraaɗo Ja. Laamorgo maɓɓe wonnoo ko Kukiya, les Gaawo, nder Mali hannde oo. Hedde hitaande 1 010, laamɓe Kukiyaa en koɗti Gaawo, tuubi, ngonti juulɓe. Ɓarakke majjum, ko alluwon kaaƴe njiyotookon e tiiɗe kuɓeeje laamorɗe Gaawo, ko ɓuri heen heewde ittakon e yanaande Saane, wonnde bannge fuɗnaange rewo Gaawo. Kaaƴe ɗee (marbre) ummorii ko Espaañ, binndi arab ɗii mbinndaa ko Anndaluusi, saraaji Almeriya. Caggal ɗuum yimɓe galle laamu Sonngaay en to Gaawo, ngaddi kon ɗoon.

Hedde hitaande 1 300 laamu Sonngaay naatti e njiimaandi laamlaamu Mali. Ɗum noon ngu jeyaa e laamuyon keewkon ndeftinookon laamlaamuuji mawɗi Afrik hirnaange e Yonta Hakkundeejo oo.

Laamu Sonngaay en heɓtii ndimaagu mum e yonta Soni Ali Beer (mawɗo), jeyaaɗo e galle laamu Sih en (1464-1492), haɓatnooɗo e fulɓe e tuwaareg en, kam e juulɓe yiyooɓe binndi wuurnooɓe e wuro dewal hono Tummbuktu. Kanko Soni Ali Beer o etiima hisnude pinal ngal wonaa pinal lislaam e nder laamu makko.

Nde o sankii, jiiɓru naati laamu Sonngaay e mudda daɓɓo (1492-1493), sibu Sonni Baare potnooɗo lomtaade mo oo salii tuubde. Nii woni Muhammed Sillaa (jeyaaɗo e galle Tuure en) heɓti laamu nguu e ballal annduɓe Jenne e Tummbuktu e Gaawo. O sosi galle laamu inniraaɗo caggal ɗuum galle laamu Askiyaa en.

Sarakulle Muhammed Tuure nde ari e laamu (1493-1528) daranii timminde juulɗingol laamaandi ndii e nder golwole keewɗe. Kanko Sarakulle Muhammed Tuure iwdi makko ko Tekruur, ko o sooninke, o wonaa Songaay. Nde laamaandi Sonngaay heɓi kaaɗtudi ƴellitaare mum e gardagol Askiyaa en, tawi ko ɓuri heewde e yimɓe mum, haa teeŋti e cahe mawɗe ɗee, ngontii juulɓe.

Sonngaay yani ko e hitaande 1591. Yandini ɗum ko konuuji Sultaan (laamɗo) Maruk biyeteeɗo Ahmed IV el Mansuur, e gardagol dawa-yeenee biyeteeɗo Judeer Paasaa. Nde ɓe poolaa e wolde Tondini e hitaande 1591, Sonngaay etiima haaldude e laamɗo Maruk ; kono nde oon salii, ɓe ndartorii haɓtoraade konu mum hare bettel (geriyaa). Kono ɓe mbattini ko reftaade laamɗo Maruk, hade maɓɓe tellitaade les maayo Niiseer, saraaji Sikiyeey, laamorgo heso, wonnoongo ɗo Ñaamee woni hannde ɗoo. Maruknaaɓe toɗɗii askiyaa gooto ɗooftiiɗo ɗum en yo ardo laamu nguu, kono laamu makku meeɗaani diwtude keeri wuro Tummbuktu ngoo.

Pinal

Nde laamu Ganaa deestii e teeminannde XI ndee, Tumbuktu wonti jippunde julaaɓe ummoriiɓe rewo, ɗum addani ngo wonde laamorgo faggudu laamlaamu Mali e Sonngaay, ngo woni kadi nokku dewal e ganndal dowrowo. Kuɓeeje ɓakke mawɗe mahaa e maggo, ko wayi no jumaa Jingereybeer mahaaɗo e njiimaandi laamlaamo Mali biyeteeɗo Kankan Muusaa, walla jumaa Sidi Yaayaa, walla jumaa Sankore (mahaaɗo hedde 1400).

Ganndal e defte e jaŋde ina njoginoo darnde mawnde e laamlaamu hee. Ɗee geɗe njeyaa ko e ndonaandi Laamlaamu Mali ɗe Askiyaa Muhammed Sillaa reeni, hisni, ƴelliti. Sanɗaaji e annduɓe ine ummortonoo Misra e Maruk e Anndaluusi ngam janngude ɗoon hiisiwal e celluka e coñce e nder duɗal jaaɓihaaɗtirde Sankore walla e duɗe goɗɗe.

Askiyaa en pooɗtii annduɓe heewɓe sara mum en. Doktoreeɓe heewɓe tumarankooɓe ciiñtii ɗo Gaawo e Tummbuktu ɗoo (Tummbuktu wonoo laamorgo pinal dowla oo). Ɓe ngaddori humpito gannde Shingiti e Jenne kam e Makka e Keer, ko wayi no duɗal jaaɓihaaɗtirde Al Azhar, gonnongal e oon sahaa nokku jaŋde gannde lislameeje ɓurɗo toowde. Ɓooytaani, sibu gila e rogere ɗimmere hee, annduɓe Tumbuktu lelnani koye mum en karallaagal e tippudi jaŋde ndi keerorii, mbaɗti ñiŋde e yowde e defte seernaaɓe keernaaɓe. Jaŋde ina wellitanoo no feewi, sibu kala keɓɗo seedantaagal ina waawi sosde duɗal mum. Maaɗe mbaawka ganndal ine maandintenoo haa e comic jannginooɓe : wutteeji keeriiɗi, kaalaaji daneeji, tuggordu juutndu seeɓndu… Ahmed Baaba gooto e jannguɓe Tumbuktu, mo maruknaaɓe ndahnoo paani Maruk, nde heɓti ndimaagu caggal sankaare laamɗo Ahmed el Mansuur hedde 1605, hormoraama to Marakes luggeendi ganngal mum.

Gargol laamu askiyaa en yuumtii e teeŋtingol e kiisgol mbaawka diineyeewa laamu nguu. Yeru, gargol al-Maghili, yuumtii e pirtugol dente yahudeeje e nder biidi walla beeli Saharaa, haa teeŋti eɗi Tuwaat ɗii. Kono ɗum addanaani lislaam naatde nokkuuji dowri. Laamu Sonngaay, e ko ɓuri teeŋtude ko laamu teeruu, tee doole e golle ardiiɓe ɓee mbaɗatnoo ngam ƴellitde njuɓɓudi Laamlaamu nguu ɓuri toɗɗaade ko julaaɓe teerunaaɓe. Nde laamu nguu firtii ndee noon, yoga e almameeɓe eggu koɗoyi e gure dowri ina njanngina diine. Ko ɗuum nii addani lislaam saraade e laddeeji Sudaan (teem 17-18).

Faggudu

Laamlaamu Sonngaay yaawiino alɗude sabu julaagu taccusaharaa kam e oogirɗe, e njeeygu lamɗam e kaŋŋe e goro e ɗacce e guri cewɗi e jiyaaɓe. Angu yeeyatnoo kadi guri gabi ceelaaɗi, ñobbaa, ɓursaa, peewnirtenooɗi barware, ganndanooɗi haa to ɓuri woɗɗude e Maruk. Kaŋŋe oo, mo oropnaaɓe e maruknaaɓe korsinnoo noo feewi ummortonoo ko to leydi Akan en (leñol taweteengol to Ganaa e Koddiwaar). Hono no Maali nii, Sonngaay ko nokku gostondire njulaagu geɗe jeñtinteeɗe banngeeji goɗɗi, yeru, kaŋŋe ummortooɗo nokkuuji dunli e lamɗam ummortooɗam Saharaa.

Laamu Sonngaay kam ne heɓa e Magreb geɗe mbaylaandi, ko wayi no cuɗaaje, njogitaaje, bagiiji, e daarorɗe, yantude e geɗe ndema baaɗe no gemha e tamarooje e pucci. Hedde teeminannde XVIɓiire luural joli hakkunde Sonngaay en e Saadnaaɓe sabu njiimaandi oogirɗe lamɗam moraande haa teeŋti noon e oogirgal mawngal lamɗam Teghaza ngal saadnaaɓe keɓti e tuwaareg en e hitaande 1582.

Bookara Aamadu Bah,
Ƴoogirde : Wikipedia

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